The assessment of the strategic position of an industrial enterprise from the point of view of the system approach

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Экономика и экономические науки


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Fursov Victor Aleksandrovich, Lazareva Natalya Vyacheslavovna, North-Caucasian Federal University, Stavropol
E-mail: laz_n@rambler. ru
Abstract. The authors substantiate the role and importance of strategic management in the activities of domestic enterprises. Special attention is given to industrial enterprises. The authors have proposed a methodology for the evaluation of the strategic position of the enterprise in the environment on the basis of a systematic approach
Key words: assessment of the situation of the company, strategic capabilities, strategic position, a systematic approach
Modern ideas about the role and importance of strategic management in the activity of the domestic enterprises allow us to conclude about the urgent this is needed to overcome the economic crisis, increasing competitiveness through modernization and achieve a new quality of economic growth.
The enterprise as the open system builds the functioning in essential (though also ambiguous) communications with an environment. Therefore one of the main tasks of operation of business a task of its positioning in an environment [4].
From positions of information — analytical maintenance it means, that should be received the strategic characteristic of a place, which enterprise actually occupies in the market, and the forecast of a share of the enterprise at various variants of development of a market situation. One of the conditions for the creation of a strong competitive position of the enterprise economy is to increase the competitiveness of manufacturers. Companies should focus not only on the efficiency of production, but also on the efficiency of the operation in a competitive environment, and this requires the solution of economic problems. These tasks should include the choice of an appropriate competitive strategy, which is the basis of a sustainable competitive position of enterprises in a competitive environment. In the process of selecting a competitive strategy must take into account changes in external and internal

environment of enterprise, the results of the analysis of the main competitors, the competitive environment on the basis of the results of its monitoring [2].
The strategic position of the industrial enterprise is a condition of the enterprise in an environment, the characteristic of its strategic potential, strategic advantages and a strategic climate.
At the analysis of strategic positions of the industrial enterprise in the market the basic directions of activity during the last period and now, the main strategic installations and their changes for all period of functioning of the enterprise, and also strategic tasks on the future should be revealed.
The estimation of an environment includes the characteristic of macro environment and a micro environment, definition of a direction and speed of development and revealing on this basis of prospects of the further development of the enterprise. The estimation of own opportunities of the enterprise includes the characteristic of competitiveness of production and the enterprise as a whole, revealing of financial and industrial potential, position of the enterprise in the market concerning the competitor. Thus the type and a field of activity of the enterprise, the size and structure of the enterprise are taken into account. The position occupied with the enterprise in the market, is exposed to the analysis to find out character and tendencies of its development.
As the experience of professional consulting work, the majority of Directors of the domestic enterprises are focusing their efforts on solving current problems, operational management and, accordingly, short-term planning horizon. The issues of future development are often on the margins of economic activity. It is considered an achievement, if the boss of this level is able to organize and brainstorm problems, perform a SWOT analysis, to build a tree of goals. However all of them have a number of the lacks connected to numerous different interpretations at formation of concrete models. In particular for those precise criteria of classification of factors of the external and internal environment are not developed, the proved lists of researched parameters, etc. are not made. In this connection the practical importance of these tools for the purposes of operation of business is a little bit limited. Strategic alternatives require systematic evaluation. This includes the need to determine the impact of a particular strategy, its feasibility, degree of associated risk, profitability and cost analysis, and results.
If we look at the industrial enterprise from the point of view of the system analysis, process of functioning is represented as displacement in n-dimensional space of conditions. Complexity of management will be, that not only the enterprise goes to a special condition, but also space in which there is a movement, continuously changes. Presence of dynamically changing parameters of environment (such as volume of manufacture, the rate of taxes, the prices for energy carriers, etc.) makes process of functioning by the enterprise less controlled and predicted. It in particular is

