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Journal of Health Sciences (J Health Sci) 2012- (2)4: 49−74 Open Access
Open Journal Systems of Radom University in Radom, Poland ISSN 1429−9623 / 2012
FREQUENCY OF APPEARING OF SIDE DISTORTIONS OF THE SPINE AT STUDENTS OF STUDIES POSTGRADUATE OF DIRECTION PHYSIOTHERAPY EXERCISES
Cz^stosc wyst^powania bocznych skrzywien kr^goslupa u studentow studiow podyplomowych kierunku gimnastyka korekcyjna
12 Michal Paprocki, Katarzyna Piekut-Kaluba ,
Magdalena Hagner-Derengowska1, Walery Zukow1
1Radom University, Radom, Poland 2Bydgoszcz University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
© The Author (s) 2012-
This article is published with open access at Licensee Open Journal Systems of Radom University in Radom, Poland
Keywords: idiopathic scoliosis- plains- method Moire 3 D- distortion.
SJowa kluczowe: skolioza idiopatyczna- plaszczyzny- metoda Mora 3D- skrzywienie.
Abstract
A frequency of appearing of a side to side curve is a subject of the work at students of the post-graduate education of direction physiotherapy exercises. Curing scolioses is one of the most difficult problems of the orthopaedic today. The research on the frequency of appearing of this problem, in final years, is showing that this problem is regarding the large portion of our society.
Analysis of findings of the group of students of the post-graduate education of direction is a purpose of the work physiotherapy exercises conducted with method of photogrametry on apparatus Moire 3 D under the angle of the influence of abnormal spinal curvatures on the level of the quality of life.
At the work an analysis of the results of patients which subjected to being examined was described with photogrametric method. At the work a method of the diagnostic survey and a method of statistical concluding were used.
They conducted research using computer apparatus for the photogrametric examination with method — 3D Moire. Let’s for thorough examining the degree of the curvature of the spine in the coronal plane, of differences in heights of bars of spatulas and the like Before commencing the examination with every person a brief poll, entered into the software was conducted. She concerned personal details so as name, the surname, the age, the body weight and the pursued profession of the patient. After receiving results of the measurement they carried out an analysis statistical: descriptive statistics (the average and standard deviations, min., max.), correlation of all variables between themselves with studying the statistical gravity, in addition correlations were carried out parametric and a mathematical model of the repeated linear regression of the level of impact of an operands of the scoliosis was built one arched deep V2, the scoliosis one arched lumbar V3, the scoliosis two arched V4, the scoliosis tree arched V5, asymmetry of spatulas V6, asymmetry of hips V7, number of defects V8, level of pain V9, level of the physical fitness V10, state of mind V11, but a dependent variable of the level of the quality of life V12.
The examination is performed in the entirely darkened room, because a correct reading enables it through the group of the lamp 3D Moire. for the examination the patient is asked for taking the outer overcoat off, since is essential so that the back entirely is exposed. Examined will melt with front to the wall in the fundamental attitude what the psychotherapist is marking appointing and enabling points on the back all over more distant of working results, and among others spinous processes are them on the spine, bottom angles of shoulder blades, angles of the waist. We are recommending to the patient not to move and we are making the registration. After about 10−20 seconds we are stopping the registration of the sequence. After performing the examination a deliverables which is showing the degree of the curvature of the spine in the coronal plane, an angle of the deep kyphosis, an angle of the lumbar lordosis are being drawn up, differences into the height of bars, spatulas and angles of the waist. After
receiving all results mathematics, the diagnostic survey and statistical concluding were carried out.
Conclusions
1. Findings of conducted examinations depict that problems within the spine are universal amongst the group of examined women.
2. Amongst coexisting defects with a side to side curve in almost all cases an asymmetry was observed of amounts of spatulas and hips.
3. In the group of examined persons 3 women were stated, of which the silhouette is about the correct structure what the 10% of everyone constitutes examined.
4. With the most frequent defect amongst examined in the deep stretch whereas a scoliosis was rarest, which former scoliosis concerned only one person tree arched.
5. Asymmetries in the examined group turned out to be the general occurrence. Percentage from asymmetry of spatulas a 56. 7% concerned women,
whereas a 43. 3% is a percentage of hips examined with the different height.
6. Bases are missing for rejecting H0 in V6 correlation / V12, in remaining H1 was accepted.
7. In the linear regression H0 was rejected and H1 was accepted what he/she is marking, that a linear interdependence of the baulk exists with variables dependent V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, V9, 10, V11 from V12 of students.
