Сравнение как стилистический приём на материале англ.
лит-ры для детей

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Глава I Теоретические подходы к лингвистическому изучению сравнения

1.1 Понятие сравнения в грамматике и стилистике

1.1.1 Логическое сравнение

1.1.2 Образное сравнение

1.2 Структурно-семантические виды сравнений в английском языке

1.3 Сравнение и другие тропы (метафора, гипербола)

1.4 Устойчивые (языковые) и авторские сравнения

Выводы по Главе I

Глава II Использование сравнения как стилистического приема в английской художественной литературе для детей

2.1. Стилистические особенности английской детской литературы

2.2. Особенности использования сравнений в литературе для детей (на материале книги Сlive Lewis «The Cronicles of Narnia»)

2.2.1. Сравнения, содержащие сравнительные степени

2.2.2. Сравнения с компонентом «like»

2.2.3. Сравнения с компонентом «as» и «as… as»

2.2.4. Сравнительные предложения с союзом «аs if»

Выводы по Главе II

Заключение

Приложение

Корпус примеров (по литературной сказе К. Люиса «Лев, колдунья и платяной шкаф»)

Список литературы

1. Арнольд И. В. Стилистика. Современный английский язык. — М.: Флинта, Наука, 2009. — 384 с.

2. Арутюнова Н. Д. Язык и мир человека. — М.: Языки русской культуры, 1999. — 895 с.

3. Ахманова О. С. Словарь лингвистических термином. — М.: URSS, 2007. — 569 с.

4. Бартон В. И. Развитие сравнения в процессе познания // Философские исследования. — Минск: Изд-во БГУ, 1970. — С. 22−38.

5. Бартон В. И. Сравнение как средство познания. — Минск: Изд-во БГУ, 1978. — 127 с.

6. Брандес М. П. Стилистика текста. — М.: Прогресс-Традиция, 2004. — 208 с.

7. Веселовский А. Н. Психологический паралеллизм и его формы в отражениях поэтического стиля // Историческая поэтика. — М.: Высшая школа, 1989. — 406 с.

8. Винокурова А. А. Изобразительные средства в поэзии В. Д. Лебедева // Материалы научной конференции «Современные тенденции развития филологических наук и журналистики». — Якутск: Изд-во ЯГУ, 2000. — С. 33−34.

9. Воронцова Г. Н. Очерки по грамматике английского языка. — М.: Издательство литературы на иностранных языках, 1960. — 400 с.

10. Гальперин И. Р. Стилистика. — М.: Высшая школа, 1981. — 253 с.

11. Жинкин Н. И. Избранные труды. Т. 1: Язык — речь — творчество: исслед. по семиотике, психолингвистике, поэтике. — М.: Лабиринт, 1998. — 364 с.

12. Кант И. Критика чистого разума. — М.: Мысль, 1994. — 591 с.

13. Кунин А. В. Курс фразеологии современного английского языка. — М.: Высшая школа, 1996. — 381 с.

14. Ланге Н. Н. Учебник логики. — Одесса, 1898. — 238 с.

15. Лебедева Л. А. Устойчивые сравнения во фразеологии и фразеографии. — Краснодар, 1999. — 192 с.

16. Литературная энциклопедия терминов и понятий (ЛЭТП) / гл. ред. и сост. А. Н. Николюкин. — М.: НПК «Интелвак», 2001. — 799 с.

17. Литературный энциклопедический словарь / под ред В. М. Кожевникова, П. А. Николаева. — М.: Советская энциклопедия, 1987. — 752 с.

18. Маслова В. А. Лингвокультурология. — М.: Академия, 2001. — 203 с.

19. Мезенин С. М. Образность как лингвистическая категория // Вопросы языкознания. — 1983. — № 6. — С. 57.

20. Мелетинский Е. М. Поэтика мифа. — М.: Восточная литература, 2006. — 408 с.

21. Огольцев В. М. Устойчивые сравнения в системе русской фразеологии. — Л.: Изд-во ЛГУ, 1978. — 159 с.

