Irony as a style - forming top in works of A. Kekilbayev

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Литература. Литературоведение. Устное народное творчество


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A. D. Kabylov
Caspian State University of Technologies and Engineering named after Sh. Esenov, Aktau, Kazahstan
Summary. The article is about the bell-lettres peculiarities and the Ideological directivity of Irony in Modern Kazakh Prose. There were given poetical analysis of the works of M. Magauin and A. Kekilbaev.
Keywords: Kazakh prose- irony- A. Kekilbayev.
The irony is one of the most productive stylistic and artistic ways to express the reality. «It prevails in the most fanciful and colorful artistic styles. The ancient comedy, grotesque world of Rabelais, a philosophic novel by Walter, rich shades of humor of Gogol and Chekhov indicates the presence of irony at all stages of the European literature history. The 20th century has become the kingdom of irony, as it generally said»… i
The irony is some kind of pathos in its nature, expressing the thoughts of artwork through the ideological and emotional value. It can be recognized in subjective organization of artistic content as author’s emotional view leading to «philosophical complication». In other words, the irony is observed in the all stylistic levels of the artwork: in linguistic characteristics, in separate details, in story and plot level, also in structure of character’s image. The irony takes a special place in the creative activity of the most writers.
Presenting in modern and postmodern literature of different way the irony has founded the reflection and in the literature of soviet period. Born in some kind of perception of peoples' life contradictions, historic experience the artistic irony has taken the widespread in Kazakh literature as a productive way. The irony in artwork with its pretentious -controversial and critical characteristic became the unique way of critical and valuable view in modern prose.
The irony is non admittance of disadvantages of society and people. The author would seem to approve, even states somth., but in fact he makes fan of it. In other words, from the point of its characteristic the irony is the subjective, esthetic special relations directed against the things which are dangerous in all over the world. The irony is ethical -human expressing point of view to disadvantages. The phenomenon of irony can be defined in the following one phrase «would seem to take an approval, but in the fact humbled to mock and to speak ironically». However, artistic and poetic pattern and internal world are varied.
The irony — is artistic way which takes its beginning from folklore. If speaking that in the beginning of written literature is placed folklore, we
can see that there are met many art examples of irony in the folklore and in folk legends of any country.
The nature of Kazakh people and its worldview, its skills of critical analysis and values are tending to be ironic. The irony is met in big quantity in proverbs and sayings. In such proverbs like «0зіц білме, білгенніц тілін алма» (doesn't know himself and doesn’t listen to others), «Апама жездем сай, aFaMa жецгем сай» (persons with similar characters), «Бай Y^rnH м^ржасы кисык болса да, TYTІні TYзу» (in rich homes even if the chimney is curve the smoke is clean) «Аузы кисык болса да, байдыцлы сейлесін» (even if the sun of riche person has a curve mouth let him speak), «Зкіміц сокыр болса, бір кезіцді кысып ет» (if the Akim is blind — close your one eye passing by) the irony directed to individual persons and having social meaning- if considered from the paradoxical point of view there are ironic reasons reproached by paraphrases. Many examples of the irony can be met in the other types of folklore and also in the poetry of akyns — bard.
In Kazakh art prose the irony manifested along with satire and humor in works of Zh. Aymauytov, B. Maylin, M. Auezov, G. Musrepov, especially successfully used as an artistic method starting from 60th — 80th years of XX century. The ironic reasons are mostly recognized in artworks of A. Suleymanov, T. Nurmagambetov, A. Kekilbayev, M. Magauin, T. Alimkulov, K. Iskakov, A. Tarazi, O. Sarsenbayev and others.
The irony is observed as one of the visual styles of prominent Kazakh writer like M. Magauin. In his artworks the irony is represented like a type of expressing the thoughts, like the way to ideological and emotional assessment. Starting from the most beginning artworks, vortex of irony with different artistic power constantly takes a place in his works.
The irony can be observed in the different aspects in such works of writer as «Кек м^нар» («Blue fog»), «Архив хикаясы» («Archive case»), «Т^лымханныц бакыты» («Happiness of Tulymkhana»), «Тарпац» and others. For example, in the «Happiness of Tulymkhana» novel the irony is the base of ideological and artistic nature of the whole work. The main character in the Tulymkhan story — is a quite, calm person. However, he is a man who can’t understand anything happening around him, can’t accept troubles of his family, betrayal of his wife. Bungler, who can’t analyze what happing in front of his wife is stranger, is far from common consciousness. It seems that it is the happiness of Tulymkhan precisely. Author here shows ironically that namby-pamby like Tulymkhan can’t be active champions of society. Writer revels the nature of Tulymkhan with bitter irony.
Stylistically and artistic mosaic of the irony in artworks of prominent Kazakh writer as A. Kekilbayev is very varied, so evaluate — analyzing cover of his works is also varied. In describing and evaluating of life’s events
in some artworks of social life he used the elements of irony, mocking, parody and ironic narrative. In the artworks of the writer the irony is the one of the special scene showing writer’s attitude to describing object. Here the writer doesn’t evaluate directly but effectively uses irony’s ability to affect the unpleasant things, cover it as artistic, critical sigh. In such conditions, the main thing is not only the evaluating character’s features, but human nature- he indicates to unpleasant tends of social life.