Streszczenie
Tematem pracy jest cz? stotliwosc wyst? powania bocznego skrzywienia kr? goslupa u studentow studiow podyplomowych kierunku gimnastyka korekcyjna. Leczenie skolioz jest jednym z najtrudniejszych problemow ortopedycznych obecnych czasow. Badania nad cz? stosci^ wyst? powania tego problemu, w ostatnich latach, wykazuj% ze problem ten dotyczy duzej cz? sci naszego spoleczenstwa.
Celem pracy jest analiza wynikow badan grupy studentow studiow podyplomowych kierunku gimnastyka korekcyjna przeprowadzonych metod^ fotogrametrii na aparacie Mora 3D pod k^tem oddzialywania wad postawy na poziom jakosci zycia.
W pracy przedstawiono analiz? wynikow pacjentow, ktorzy poddali si? badaniu metod^ fotogrametryczn^. W pracy wykorzystano metod? sondazu diagnostycznego i metod? wnioskowania statystycznego.
Badanie przeprowadzono przy uzyciu komputerowej aparatury do badania fotogrametrycznego metod^ - Mora 3D. Pozwala na dokladne badanie stopnia skrzywienia kr? goslupa w plaszczyznie czolowej, roznic w wysokosciach barkow lopatek itp. Przed rozpocz? ciem badania przeprowadzono z kazd^ osob^ krotk^ ankiet?, wprowadzan^ do oprogramowania. Dotyczyla danych osobowych takich jak imi?, nazwisko, wiek,
masa ciala oraz wykonywany zawod pacjenta. Po otrzymaniu wynikow pomiaru przeprowadzono analizc statystyczna: statystyki opisowe (srednia i odchylenia standardowe, min., max. ,), korelacja wszystkich zmiennych micdzy sob^ z badaniem istotnosci statystycznej, przy tym wykonano korelacje parametryczn^ i zbudowano matematyczny model regresji liniowej wielokrotnej poziomu wplywu zmiennych niezaleznych skoliozy jednoiukow^ piersiow^ V2, skoliozy jednoiukow^ lcdzwiow^ V3, skoliozy dwulukow^ V4, skoliozy trzyiukow^ V5, asymetri^ lopatek V6, asymetri^ bioder V7, liczb^ wad V8, poziomem bolu V9, poziomem kondycji fizycznej V10, ogolnym samopoczuciem Vil, a zmiennej zaleznej p oziomu jakosci zycia.
Badanie wykonywane jest w calkowicie zaciemnionym pomieszczeniu, gdyz umozliwia to prawidlowy odczyt przez wi^zkc lampy Mora 3D. Do badania pacjent proszony jest o zdjccie okrycia wierzchniego, poniewaz niezbcdne jest aby plecy byly calkowicie odslonicte. Badany staje przodem do sciany w postawie zasadniczej po czym terapeuta zaznacza na plecach punkty wyznaczaj^ce i umozliwiaj^ce dalsze obrobienia wynikow, a s^ nimi m. in. wyrostki kolczyste na krcgoslupie, dolne k^ty lopatek, k^ty talii. Zalecamy pacjentowi nie ruszac sic i dokonujemy rejestracji. Po okolo l0−20 sekundach zatrzymujemy rejestracjc sekwencji. Po wykonaniu badania opracowywany jest wynik koncowy, ktory ukazujc stopien skrzywienia krcgoslupa w plaszczyznie czolowej, k^t kifozy piersiowej, k^t lordozy lcdzwiowej, roznice w wysokosc barkow, lopatek oraz k^tow talii. Po otrzymaniu wszystkich wynikow wykonano obliczenia matematyczne, sondaz diagnostyczny oraz wnioskowanie statystyczne.
Wnioski
1. Wyniki przeprowadzonych badan obrazuj^ iz problemy w obrcbie krcgosiupa s^ powszechne wsrod grupy badanych kobiet.
2. Wsrod wad wspolistniej^cych z bocznym skrzywieniem krcgosiupa w prawie wszystkich przypadkach zaobserwowano asymetric w wysokosciach lopatek oraz bioder.
3. W grupie badanych osob stwierdzono 3 kobiety, ktorych sylwetka jest o prawidlowej budowie co stanowi l0% wszystkich badanych.
4. Najczcstsz^ wad^ wsrod badanych byla skolioza w odcinku piersiowym zas najrzadsz% ktora dotyczyla tylko jednej osoby byla skolioza trzylukowa.