expressed in decrease of probability achievement of objects in view. Therefore the task of positioning of the enterprise in an environment is very important element of formation of strategy.
The essence of a suggested technique of positioning consists of the following. It is offered to use a three-dimensional matrix, its parameters are: «a strategic climate «, «strategic advantages «and «strategic potential «. It reduces n-dimensional space of conditions of the enterprise up to three-dimensional with a view of simplification and for presentation of modeling.
Let'-s give definition to these parameters.
Strategic climate of the industrial organization, in our opinion, can be defined as a generalized characteristic set of political, economic, social, technological and other external to the economic entity of the factors determining the key characteristics of the organization'-s strategy, as well as determining the feasibility of its implementation.
Strategic climate is a complex concept that includes the following structural components:
— the overall business environment, represented by macro-level and regional factors of the organization'-s activities-
— meso-environment business environment, integrating factors affecting the company at the sectoral level-
— specific business environment, characterizing the set of factors of microeconomic level, directly affecting the activities of the entity and experiencing its direct influence [3].
Characterizing the nature of the strategic climate are its main features. These include, in particular, include:
— the interrelatedness of factors in the external business environment-
— the complexity of the external business environment-
— the dynamism of the external business environment- the uncertainty of the external business environment.
The interrelatedness of factors in the external business environment reflects the level of force with which a change in one factor affects the other factors. The relationship and direction of influence of factors of environment are obvious and hardly identified
The strategic potential is a set of available material and non-material resources, opportunities and abilities for development and realization of strategy.
Strategic advantages are characterized by low relative expenses and high consumer value of the goods (services), allowing to achieve success in the market.
On an axis z is a complex of factors of strategic climate A e {A1, A2, … An}, on an axis x is a complex of factors of strategic advantage E e (Bi, E2, … En}, and on an axis y is a complex of factors of strategic potential of enterprise B e {Bi, B2, … Bn} which define a strategic position of enterprise P = f (A, B, C).

Decisions about a choice of strategy © are accepted on the basis of what field of the matrixes, formed by a combination of influence of factors, is available to parameters of this enterprise. The minimal number of fields should be four though basically the matrix can contain any number of fields. An optimum number of fields will be 8−16, otherwise results are difficult for interpreting [1].
On the basis of strategic indexes the generalized rating of a strategic position of the enterprise which is estimated as geometrical average of product of three strategic indexes is defined:
C = 11 A-E B
Where A — a strategic climate-
E — strategic advantages-
B — strategic potential.
Position of the enterprise in the market, the level of enterprise risk of its operations and a choice of strategy are directly caused by a combination of three complexes of factors (strategic indexes).
Thus, for an estimation of a strategic position of the industrial enterprise it is offered to use system of the parameters, realized as a three-dimensional matrix and positioning the industrial enterprise in relation to the major strategic variables — to factors of an environment, value of the enterprise for the consumer, to internal potential of the enterprise and time. The enterprise is represented as sphere which volume is a volume of realization.
Meanings of the complex parameters postponed on axes of a three-dimensional matrix of definition of a strategic position of the enterprise is defined by results of the analysis of the environment of functioning ATP by the strategic indexes corresponding to a degree of an accessory. And the index of macro environment characterizes a strategic climate, microenvironment — strategic advantages, the internal environment — strategic potential.
During the analysis of strategic positions of the industrial enterprise in the market the basic directions of activity during the last period and at present time, the main strategic installations and their changes for the certain period of functioning of the enterprise, and also strategic tasks on the future should be revealed.
Advantage of the developed circuit of estimation is an opportunity to see all three aspects of definition of a strategic position of the enterprise and strategic variables: to define probable strategic alternatives- to predict development of competitive advantage- to connect strategic indicators with economic, that allows carrying out deeper factorial analysis of strategic parameters.
Thus, a combination of strategic potential specific of the industrial enterprise and strategic advantages with a strategic climate of the market leads to a probable strategic success which should be interpreted as the precondition for development of effective strategy and successful activity in the long term.

The estimation of a strategic position of the industrial enterprise allows it to choose the unique set of means, ways, programs and actions for achievement of objects in view, i.e. to define strategy of the enterprise.
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