Critical force, expressing of social bitterness and intonational stress in such assessment is also diverse. In the works of the writer thoughts of one character about another one behind his eyes is not one the narrative description but also way of critical assessment, way of expressing a point of view of individual or society: «…there is founded brother of a hooked nose tax agent. And how you do you thing where? In Siberia. And there he got blue-eyed widow with a daughter of her first husband. He was alone, had neither house nor home, but soon had got a young mare with a colt» («Kupa of dzhid») [2, s. 352].
Self — irony is observed in words resulting of self assessment of life, destiny and in words said by a character to himself: «.a snap knife which crumbled meat suddenly seemed to tripped over. That is spatula, in good time would have been cleaned it form the meat, scraped up to clarity. Now what? And about what to guess? There is no one of loved and close in far-way. That’s radius. In good time it would be worth to gnaw and hang it as a sure sign of safety and welfare of livestock. But why the livestock should be multiplied. For whom of those children?» («Kupa of dzhid») [2, s. 378].
There are light sneer and power irony in the narrative style of Kekilbayev’s «Competition» story. From the beginning with ridicule: «Yeah, they used to say right in the old days that if your daughter grows up get ready for attack. If it was not so, rich Balpan would had been lived at his leisure and did not blow to mustache» [2, s. 163], — the author leads the reader to an interesting story.
The plot of the story is simple- the interesting story is in the base of it. Story is about the wedding of only daughter of Balpan Azhar bay. Once, Balpan Azhar bay, famous among the people that always gave refusal to all matchmakers, said: «I give my daughter in marriage to the most talented, playful and strong man» and organized the competition. In the end, he had to give his daughter in marriage to moron — Esen, who was luck by chance. This is a backbone of the plot work. But the logic of story turning into an artistic plot, composite system, conflict nature and artistically logical motivation interwoven with a great skill has generated concise realistic work.
Esen — is silly son of stinky rich Salak, who always and everywhere looked after the livestock. Bitingly, sarcastically described the main
character: «he had one ear disfigured, his eyes heavily moved. In winter and summer Esen disappeared in the desert. He was informed about the competition and was the first who had come to competition. He was forty but was a single. His father Salak, asked everyone to marriage his son but no one dared to give in marriage their daughter to idiot. His father has given up marrying his son long ago. But Esen himself didn’t give up and decided to try his luck in the competition. Balpan bay thought: „Let an idiot play“ and ordered to include him in list of applicants» [2, s. 196].
The wining secret of Esen in the competition and having beautiful Azhar is the fortune, unexpected conflict: firstly he refused to sing reasoning it as «I can not sing and will not sing. If Balpan bay wants to marry his daughter to a bawler will let her to Satan». In the second match — in a fight, he wriggled out angering that his opponent had grabbed his liquid beard. On the third day of the competition his old horse of Esen took part in the mass races with the other twenty six horses. The galloping horses were accidently attacked by robbers and it happened that old horse of Esen was the first on the finish. People were stunned. The picture of the competition which was clear on the beginning suddenly seemed to become «theater of the absurd».
Therefore, the writer emphatically describes the situation which turns from simple home drama into the tragedy. It has a great, social significance. Home conflict described in this story as one of the case of the past, period of feudalism and turned into a paradox warns against an improper boasting, against effects of thoughtless actions. Even though, there is described the situation from the past the author touches important social and domestic problems of our time. The final transformation of the fairy — tale story line becomes an ironic metamorphosis with social welfare paradoxical feature.
The events in the story are narrated in a playful tone. Events happening on the background of the author’s power narration appear for the reader both like a lively picture and a retrospective occasional retreat matching with emotional stress and instant romantic pleasure of the character. And the coincided pent-up emotions and thoughts of author and the character are invisibly joining principle. Author’s narration basically is common with thoughts of main character Balpan. Mainly, humorous ironic tone remains in the text. Depending on the features of developing events, the look at the nature and the feature of the fight is described through the allegorical motives making smile with an irony. Sometimes it is represented in form of direct and/or subjective thoughts of the author, expressed by the method of psychological analysis.
In the «Competition» story the author’s narration and its laugh tones are different. On this matter N. A. Kozhevnikova wrote related to Russian prose of 70th: «In different types of context — in the narration about a
character and in the narration from his point of view — stylistically colored funds have different means: in the narration about the character the funds can be used ironically, but in the narration from character’s point of view it has not an irony» [3, s. 90].
In kindly jokes regarding Balpan like «That day Balpan bay was furious at his major wife for the first time. He felt that the girl was a very big problem. Yes, the father who has a very beautiful daughter of marriageable age at home fells like a rider on the stolen horse» [2, s. 165], «And now, when he has his beard overgrown and it’s the time to take care of the soul, and he didn’t hope for change» [2, s. 166], «Thanks to old father for throwing a loop at the good time to Kadyrbai, otherwise would have spend his days alone» [2, s. 168] the irony in author’s narration can be founded, however it is combined with thoughts of a character.