5. Asymetrie w badanej grupie okazaly sic powszechnym zjawiskiem. Odsetek z asymetria lopatek dotyczyl 56,7% kobiet, zas 43,3% to odsetek badanych z rozn^ wysokosci^ bioder.
6. Brak podstaw dla odrzucenia HO w korelacji V6/Vl2, w pozostalych przyjcto Hl.
7. W regresji liniowej odrzucono H0 i przyjcto Hl co oznacza, ze istnieje liniowa wspolzaleznosc miedzy zmiennymi zaleznych V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, V9, lO, Vll z Vl2 studentow.
Introduction
1. Comprehending a side to side curve
They in a popular way assume that a scoliosis is a side to side curve. The scoliosis is an abnormal spinal curvature consisting on multilevel deviation of the line of the spine from the correct state. He is appearing in the population with the frequency from the 1% to the 3% in Poland even up to the 15%. Pathological the spinal curvature to the side, often is involving bending to the back and creating of hump. [3, 4] until a rotation appears in the scoliosis, a rib prominence won'-t appear (or lumbar embankment) we can talk about a side to side curve. Reasons for coming into existence of scoliosis are in 80−90% the unknown. The unknown cause is forcing to the symptomatic treatment. It is confining itself to counteract visible effects of the illness. [3, 4]
They in corrective proceedings are aspiring for straightening the spine. The scoliosis is regarded as systemic disease, because she causes disadvantageous amendments to the arrangement of the move, circulatory-respiratory arrangement, in the efficiency and the physical fitness and in the different viscera. The unknown etiology causes that problems in negotiations and therapy are putting themselves. [7, 9, 15]
Deviation is appearing in three plains: leading — the spine is being bent into the side: to the right or left- fibular — is deepening bending over kyphotic or lordotic- crosswise — a rotation of circles is taking place what is leading to the creation of the rib hump. [9, 11]
It is standing out: functional and structural distortion. The functional distortion is reversible and it is possible to correct them, actively, through muscles controlling the conduct, or passively
through the appropriate position, removing pain evoking the involuntary wince. A structural distortion is a long-lasting change of under construction pelvis, torso, spine.
They belong to the most frequent causes of the structural distortion: of paralysing muscles after poliomyelitis, myodystrophies, wedge-shaped ranges, adhesions of ribs, contractures, shortening one of lower limbs and the like Sitting at the inappropriate school desk or carrying the rucksack on one shoulder, against the generally accepted views, must not cause the curvature of the spine. In most cases the cause of illness is unknown. They are these are so-called idiopathic scoliosis leading bodies to the most frequent deformations. [3, 13]
Distorting the spine, and consequently of also a torso, can appear at children in every century. With consequence of it a heavy disability can be. A side to side curve more often appears at girls than at boys. The early detection is outweighing for the treatment and can be based on stating asymmetries of the back, coming off of the spatula, irregularity of triangles of waists, asymmetrical placing the bowl. The treatment is very difficult, often troublesome for the child and his parents, sometimes he lasts a lot of years, since the idiopathic scoliosis can deepen to the end of the growing season. [4, 13]
A right-hand distortion deep, deforming the chest is the most frequent form, is disfiguring the silhouette, becoming a reason of numerous complexes, with time of alienating peers from the circle. Of bending about the location originally lumbar are less disfiguring, but cause pains of this segment of the spine earlier. [10, 12] the Distortion is arising as a result of the uneven development of the somatic arrangement of back muscles. Coming into existence or precipitating changes can be causing factors: — careless sitting position at reading, for writing- - carrying books one each for the side- - one-way, long-term classes. [5, 6]
2. Division of winces of the spine, stairs of scoliosis
A division is most often a met division of scoliosis according to Cobba which is dividing scoliosis on: Functional (functional) — scoliosis, in which strengthened changes of the under construction spine aren'-t stated, he is appearing at first but in the leading position are these are secondary causes which he is eating e.g. an uneven length of a lower limb, contractures of hip joints or a pain reflex triggered. The functional distortion is undergoing levelling the inducer after ceasing action. Structural (organic) — scoliosis, in which we state strengthened changes (lateralization, rotation, torsion). Distortions are real winces of the spine. From etiologic considerations we are dividing them on: a) bone — consequences, — inborn, — thoracic sequence, — systemic- b) neuroconsequences, — inborn, — paralytic- pliable- - paralytic- spastic — other- c) muscle -consequences — inborn, — myodystrophies, — other- d) idiopathic. Other divisions: on account of the