22. Огольцев В. М. Словарь устойчивых сравнений русского языка (СУСРЯ). — М.: АСТ, Астрель, Русский словари, 2001. — 800 с.

23. Палиевский П. В. Внутренняя структура образа // Теория литературы. Основные проблемы в историческом освещении. Образ, метод, характер. — М.: Изд-во АН СССР, 1962. — 451 с.

24. Подхомутников В. Г. Лингвокультурологические особенности устойчивых сравнений в русском и английском языках (на примере идеографического поля «Внешность») дисс. … канд. филол. наук: 10. 02. 20, Омск, 2002.

25. Потебня А. А. Из лекций по теории словесности. Басня. Пословица. Поговорка. // Русская словесность: Антология. — М., 1998. — С. 75−78.

26. Потебня А. А. Символ и миф в народной культуре. — М.: Лабиринт, 2000. — 480 с.

27. Пропп В. Я. Исторические корни волшебной сказки. — М.: Лабиринт, 2009. — 336 с.

28. Пропп В. Я. Морфология волшебной сказки. — М.: Лабиринт, 2006. — 128 с.

29. Разуваева Л. В. Лексико-грамматические свойства компаративных конструкций с эксплицитным основанием сравнения в художественном тексте // Вестник ВГУ. Серия: лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация. — 2008. — № 3. — С. 114−117.

30. Сепир Э. Избранные труды по языкознанию и культурологи. — М.: Прогресс. 1993. — 656 с.

31. Скребнев Ю. М. Очерк теории стилистики. — Горький: Флинт, 1975. — 176 с.

32. Томашевский Б. В. Краткий курс поэтики. — М., Л.: Гос. изд-во, 1929. — 288 с.

33. Уемов А. И. Аналогия в практике научного познания. — М.: Наука, 1970. — 264 с.

34. Философский энциклопедический словарь (ФЭС) / под ред. Е. Губского, Г. Кораблевой, В. Лутченко. — М.: Инфра-М, 2009. — 576 с.

35. Хайдеггер М. Тождество и различие. — М.: Логос, 1997. — С. 7−10.

36. Юм Д. Трактат о человеческой природе. — М.: Мысль, 1996. — 698 с.

ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ

Корпус примеров (по литературной сказе К. Люиса «Лев, колдунья и платяной шкаф»)

1. «Ah!» said Mr Tumnus in a rather melancholy voice, «if only I had worked harder at geography when I was a little Faun, I should no doubt know all about those strange countries. It is too late now». [c. 7]

2. «And now what are we to do?» said Edmund, giving Peter a look which was as much as to say «What did I tell you?» [c. 45]

3. «And now», — here he suddenly looked less grave — «here is something for the moment for you all!». [c. 79]

4. «Blowed if I ain’t all in a muck sweat,» said the Giant, puffing like the largest railway engine. [c. 123]

5. «Hadn't we all better go to bed?» said Lucy. «There's sure to be a row if we’re heard talking here». [c. 2]

6. «Here we are», said Mr Beaver, «and it looks as if Mrs Beaver is expecting us. I’ll lead the way. But be careful and don’t slip». [c. 51]

7. «I — I wonder if there’s any point in going on», said Susan. «I mean, it doesn’t seem particularly safe here and it looks as if it won’t be much fun either». [c. 42]

8. «I am sure nobody would mind», said Susan; «it isn’t as if we wanted to take them out of the house; we shan’t take them even out of the wardrobe». [c. 39]

9. «Just as if any of us would want to waste half the morning trailing round with a crowd of strange grown-ups!» said Edmund, and the other three thought the same. [c. 36]

10. «Just like a girl,» said Edmund to himself, «sulking somewhere, and won’t accept an apology». [c. 18]

11. «No», said Aslan in a dull voice, as if it didn’t matter. [c. 105]

12. «Nothing is more probable», said the Professor, taking off his spectacles and beginning to polish them, while he muttered to himself, «I wonder what they do teach them at these schools». [c. 35]

