The influence of motor and somatic factors on jumping parameters in female volleyball players

Тип работы:
Реферат
Предмет:
Биология


Узнать стоимость

Детальная информация о работе

Выдержка из работы

THE INFLUENCE OF MOTOR AND SOMATIC FACTORS ON JUMPING PARAMETERS IN FEMALE
VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS
Mirella Stech
Academy of Physical Education and Sport in Gdansk (Poland)
Annotation. The paper presents the results of the analysis of factors following from a training process which have the greatest influence on jump action of women volleyball players at an average level of performance. The most important factors, indexes and their significance in the general structure of jumps creates a favourable presupposition for forming optimal jump activity.
Keywords: women volleyball players, jump activity, factor structure
Анотація. Стех Мірелла. Вплив рухових і соматичних чинників на параметри стрибкових дій у жіночому волейболі. У статті наведено результати аналізу чинників, які найбільш впливають на ефективність стрибкових дій у жіночому волейболі Визначено найважливіші показники та їх значущість для прояву оптимальної стрибковості волейболісток
Ключові слова: жіночий волейбол, стрибкові дії, чинникова структура
Аннотация. Стех Мирелла. Влияние двигательных и соматических факторов на параметры прыжковых действий в женском волейболе. В статье представлены результаты анализа факторов, в наибольшей степени влияющих на эффективность прыжковых действий в женском волейболе Установлены наиболее важные показатели и их значимость для проявления оптимальной прыгучести волейболисток Ключевые слова: женский волейбол, прыжковые действия, факторная структура
Introduction.
A dynamic development of modern volleyball requires improving the methodology of training as well as the skills of particular players in order to gain an appropriate level of sports mastery. Achieving the aims requires conducting comprehensive interdisciplinary studies.
Many experts [3, 4] characterize volleyball as a sports discipline in which power and speed are combined with an increased explosiveness, agility, coordination and the time of motor reaction. High performance of elite volleyball players mostly depends on explosive power of the leg muscles. In that connection the vertical jump is one of the significant indexes of power (speed-force) possibilities.
There are a number of general factors determining the height of a vertical jump which may be identified by physiological and biomechanical methods. These factors are:
• high percentage content of fast-shortened fibres in muscles [7]-
• activation and synchronization of motor units, specificity of a moving pattern [8, 9]-
• primary level of power possibilities, capability of utilization of elastic energy of muscles and sinews [1, 5]-
• capability of a high level of alactate energy production [2]-
• efficiency of the utilization of hand, trunk and head movements [6, 10].
The range of elements making up a jump action is substantially wide, however their comprehensive study is limited by the methodology possibilities.
The aim of the study was the analysis of factors following from a training process which have the greatest influence on jump actions.
Material and methods. The study was carried out in the Academy of Physical Education and Sport in Gdansk. Seven volleyball players (women) aged 20 to 27 years old and with a sport’s practice of 4 to 13 years took part in the research.
The jumps which are technical elements of volleyball (jumps of attacks and blocks) have been registered in the field conditions. In the laboratory conditions the tensometric parameters of jump actions (contact time of the foot with the tensometric track, jump power and time of the fly phase) have been registered by the computer system «ERGOTEST» (GLOBUS, Italy) in the following tests:
• single vertical jumps at push off by two foot after one-step fall on-
• jump at push off by two foot after jump down from bench of 50 cm-
• series of 5 vertical jumps at push off by two foot.
Details of test exercises and their registered parameters are presented in Tab. 1.
Simultaneously, the maximal power and the time of its achieving and maintaining for each foot have been registered with the utilization of the power-exercise atlas («KETTLER») and tensometric dynamometer which was in complex with measuring system «ERGOMETER» (GLOBUS, Italy). Somatic parameters of sportswomen’s bodies were determined by «BODY COMPOSITION ANALYZER» (TANITA).
For statistic analysis (determination of Means and SD, correlation coefficient /r/, reliable difference by t-Student criterion /p/ and factor’s analysis) the standard computer program «STATISTIKA 6» was used.