location of the distortion: — deep scoliosis, — lumbar scoliosis, — cervical scoliosis- due to the number of bows of the distortion: one arched, — two- and multi arched (maximum 4 — arched) considering the degree of mechanical levelling bending: — balanced- - not levelled- on account of the degree of becoming even active — passive distortion: — distortions becoming even actively — with the muscle tension- - distortions becoming even passively — by arranging aside, overhang and the like- due to the size of the angle of bending the scoliosis he is composed of grades- on account of appearing of scolioses in the different growing seasons of the child they are being divided on: — distortions early children'-s — from 1 / 2 to 3 of year of age- - childlike- wince from 3 to 8 of year of age- - distortion adolescent — are appearing at puberty. [5, 20]
It is possible also to distinguish the division of side winces of the spine on account of the size of the angle of the distortion. Depending on the degree of the progress of changes according to classification M. Kutzner-Kozinska (1997) we distinguish the following degrees of the scoliosis:
topnie skoliozy wg Cobba

90
SO
TO
GO
50 | nstopnie |
40
30
20
1Q
0
skolioza I skolioza 11 skolioza III
Fig. 1. Stairs of the scoliosis. [11]
Scoliosis I° changes are applying to the arrangement muscle — ligament, without bone distortions. Possible passive — correction total, or active — correction considerable (almost total). The II° scoliosis — structural changes are appearing in circles and intervertebral disks. The spine is surrendering have rotation what is being manifested with rib hump. The active correction isn'-t producing the desired effect, and passive — little. The Scoliosis IIP — far rescheduled structural changes: wedging shape of the vertebrae, torsion of circles, deformation of ribs and the pelvis. This wince isn'-t being corrected. [9, 15]
The scoliosis most often turns up at the growing season of the child they are starting with the arched spinal curvature in some of segments he is upsetting the balance of the torso, the centre of gravity is moving bodies and is called the primeval distortion which is marked by a rotation and torsion of circles and with bigger angle of the distortion structural changes of circles are increasing the stiffness of the distortion. [23, 29]
3. Idiopathic scoliosis
The idiopathic scoliosis, i.e. side bending the spine about the unknown etiology. He constitutes about 80−90% of all distortions. She is rising only at children and young people.
He more often appears at girls than at boys as well as more often are bulging into the recto than in left. [8, 23] the Scoliosis is expanding when the spine grows as well as the distortion is connected with great restrictions how for example is reducing the, motor, respiratory — function of the organism is reducing the vital capacity, circulatory, sometimes seeks pains for appearing. [3, 4] Schulthess distinguished five types of idiopathic scoliosis: -neck — deep- - deep (most often right-hand) — - thoracic — lumbar-- lumbar (most often left-side) — -double deep and lumbar (most often deep right-hand, but lumbar left-side)
He is leading the distortion to heavy distortions neck — deep which very rarely appears, but unfortunately he causes significant deformations of the chest, ribs are moving to the back on the side of the swell, back angles of ribs are undergoing sharpening giving the considerable protrusion which he is taking to the high rib hump. Also a contour of bars and the neck is undergoing the distortion. [10, 11, 17, 22]
3.1 Types of idiopathic scoliosis
On account of the age of patients we can distinguish idiopathic scoliosis four groups of scoliosis: Early-children'-s type, distortion appears before the third year of age. It is regarding boys mainly. The primeval distortion is located in the deep stretch and mainly is sinisterly. On account of the course two subtypes are distinguished: acting and yielding. The acting subtype is characterized by the greatest tendency of the progression, the angle sometimes is crossing 100 °. Next the yielding subtype is moving back spontaneously about 4 of year of age. Scoliosis early children'-s were regarded by many authors as idiopathic scoliosis.
Children'-s type, distortion appears between the third but tenth year of age. Head is regarding girls, right-hand. Similar type to youthful, however negotiations are worse on account of a long stretch of the progression.
Type youthful, most characteristic of idiopathic scoliosis, appears between the tenth but fourteenth year of age. Glowno of the girl, on the right-hand side. The defect in this century is visible a rib prominence appears. Adult type, appears for the eighteenth year of age. [8, 17]
Types of so-called scoliosis idiopathic, classification — characteristics of individual types of scoliosis according to Karski (2006):
• Double scoliosis — in the swan neck & quot-drawn up through Prof. Karski in 2001. At children with this type of the deformation he exists — contracture adduction of right hip and
53
contracture in the outside rotation and flexural, at the same time a great scope of these movements in the left hip exists. Lumbar curvature of the spine left-side, deep right-hand, arch on the right-hand side are developing the chest oneself as the compensating deformation. She is connected with the asymmetry of moves of hips and the asymmetry of burdens during walking. It causes the asymmetry of growing of the pelvis and the spine -that is scoliosis. A habit of permanent standing is an additional factor enlarging the scoliosis & quot-on sit down& quot- on the right leg. The defect is already beginning in 3−4 of year of age. This type of the scoliosis is connected with walking and with standing.