13. «Oh, yes! Tell us about Aslan!» said several voices at once; for once again that strange feeling — like the first signs of spring, like good news, had come over them. [c. 55]

14. «Rather!» said Lucy, and then ran towards the far off patch of daylight as quickly as her legs would carry her. [c. 14]

15. «That you will, dearie, and no mistake,» said Mrs Beaver; «if there’s anyone who can appear before Aslan without their knees knocking, they’re either braver than most or else just silly.» [c. 57]

16. «The brutes, the brutes!» for now that the first shock was over the shorn face of Aslan looked to her braver, and more beautiful, and more patient than ever. [c. 110]

17. «Then be off home as quick as you can», said the Faun, «and — c-can you ever forgive me for what meant to do?» [c. 14]

18. «To be sure, to be sure», said the Faun. «How stupid of me! But I’ve never seen a Son of Adam or a Daughter of Eve before. I am delighted. That is to say -» and then it stopped as if it had been going to say something it had not intended but had remembered in time. [c. 7]

19. «Trying to talk like Mother,» said Edmund. «And who are you to say when I’m to go to bed? Go to bed yourself». [c. 2]

20. «Wait!» said Lucy, who had been looking at them more closely still. [c. 114]

21. «We must go as quietly as we can», said Mr Tumnus. [c. 13]

22. «You can’t always believe what Fauns say», said Edmund, trying to sound as if he knew far more about them than Lucy. [c. 28]

23. «You didn’t think anything at all,» said Peter; «it's just spite. You’ve always liked being beastly to anyone smaller than yourself; we’ve seen that at school before now». [c. 31]

24. …and then a whole series of rooms that led into each other and were lined with books — most of them very old books and some bigger than a Bible in a church. [c. 4]

25.A little lower down the river there was another small river which came down another small valley to join it. [c. 51]

26.A moment later the stranger came out from behind the tree, glanced all round as if it were afraid someone was watching. [c. 47]

27. Almost without noticing that they had done so, the four children went a step or two nearer to it. [c. 43]

28. And all over the hill there was a noise as if everyone had been holding their breath and had now begun breathing again, and then a murmur of talk. [c. 103]

29. And as soon as he had thought of that he noticed that the lion’s back and the top of its head were covered with snow. [c. 67]

30. And as soon as they had entered it Queen Susan said [c. 132]

31. And Edmund gave a very superior look as if he were far older than Lucy (there was really only a year’s difference) and then a little snigger and said, «Oh, yes, Lucy and I have been playing — pretending that all her story about a country in the wardrobe is true. just for fun, of course. There’s nothing there really». [c. 30]

32. And Edmund gave a very superior look as if he were far older than Lucy. [c. 30]

33. And every time this happened he thought more and more how he hated Peter — just as if all this had been Peter’s fault. [c. 66]

34. And it was all more lonely and hopeless and horrid than I know how to describe. [c. 113]

35. And next you would have thought that the stump did look really remarkably like a little fat man crouching on the ground. [c. 98]

36. And of course the longer they went on doing this the more awkward they felt. [c. 90]

37. And out in the middle, and partly on top of the dam was a funny little house shaped rather like an enormous beehive and from a hole in the roof smoke was going up, so that when you saw it (especially if you were hungry) you at once thought of cooking and became hungrier than you were before. [c. 51]

38. And she’ll have my tail cut off and my horns sawn off, and my beard plucked out, and she’ll wave her wand over my beautiful clove hoofs and turn them into horrid solid hoofs like wretched horse’s. [c. 13]

39. And so for a time it looked as if all the adventures were coming to an end. [c. 35]

40. And so Lucy found herself walking through the wood arm in arm with this strange creature as if they had known one another all their lives. [c. 8]

41. And that night there was a great feast in Cair Paravel, and revelry and dancing, and gold flashed and wine flowed, and answering to the music inside, but stranger, sweeter, and more piercing, came the music of the sea people. [c. 130]