Results. In Tab. 1 the results of selected sportswomen’s somatic parameters and in Tab. 2 — the parameters of their various jump actions are presented.
Table 1.
Somatic characteristics of the volleyball players (women, APE& amp-S)
Sportswomen Somatic parameters
Body size (cm Body mass (kg) FAT% FATm (kg) BMI FFM (kg)
Sk. 171 63.9 21.0 13.4 20.6 50. 5
Ol. 173 71.2 20.0 14.8 23.8 56. 4
Kol. 182 68.0 17.2 12.0 22.0 56. 0
Nar. 182 65.0 18.7 12.2 19.6 52. 8
Sol. 174 68.3 20.0 13.7 22.6 54. 6
Kos. 181 65.8 16.1 11.1 20.1 54. 7
Zin. 176 67.6 17.3 11.7 21.8 55. 9
M (SD) 177.7 (3. 9) 66.7 (2. 9) 18.7 (1. 9) 12.7 (1. 3) 21.5 (1. 5) 54.4 (2. 1)
The jump action parameters of the volleyball players (women, APE& amp-S)
Indexes* Sportswomen
Sk. Ol. Kol. Nar. Sol. Kos. Zin.
1 230 225 235 239 225 235 224
277 274 283 290 276 278 277
3 47 49 48 51 42 43 53
4 226 223 232 237 224 231 223
5 260 258 272 275 254 260 265
6 34 26 40 38 30 29 42
7 274 270 274 283 260 277 271
3 4 9 7 7 1 6
9 1. 02 1. 04 3. 60 2. 66 2. 10 0. 29 2. 52
10 205 210 200 250 200 215 200
0. 321 0. 281 0. 699 0. 354 0. 306 0. 280 0. 344
12 0. 584 0. 567 0. 517 0. 575 0. 570 0. 561 0. 578
13 39.6 41.2 22.0 36.3 39.3 40.5 37. 3
14 0. 491 0. 4231 0. 236 0. 347 0. 275 0. 544 0. 302
15 0. 518 0. 556 0. 535 0. 560 0. 522 0. 501 0. 561
16 25.6 31.0 39.0 35.2 36.4 23.1 38. 6
17 3. 117 1. 884 4. 240 1. 191 1. 215 4. 725 1. 300
18 2. 465 2. 648 2. 175 2. 688 2. 634 2. 528 2. 686
19 5. 582 4. 532 6. 439 3. 879 3. 849 7. 523 3. 986
20 22.1 31.3 16.8 43.2 43.7 18.9 40. 3
*Designations: 1 — the maximal touching high (cm) of the mark by one hand in a standing position- 2 — the maximal touching high (cm) of the mark by one hand under vertical jump at push off by two foot after one-step fall on- 3 -difference between indexes «2» and «1" — 4 — maximal touching high (cm) by hands at block in standing position- 5 -maximal touching high (cm) by hands at block after one-step fall on- 6 — difference between indexes «5» and «4" — 7 -average touching high (cm) by one hand under 20 vertical jumps one after another at a push off by two foot- 8 -difference between indexes «7» and «2» (cm) — 9 — difference between indexes «7» and «2» (%) — 10 — long jump from place position- 11 — vertical jump by push of two foot after one-step fall on: contact time of foot with track at push off (s) — 12 — vertical jump by push of two foot after one-step fall on: time of fly phase (s) — 13 — vertical jump by two foot push off after one-step fall on: jump power (W kg-1) — 14 — vertical jump by two-foot push off after jump down from a bench: contact time of foot with track at push off (s) — 15 — - vertical jump by two-foot push off after jump down from a bench: time of fly phase (s) — 16 — - vertical jump by two-foot push off after jump down from a bench: jump power (W kg-1) — 17 — series of 5 vertical jumps at two-foot push off: common contact time of foot with track (s) — 18 — series of 5 vertical jumps at two-foot push off: common contact time of 5 fly phases (s) — 19 — series of 5 vertical jumps at two-foot push off: common time of 5 cycles (s) — 20 — series of 5 vertical jumps at two-foot push off: average power of one from 5 jumps (W kg-1).
The factor’s analysis of jump actions (Tab. 3) showed in their structure three basic factors. Their contribution in general dispersion of characteristics constituted 91%.
Table 3.
Factor structure of jump actions in women’s volleyball (APE& amp-S, Gdansk)
Indexes* Factors
F1 F2 F3
1 0. 891
2 0. 895
4 0. 913
5 0. 809
7 0. 937
8 0. 962
9 0. 956
10 0. 837
14 — 0. 954
16 0. 938
17 — 0. 959
18 0. 902
20 0. 942
actor'-s contribution to general dispersion (%) 35.2 30.0 25. 8
Designations: See Tab.2 (present most large).
Most weighty indexes for the first basic factor of 35. 2% were a time of contact with track in the time of push off (index «14»), power of vertical jump at two foot’s push off after jump down from a bench (index «16») and index «8» (weight coefficients equal — 0. 954- 0. 938 and 0. 961 correspondingly). Peculiarity of correlation between indexes allows naming conditionally the Fi as a factor of maximal explosive power.
Contribution of the second factor in general dispersion of characteristics constituted 30. 0%. Most weighty indexes for that were a power, contact time of foot with track at push off and time of fly phase under 5-jumps series (weight coefficients equal 0. 942- - 0. 959 and 0. 902 correspondingly). The average power at that test closely correlated with the static power endurance for left foot (r = - 0. 902- Tab. 4). Conditionally, F2 may be called the factor of maximal explosive power maintaining.
Contribution of the third factor in the general dispersion of characteristics constituted 25. 8%. The most important coefficients here were the results in jumps, which closely correlated with the height of the body (r & gt- 0. 8). Therefore, F3 may be called an anthropometrical factor.