• Scoliosis about the shape of the letter & quot-C"- came into existence in 2001. At children only reducing the movement of driving the right hip exists in this group (for example is taking out 20 — 25 ° whereas on the left side is taking out 40 — 50 °). It causes, that right leg by the child & quot-felt"- is as & quot-strong"-, & quot-certain"-, stable & quot-and just therefore on the right leg the child is standing constantly, always and willingly is supplying it over the years to the deformation. Bending & quot-C"- - of lumbar or lumbosacral or lumbar-deep spine left-side (necessary workmanship of taking rtg along with the pelvis). The distortion is connected exclusively with the habit of being based on a right leg. The scoliosis is beginning in 3−4 of year of age and originally is a physiological that is reversible axis deviation of the spine. About 10−14 of year of age the distortion is already strengthened. Pains are appearing in more late years of age.
• Scoliosis about the swan neck drawn up by Karski in 2006.
In relation to with permanent being based on a right lower limb also a scoliosis can develop about the swan neck & quot-, but without the stiffness of the spine, without the hump and without features of the progression (this type of the scoliosis is often determined with name of the& quot- kyphoscoliosis & quot-). Greater than right-hand deep distortions are differing in that it is usually lumbar. It usually comes into existence earlier.
• Scoliosis about the shape of the letter, Karski drew up in 2004 / 2005. It is scoliosis without distortions and without the hump or with the minimal deformations. A stiffness of the spine is a feature of this defect. Children and young people are having difficulty during lessons PE and in sport.
Because of the stiffness of the spine they cannot perform rolls (usually of back flip) and of other exercises. This type of the scoliosis is connected exclusively with walking.
Late in life vexing and tiring backaches appear e.g. at working women in standing position. (source: http: //www. karski. lublin. pl — Prof. Tomasz Karski, the manager of the Clinic of Orthopaedics and the Childlike AM Rehabilitation in Lublin).
3.2 Factors affecting the development of the idiopathic scoliosis, progression of changes
The coming into existence and the development of the scoliosis depend above all on two basic factors: etiologic and biomechanical. Extrinsic factors affect the development of the idiopathic scoliosis and internal. Factors are distinguished:
Static factors, joint contracture, shortening the limb, oblique placing the bowl of the static
origin.
Involuntary factors asymmetrical heightening the muscle tone for example an annoyance, degenerative changes, pressure, lighting roots, of nerve trunks. Situational factors, attitude scoliotic, at babies evoked wince with bad arranging in the small bed, carrying in one hand is a moment evoking the wince. Inflammatory process, cancers, lowering causing the traumatic factor the circle. [15, 28] With factors which distortions cause scoliotic. Local factors, that is are disturbing the normal growth of the spine. We distinguish factors: inborn underdevelopments inborn or purchased for example of the spinal cord. Systemic factors, that is triggered directly by the local factor which bending for example causes hormonal disorders. Factors static — dynamic, that is connected with axial burdening the spine and with preserving the vertical balance. This factor is triggering functional curvature of the spine. The progression of changes most often appears at girls, at which the curvature of the spine is thoracic right-hand and lumbar left-side. We can call progressive side bending the spine, if the idiopathic scoliosis has a Cobba 10° angle and bigger and within one year ° is demonstrating progression 5 and more. Very much negotiations are bad when a flat back is accompanying the side distortion. The progression can appear c 10−13 of year of age the pace of appearing is tying the progression oneself with advancing of side to side curve. [10, 18, 22]
4. Patomechanic of side distortions of the spine
Changes, deformations in the layout of the movement it is possible to determine three groups according to Wejsflog so as: And concerning the row- of the change of spine, the curve is side, anterior posterior rotation and. Here we determine the primaeval distortion, i.e. the one which was earliest and compensatory which is much more longer than primitive. Concerning the II row- of the change of bone elements connected with the spine here a rib hump is appearing. Manifestations
of the deformation a moving can be, inclination and torsja of chest, sticking out of the hip. Concerning the III row- of the change pelvis, head. Manifestations of developing are making scolioses different oneself from the curvature of the spine statically e.g. slipped disk, contracture of the hip joint, shortening limbs. [3, 5]