42. And the moon was shining brighter than ever. [c. 66]

43. And then, as if that had been a signal, there was chattering and chirruping in every direction. [c. 86]

44. And where the water had been trickling over and spurting through the dam there was now a glittering wall of icicles, as if the side of the dam had been covered all over with flowers and wreaths and festoons of the purest sugar. [c. 51]

45. As soon as Mr Beaver said, «There's no time to lose,» everyone began bundling themselves into coats, except Mrs Beaver, who started picking up sacks and laying them on the table and said: «Now, Mr Beaver, just reach down that ham». [c. 71]

46. As soon as they had breakfasted they all went out, and there they saw Aslan and Edmund walking together in the dewy grass, apart from the rest of the court. [c. 98]

47. As soon as they had said good night to the Professor and gone upstairs on the first night, the boys came into the girls' room and they all talked it over. [c. 1]

48. As soon as they were inside she found herself blinking in the light of a wood fire. [c. 8]

49. At first Edmund tried to remember that it is rude to speak with one’s mouth full, but soon he forgot about this and thought only of trying to shovel down as much Turkish Delight as he could, and the more he ate the more he wanted to eat, and he never asked himself why the Queen should be so inquisitive. [c. 24]

50. At that moment they heard from behind them a loud noise — a great cracking, deafening noise as if a giant had broken a giant’s plate. [c. 115]

51. At the bottom of one small valley Mr Tumnus turned suddenly aside as if he were going to walk straight into an unusually large rock. [c. 8]

52. At the moment when the sledge stopped, the Fox, who was obviously the oldest person present, had just risen to its feet, holding a glass in its right paw as if it was going to say something. [c. 82]

53. At the same time he noticed that he was feeling much less cold. [c. 84]

54. But as soon as she reached it she heard steps in the passage outside, and then there was nothing for it but to jump into the wardrobe and hold the door closed behind her. [c. 17]

55. But as they went on walking and walking — and walking and as the sack she was carrying felt heavier and heavier, she began to wonder how she was going to keep up at all. [c. 20]

56. But behind him, on a much higher seat in the middle of the sledge sat a very different person — a great lady, taller than any woman that Edmund had ever seen. [c. 20]

57. But Edmund secretly thought that it would not be as good fun for him as for her. [c. 29]

58. But next day was more solemn. [c. 129]

59. But the Faun continued sobbing as if its heart would break. [c. 10]

60. But the little valley down which it came was much steeper and rockier than the one he had just left and much overgrown with bushes, so that he could not have managed it at all in the dark. [c. 66]

61. But they all felt a good deal warmer and each thought the others looked better in their new get-up and more suitable to the landscape. [c. 39]

62. But they all felt a good deal warmer and each thought the others looked better in their new get-up and more suitable to the landscape. [c. 39]

63. Each piece was sweet and light to the very centre and Edmund had never tasted anything more delicious. [c. 23]

64. Edmund felt much better as he began to sip the hot drink. [c. 23]

65. Edmund saw the drop for a second in mid-air, shining like a diamond. [c. 23]

66. Edmund was already feeling uncomfortable from having eaten too many sweets, and when he heard that the Lady he had made friends with was a dangerous witch he felt even more uncomfortable. [c. 28]

67. Edmund, who was becoming a nastier person every minute, thought that he had scored a great success, and went on at once to say, «There she goes again. What’s the matter with her? That’s the worst of young kids, they always -» [c. 30]

68. Everyone was feeling very tired and very hungry when suddenly the trees began to get thinner in front of them and the ground to fall steeply downhill. [c. 50]

69. Everything was perfectly still, as if he were the only living creature in that country. [c. 19]

70. For instance — if you will excuse me for asking the question — does your experience lead you to regard your brother or your sister as the more reliable? [c. 32]

71. From the waist upwards he was like a man, but his legs were shaped like a goat’s (the hair on them was glossy black) and instead of feet he had goat’s hoofs. [c. 5]

72. He gave her a little bottle of what looked like glass (but people said afterwards that it was made of diamond) and a small dagger. [c. 78]

73. He listened and the sound came nearer and nearer and at last there swept into sight a sledge drawn by two reindeer. [c. 19]