Table 4.
Power characteristics of the foot muscles-extensors in women volleyball players (APE& amp-S, Gdansk)
Sportswomen Indexes*
FmaxRF FmaxLF Th FmaxRF Th FmaxLF
Sk. 41.7 32.0 4. 06 3. 15
Ol. 41.2 38.2 1. 75 2. 14
Kol. 41.4 35.8 2. 14 3. 07
Nar. 48.0 52.5 1. 84 1. 76
Sol. 36.6 31.7 0. 72 0. 56
s. 36.4 31.7 2. 28 2. 82
Zin. 42.8 43.5 1. 44 1. 46
*Designations: FmaxRF — maximal power of the right foot’s muscles-extensors- FmaxLF — maximal power of the left foot’s muscles-extensors- ThFmaxRF — retain time of maximal power of the right foot’s muscles-extensors- ThFmaxLF -retain time of maximal power of the left foot’s muscles-extensors
Determining three general factors and their most informatics' indexes in the structure of jump actions of women’s volleyball players creates a favourable presupposition for the rise of the training process efficiency, and for forming of optimal jump activity, in particular. On the other hand, the establishment of leading indexes for each factor allows limiting the quantitative of tests for control of jump preparation.
Conclusion.
1. In the structure of jump actions of women’s volleyball players (average level of preparation) three definition factors are determined. Their contribution in general dispersion of characteristics constituted 91%. The factors and their percentage contribution in the structure of jump actions are represented in the following manner:
F1 — factor of maximal explosive power (35. 2%) —
F2 — factor of maximal explosive power maintains (30. 0%) —
F3 — anthropometrical factor (25. 8%).
2. Most weighty indexes were:
For F1 — power index, time of foot contact with track, and power of a vertical jump at two foot’s push off after jump down from a bench (weight coefficients amounted to — 0. 954- 0. 938 and 0. 961 correspondingly).
For F2 — power index, time of foot contact with track and time of fly phase in a 5-jumps series (weight coefficients amounted to 0. 942- - 0. 959 and 0. 902 correspondingly).
For F3 — the results in jump which closely correlated with the size of the body.
3. As a result of the carried out analysis, three general factors having the greatest influence on the structure of jump actions of women’s volleyball players.
Each factor has been assigned the most characteristic parameters. Studying the greatest possible number of parameters enables a rather complete learning of the structure of jump actions of female volleyball players. Knowing the most important factors, parameters and their significance in the general structure of jumps creates a favourable presupposition for increasing the training process efficiency insofar as the forming of optimal jump activity.
The results are also significant economically as they allow the optimisation of the choice of jumping tests and skipping the study of those factors which are insignificant for the quality of jumps.
References.
1. Аdams K., O’Shea J.P., O’Shea K.L., Climsten M. (1992). The effect of six week squat, plyometric and squat-plyometric training on power production. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research, 6 (1): 36−41.
2. Black W. & amp- Roundy E. (1994). Comparisons of size, strength, speed and power in NCCA Division 1 Football players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 8 (2): 80−85.
3. Brislin G. (1997). The basis for volleyball conditioning. Performance Conditioning for Volleyball, 5 (1): 1−7.
4. Cardinal C.H. (1993). Volleyball — physical preparation of athletes, Part 2. International Volley Tech (Lausanne), 3: 20−24.
5. Duke S. & amp- Ben Eliayhu D. (1992). Plyometrics: optimizing athletic performance through the development of power as assessed by vertical leap ability: an observational study. Chiropractic Sport Medicine, 6 (1): 10−15.
6. Harmen E.A. et al. (1990). The effects of arms and countermovement on vertical jump. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22 (6): 825−833.
7. Kaneko M., Fuchimoto T., Toji H. & amp- Suei K. (1983). Training effects of different loads on the force velocity relationship and mechanical power output in human muscle. Scandinavian Journal of Sports Science, 5 (2): 50−55.
8. Sale D.C. (1988). Neural adaptation to resistance training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 20 (5): 135−143.
9. Wilson G.J., Newton R.U., Murphy A.J. & amp- Humphries B.J. (1993). The optimal training load for the development of dynamic athletic performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25 (11): 1279−1286.
10. Yong W. (1995). Specificity of Jumping ability. Sports Coach, Winter 1995: 22−25.
Came to edition 18. 04. 2008.

ПоказатьСвернуть
Заполнить форму текущей работой