In the side distortion the spine is reaching the disequilibrium internal of spine, and it is happening under the influence of the aetiological factor which the primeval distortion causes. They here think that a flexibility is being lost as well as is taking intervertebral disks in on the side of the concavity of the distortion. In the consecutive phase an unbalanced load of circles is arising and wedging shape of the vertebrae of circles. With the side curve a turnover and twisting the spine along the vertical axis are rising. As a result of twisting vertebras a rib hump is coming into existence, and in the lumbar region a muscle embankment is made. They are detectable at the bend of the torso ahead. Distorting the chest badly influences the viscera, because is reaching transferring, therefore the organism is aspiring to the stability. The primitive curve is leading balances and statics of the torso to disorders. Below and above the primitive curve a secondary curve is arising called compensatory which have the task of restoring balance and statics of the torso. To sum up the primitive curve is bringing negative factors, so the secondary curve is a positive phenomenon. [11, 12, 21]
5. Examining scoliosis
A correct diagnosis is a main therapeutic objective. The examination should be based on establishing manifestations as well as on detecting the cause of the defect. Due to the fact that every distortion is different one should very much exactly assess examined and to agree forecasting at the result and to rank a side to side curve among the non-invasive treatment or operating. These proceedings are very difficult, therefore the examination should embrace: clinical research and radiological which will rule out harmful factors which are deepening the distortion. [8, 9]
5.1. Traditional research methods
We are starting with the medical examination which is a pure research and essential. We are ranking among it: interview, general examination, local examination. The general examination has the task of assessing bodies the attitude, however the local examination is supposed to assess single lengths, manner of the walk, the mobility of joints. In the examination one should take into
consideration all plains and axes. The general examination is moving on the principle of observation of the silhouette from the front, from the back, in the bend, from the side, from above. External manifestations of the scoliosis: Crookedly placed spine — tliting the body to one side. Unevenly placed hips or barges. Unevenly placed teats. Spatula coming off. Stooping. A symmetry is lacking the triangle of the waist. Pains of the spine. The early detection of the scoliosis allows for choosing the opportune moment for taking curing the scoliosis, allows to the enough long devoted time for the education of the child and parents as well as to radiological documentation of disease.
Generally speaking, persons from families in which the idiopathic scoliosis appeared more are exposed to the development of the scoliosis and these persons should stay under the periodic care of a consultant. Parents will most often recognize the scoliosis, noticing the asymmetry of the torso of the child or is being detected in the screening at school or at periodic examinations at the doctor of the paediatrician. During the routine medical check-up, a so-called test of Adams which relies on normal bending the torso ahead with extended hands towards the floor at straightened knees and observation by the doctor of the back to the back is being carried out. This test is showing the asymmetry of the body associated with the rotational deformation of the spine, characteristic of the scoliosis. In case of the positive test of Adams, performing the radiological diagnostic testing is a further step.
The clinical assessment of a consultant usually includes the medical check-up, in the course of which the doctor is making sure that neurological shortages don'-t exist. Neurological manifestations because of the scoliosis are rare, but necessary to check, since can suggest other, rare reasons for appearing of the scoliosis for example resulting from an inborn defects of the spinal cord. The made radiological photograph is confirming recognizing the scoliosis and a size of the curve of the spine allows for measuring — of outlining the so-called Cobba angle. Radiological photographs are giving also certain pointers to the doctor as for the bone maturity of the patient which can affect healing decisions. In rare cases the doctor can also decide for performing the magnetic resonance, when some neurological shortages, or other deviations from the standard image of the scoliosis are appearing in the examination idiopathic for example left-side distortion in the deep stretch (the idiopathic scoliosis is almost always right-hand) or when the child is still very young. The magnetic resonance imaging can for example confirm the suspicion of spinal cord injuries caused by inborn defect or tuber, to make impossible changes in the encephalon, being able to also cause deformations of the spine. (source: http: //drkregoslup. pl/znajdz-specjaliste/adam-sulewski).
5.2. Modern research methods
Computer examining the attitude which is simple, accurate is the first method and fast. He lets gather relevant documentation and exactly draw the image of the distortion up. Methods are applied in abnormal spinal curvatures: Moire, ISIS, Posturometr- hiss, Metrecom System, capacity technique. The photogrametric Moire method consists in using a special video camera coupled with the computer. The device is using the phenomenon of interference of light waves. We receive the view of the back in three plains: leading, fibular and crosswise. When a patient lasts the examination is stopping in the designated place so that he is visible on the computer screen. We are choosing this presentation which is answering correct including the patient. Execution time 0. 03 sec., consecutive measurements are, what 0.3 the sec., but the average time amount to measurements about 1 minute.