74. He was a huge man in a bright red robe (bright as hollyberries) with a hood that had fur inside it and a great white beard, that fell like a foamy waterfall over his chest. [c. 76]

75. He was only a little taller than Lucy herself and he carried over his head an umbrella, white with snow. [c. 5]

76. Her face was white — not merely pale, but white like snow or paper or icing-sugar, except for her very red mouth. [c. 20]

77. Her face was white — not merely pale, but white like snow or paper or icing-sugar, except for her very red mouth. [c. 20]

78. His tail and his head hung low and he walked slowly as if he were very, very tired. [c. 107]

79.I mean, which is the more truthful? [c. 32]

80.I think the same idea had occurred to the leopards themselves; at any rate, as they walked off their fur was all standing up on their backs and their tails were bristling — like a cat’s when it sees a strange dog. [c. 100]

81.I want a nice boy whom I could bring up as a Prince and who would be King of Narnia when I am gone. [c. 25]

82. Mr Beaver was out of the cave like a flash the moment he heard it. [c. 75]

83. It almost looks as if it wanted to say something to us. [c. 43]

84. It at once flew away but only as far as to the next tree. [c. 43]

85. It didn’t look now as if the Witch intended to make him a King. [c. 81]

86. It looked to the children, when the gleam of the torchlight fell on it, as if the knife were made of stone, not of steel, and it was of a strange and evil shape. [c. 111]

87. It was a far larger house than she had ever been in before and the thought of all those long passages and rows of doors leading into empty rooms was beginning to make her feel a little creepy. [c. 2]

88. It was as if the good times, having just begun, were already drawing to their end. [c. 105]

89. It was shining because it was a castle and of course the sunlight was reflected from all the windows which looked towards Peter and the sunset; but to Peter it looked like a great star resting on the seashore. [c. 92]

90. It was the sort of house that is mentioned in guide books and even in histories; and well it might be, for all manner of stories were told about it, some of them even stranger than the one I am telling you now. [c. 36]

91. It’s getting wetter every minute. [c. 38]

92. I’ve a most Horrible feeling — as if something were hanging over us. [c. 106]

93. Just inside the gate, with the moonlight shining on it, stood an enormous lion crouched as if it was ready to spring. [c. 67]

94. Lucy looked very hard between the trees and could just see in the distance a patch of light that looked like daylight. [c. 14]

95. Lucy thought she had never been in a nicer place. [c. 9]

96. Lucy was miserable and Edmund was beginning to feel that his plan wasn’t working as well as he had expected. [c. 32]

97. Next moment the whole world seemed to turn upside down, and the children felt as if they had left their insides behind them. [c. 119]

98. No one could say you had bagged a coat as long as you leave it in the wardrobe where you found it. And I suppose this whole country is in the wardrobe. [c. 39]

99. One was that the sky on the east side of the hill was a little less dark than it had been an hour ago. [c. 113]

100. Perhaps it has sometimes happened to you in a dream that someone says something which you don’t understand but in the dream it feels as if it had some enormous meaning. [c. 49]

101. Frosty air the breath coming out of their nostrils looked like smoke. [c. 20]

102. She stopped her work and got up as soon as the children came in. [c. 52]

103. She took a step further in — then two or three steps always expecting to feel woodwork against the tips of her fingers. [c. 4]

104. She was jolly nice to me, anyway, much nicer than they are. [c. 65]

105. She’s been watching for you this many a year, and if she knew there were four of you she’d be more dangerous still. [c. 59]

106. Soon she went further in and found that there was a second row of coats hanging up behind the first one. [c. 4]

107. Soon there were more wonderful things happening. [c. 86]

108. Susan felt as if some delicious smell or some delightful strain of music had just floated by her. [c. 49]

109. Susan was «It» and as soon as the others scattered to hide, Lucy went to the room where the wardrobe was. [c. 17]

110. That meant that the whole country below them lay in the evening light — forest and hills and valleys and, winding away like a silver snake, the lower part of the great river. [c. 92]