These collisions reveal the inner world of the character- implement the physiological analysis of the phenomena by the character. If the manner of narration «speaks style» is a linguistic expression of such feelings of Balpan bay as his true thoughts, good mood, complacency, but it is accepted by the reader with an irony- that is «narrator watches for events with curiosity and irony and even with the evil» [4, s. 312].
The ironic subtext lies in a common conceptual content base expressing an opinion to the events in the story. Although, it seems that the satirical, humorous beginning of the story slowly subsides, but some proposals, thoughts, pictures, actions alternate with warm humor and irony making smile. The ironic style requires from an author constant use of critical evaluation and linguistic construction in the convenient time in described objects by themselves. Artistic works, poetic pattern, philosophical and psychological curves of the story, describing the period of preparing for the competition, competition of horsing and arts lies on the soul with a particular force. Under the deep philosophical reasoning the power irony and mockery are laid in these artworks which is though -provoking for a reader. For example, the author writes about a young man waiting for honors during the competition the following: «Sweet dream as a honey to win in open competition being undermined by ambitions quietly turned into hard calculating to win at any cost. Ingenuous men have been told that: when all competitors will be put on shame and their genus will disgraced and the blood is stopped in their veins he, winner will celebrate the victory. And then he will have a taste of happiness.
Inexperienced men had no idea that from that moment they unwittingly into a merciless fight which is called the life. And only one prize is for that fight, candidates for which are numerous. Most of all will be involved, irritated by it, but the desired finish will be achieved only by one or two men, the rest is dwell, damming the world — who are out of the steam on the halfway to the goal» [2, s. 204].
Using of fibula in the base of realistic artwork inherent to Kazakh legends and fairy tales, the writer expressively describes specific event inherent in Kazakh way of live, so he brings close the social problem of our time. A. Ismakova who studied the stylistically writing of the author confirms the following: «A. Kekilbayev has his own style and he reflected in the „Competition“ story important things for spiritual situation of the period of 60th. The fairy tale story about how Balpan bay gave his daughter in marriage is only an illustrative material for the writer which he subordinates to logics of social and moral issues of our time» [4, s. 312].
In the story «Competition» we can see irony and humor: «. Than, herds were left in peace. Began to hunt down, trap Azhar. Daring men who recently have drove horses of rich people, now got into the habit at night to the village of Balpan and circling the yurt. To keep up a girl is harder than to guard the herd of horses» [2, s. 184] or «Praise was sound in each mouth: „Such an amazing spectacle. It’s a wonderful! Brilliant musicians!“ and if some of singers were met on the way, everyone thought that it was his duty to express his delight, almost clinging the chapan of him». «Well dear, it is herd from different places that you have attacked all in theirs belt. You have no equal!» and expressively snaps their tongues, devoured the knocked out singer with crazed eyes. If the singer was really lost and did not react to their delight, they said with a smile: «Poor man, it seems that he gone mad of success. Even the tongue was taken away». If however the singer smiles and gives thanks for the kinds words, they sarcastically giggles and whispered: «That's is stupid, he really takes our thanksgiving» and immediately sought out in a singer some disadvantages flawing of the inflated sense of superiority over those who have recently powerfully drew it into the wonderland. [2, s. 203].
The «Auyz» story of A. Kekilbayev — it is a small artwork the special featutre of which is a manner of narration. At first glance, it is a literary text with a simple storyline developed by incredible situations, decorated in unexpected ways, but nonetheless has a deep educational sense. «Auyz» (Tongue) — is ironical story in which the «no tongue» among the people is narrated. Also, there are narrated about inadequacy of people’s role as an individual in society that the society doesn’t consider «thinking», «opinion» of its members, with result that the people begins to move away, to separate from society and this disease to deepen and extend to the next generation.
On of the features of A. Kekilbayev’s irony is that there are more analysis than criticism, more thoughts than estimates. The writer makes reader give attention on the sense of internal mechanisms of the life facts and phenomena of nature. Selecting and decorating by artistic way the one part of the events, based on actions and characters, the weighting it by philosophical views writer leaves to the reader. Numerous
philosophical, social — psychological aspects of such laughter determine located far from dry didactic purpose of intellectual thought. This is a simple and at the same time a comprehensive, bumpy, winding and at the same time, convenient way of presenting the philosophy of life. Sometimes this is how the position of common sense which is present in the base of writer’s all work, through the light joke, thoughtfully irony finds its way into readers' hearts.
1. Tretyakova E. The irony in the structure of artistic text // Russian language № 19 (73), 15. 10. 2001. ,
2. Kekilbayev A. Novels, novellas, short stories, drama, articles in 5 volumes. 1 vol. Almaty. Writer, 2001. ,
3. Kozhevnikova N. A. About the relationship between author’s speech and the character// Language process of modern artistic literature. Prose. Moscow, 1997. ,
4. Ismakova A. S. Kazakh fiction. Poetics, genre, style. Almaty, Science, 1998.

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