The ISIS method is used for a diagnostic testing of the spine, lets for detecting a side to side curve. We receive the three-dimensional shape of the studied fragment. During the examination it is important in order to minimize the respiration and the reflex of keeping one'-s balance. This method great is assessing excellently — back curves of the spine. Method Posturometr-S he is measuring apparatus, putting the point in the three-dimensional space allows to determine. The examination requires pointing with the mechanical pointing stick (connected with the system of bars and counterbalances) of all points on the body of the patient. Putting the mechanical shoulder read out by the electronic arrangement and moved to the computer. Recorded measurements are on form of printouts and pictures. He is the best thing for possibility of the location of different points on the body of the patient.
Metrecom method System, he is used for an evaluation of the posture of the body, consists in the position determination of points on the body of the patient towards the unit. The image is comparing attitudes of the body to correct. Thanks to this method it is possible to assess the spine in the side bend, in the forward bend and into the back, lets assess lower limbs and the size of the hump the pelvis. [9, 22]
Capacity technology is used for a measurement and an evaluation of the posture of the body. The resolution of the net depends on the number and the distance of sensors, and with the surface of the body. So the net is real reflecting the shape of the surface of the body of the patient. [8, 9, 12] to sum up computer examining the attitude of the body determines progress in the process of the defect precisely is accurate and fast. He has this practical significance, because lets for detecting the first features of distortions already, still invisible with the naked eye. Thanks to that for examination the physiotherapist can plan the repair individual programme, based on received results of the examination. [20, 24]
6. Shaping the habit of the good posture
In case of a side to side curve one should prevent being formed of habit of the bad posture and to shape correct habits. Such a purpose requires first of developing the ability of correcting the defect at the child and the ability for the long-term maintenance of the corrected posture, and in consequence of forming of the habit the good posture. [1, 2, 19]
One should shape the Habit of the good posture in the course of exercises so that the child consciously corrects the conduct, through verbal signs of the leading job. The change into the correct habit requires the wrong habit very much many of repeating, as far as keeping the good posture will become automatic action. The regularity is aimed at making aware exercising his irregularities and causing so that he can control the conduct of the body. [23, 27]
One should so encourage the child actively to take classes. Taking control and strengthening the habit of the good posture in conditions moved close for the everyday life is a next step. Then the child doesn'-t already require the control, is keeping it without the participation of the constant awareness. A mirror is a very good method of the automatic correction, it lets master the ability of improving the posture of the body with method of monitoring visual and developing smelling the good posture at the child. To sum up corrective proceedings are multifaceted requires effects of the house, schools, and above all requires the activity and the permanent attention alone touched with the defect. In shaping the habit of the good posture he belongs above all: — making aware of the defect, — developing the ability of correcting the defect, — developing the postural durability, i.e. abilities for the long-term maintenance of the corrected posture at simultaneous fighting all wrong habits, — strengthening the correct corrected attitude in different one'-s situation in lives, — feeling the good posture.
7. Preventing abnormal spinal curvatures
The normal development of the child will depend on many factors as spending a lot of time out of doors, the healthy dream, the correct diet and the move applied accordingly. The move is a basic developmental stimulus. Thanks to the motor activity the child is getting to know the environment and is taking control of new abilities. The rush is having a stimulating effect on a development of the child. What'-s more, he is one of growth indices and of the health.