111. The courtyard looked no longer like a museum; it looked more like a zoo. [c. 121]

112. The horse part of them was like huge English farm horses, and the man part was like stern but beautiful giants. [c. 89]

113. The journey back was not at all like the journey to the Faun’s cave; they stole along as quickly as they could, without speaking a word, and Mr Tumnus kept to the darkest places. [c. 13]

114. The Lady frowned, «Is that how you address a Queen?» she asked, looking sterner than ever. [c. 21]

115. The noise was like an English fox-hunt only better because every now and then with the music of the hounds was mixed the roar of the other lion and sometimes the far deeper and more awful roar of Aslan himself. [c. 125]

116. The Queen took from somewhere among her wrappings a very small bottle which looked as if it were made of copper. [c. 23]

117. The reindeer were about the size of Shetland ponies and their hair was so white that even the snow hardly looked white compared with them; their branching horns were gilded and shone like something on fire when the sunrise caught them. [c. 20]

118. The sledge jerked, and skidded and kept on jolting as if it had struck against stones. [c. 84]

119. The two elder ones did this without meaning to do it, but Edmund could be spiteful, and on this occasion he was spiteful. [c. 17]

120. Then came a sound even more delicious than the sound of the water. [c. 86]

121. Then others — evil dwarfs and apes — rushed in to help them, and between them they rolled the huge Lion over on his back and tied all his four paws together, shouting and cheering as if they had done something brave, though, had the Lion chosen, one of those paws could have been the death of them all. [c. 109]

122. Then she appeared to change her mind and said, as if to herself, a «And yet it will not do to have the brat fainting on the way», and once more clapped her hands. [c. 80]

123. Then signalling to the children to stand as close around it as they possibly could, so that their faces were actually tickled by its whiskers, it added in a low whisper…[c. 49]

124. Then to cheer himself up he took out from its case on the dresser a strange little flute that looked as if it were made of straw and began to play. [c. 9]

125. Then very slowly and with his heart beating as if it would burst, Edmund ventured to go up to the lion. [c. 120]

126. Then without waiting a moment he whisked round — almost as if he had been a cat chasing its tail — and breathed also on the stone dwarf, which (as you remember) was standing a few feet from the lion with his back to it. [c. 120]

127. There it perched and looked at them very hard as if it understood all they had been saying. [c. 43]

128. There stood Peter and Edmund and all the rest of Aslan’s army fighting desperately against the crowd of horrible creatures whom she had seen last night; only now, in the daylight, they looked even stranger and more evil and more deformed. [c. 126]

129. There was a jug of creamy milk for the children (Mr Beaver stuck to beer) and a great big lump of deep yellow butter in the middle of the table from which everyone took as much as he wanted to go with his potatoes. [c. 53]

130. There was not even a robin or a squirrel among the trees, and the wood stretched as far as he could see in every direction. [c. 19]

131. There was nothing Lucy liked so much as the smell and feel of fur. [c. 4]

132. There were heavy darkish clouds overhead and it looked as if there might be more snow before night. [c. 39]

133. There were lovely stone shapes that looked like women but who were really the spirits of trees. [c. 68]

134. They all stared as hard as they could, and no one felt very comfortable. [c. 46]

135. They felt the Spectres go by them like a cold wind and they felt the ground shake beneath them under the galloping feet of the Minotaurs; [c. 112]

136. They looked like huge dunce’s caps or sorcerer’s caps. [c. 66]

137. This is a nasty knock for the Witch! It looks as if her power is already crumbling. [c. 76]

138. What with the parcels and the snow it looked just as if he had been doing his Christmas shopping. [c. 6]

139. You couldn’t have found a robin with a redder chest or a brighter eye. [c. 43]

140. You feel as if nothing was ever going to happen again. [c. 113]

141. You might find anything in a place like this. [c. 3]

142. You ought to be ashamed of yourself, a great big Faun like you. [c. 10]

143. You’ll have to hide longer than that if you want people to start looking for you. [c. 15]

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