To the normal development of children parents and teachers are enjoying considerable influence. They are spending time with the child longest and are patterns for him, are broadcasting messages, abilities and habits. Teachers and parents can and should this way shape the motor development of the child so that it is healthy, efficient and had a beautiful figure. Games involving
physical movement which is a basic form of the move are the most interesting form of the activity. Yes, so preventive influences should be in the school programme. So that the child can preserve the real conduct it is necessary to care for her. [14, 25] They are saying about 24 — system an hour long of counteracting abnormal spinal curvatures: Sleep at younger children amounts to the time of the dream at least 10−11 hours. The child should have an own, quite hard bed, with a small small pillow. For all defects a position of lying has the most versatile application We put on weight. The morning start-up lasts about 15 minutes, best with the accompanying person, at the window opened slightly or the access of the fresh air. Character of exercises: loose, extensive move of lower limbs and upper and of torso, runs and jumps. After the gymnastics a shower is being recommended, and then other morning hygienic procedures. Approach to the school the school bag or the rucksack should be packed so that his content evenly is spread and didn'-t move. Older children are carrying files or sacks in one hand. It is correct, because cherishing the greater weight on the back would cause tilting for the figure ahead for balancing this weight. However it is necessary to aspire to the reduction in the number of carried books, because for the spine of the child however an overload constitutes it. It is necessary to pay attention to what children are taking to the school, because is happening, that children are taking many unnecessary things. The work at school is connected with sitting of several hours at desks or by tables, therefore appropriate of them proportion have a large impact for the conduct. Therefore tables of the different height are being put in classrooms in order to select the appropriate volume of the bench pursuant to the height of the child. Exercises among classroom are supposed to relax the child mentally and in terms of physics. After school classes of the child should have many elements of the move under different forms. They can it to be classes at the swimming pool, going in for sports discipline, games in the fresh air with parents. Rest freely made plans by the child, should be active and long enough. Performing everyday activities also requires following hygiene and taking care of both the foot and the spine. Before setting about to any work one should think over and prepare optimal conditions for oneself for her making. For the pupil doing one'-s homework is an important component of the everyday day very much. One should pay attention to the posture at the work. The effect of the position and the factor of the time can be used to purposes of the improvement in the attitude. Ignoring the attitude of the child at doing it homework can influence it harmfully. At doing its homework a changeability of the position is a principle being in force. At writing, for drawing it will be fundamental position. But at making up for oral lessons, one should partly relieve the spine and let the reading for child to a kneeling position on the stool with propping on forearms. Works exclusively oral it is possible to prepare in the recumbence on the belly, propping the head on flat arranged hands, with the book put more low apart from the divan bed. The correct distance of eyes from the book is 30 cm. Feeding the pupil up
should be wholesome according to widely accepted principles. In case of the excess weight one should apply a slimming diet with the child in accordance with doctor'-s orders, since the excess weight of the body by the weak musculature constitutes the serious factor deepening the abnormal spinal curvature.
To sum up we can state that the move and sport are needed in order to keep the efficiency of apparatus of the move. We should manufacture the habit of the good posture at the child in activities of the day of the everyday life, at school, at home, and what'-s more like a child is resting. We can counteract abnormal spinal curvatures through: ensuring appropriate conditions for the sleeping, going in for the morning gymnastics, appropriately packed school bag, providing appropriate conditions for the work at school, applying exercises among classroom, creating appropriate conditions of the homeworking, applying the changeability of the position at doing one'-s homework, the correct diet. [1, 2, 26]
Purpose of the work
Before beginning writing any research material one should set a goal of such an examination. It is conditioned with the fact that all research texts have their beginning to the purpose of the work. Thorough determining it will help in selecting the subject of the research, establishing research problems, choosing hypotheses and hereinafter the research methodology. It is also exquisitely of certain regularities and schemes being able to be described under the scientific angle. [26]
At the work an analysis of the results of patients which subjected to being examined was described with photogrametric method. At the work a method of statistical concluding was used. Methods applied at the work: 1. method photogrametric, assessing the degree of distortions within the spine. 2. method of the diagnostic survey. 3. method of statistical concluding.
Material and research methodology own
At establishing the subject of the research one should be guided by an aim of the research, because so objectively it will only be possible to conduct a chosen test. The subject of the research is determined as the task which is stopping before us in the moment of making aware oneself of the need of conducting empirical examinations. Choosing the subject of the research is many times difficult in order to select the appropriate group examined but being guided by methodological pointers one should look at it under the angle of obtaining specific responses. [16]
Health problems of examined persons and a level of intervention of detected abnormal
spinal curvatures are the subject of the research to the level of the quality of life. 30 embraced
61
students of the Radom higher education institution of direction became an examination physiotherapy exercises in 2011. There were 30 women in the examined group in century 25 — of 54 years.
Research hypothesis main
Chosen abnormal spinal curvatures (scolioses) influence the quality of life in the high rank. To the main hypothesis detailed hypotheses were formulated: 1. The majority of examined students has various abnormal spinal curvatures (scolioses). 2. Chosen abnormal spinal curvatures (scolioses) are correlating inversely — proportionally with the level of the quality of life. 3. Analysis of an operands lets the repeated linear regression of the influence on the quality level build the mathematical model lives (to a dependent variable). Statistical hypotheses (correlation and the regression) are united with research hypotheses.
Statistical hypotheses: Correlation. Interdependence of the baulk with scoliosis one arched with deep V2, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H0 — lack of the interdependence between the scoliosis one arched with deep V2, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H1 — existence of the interdependence between the scoliosis one arched with deep V2, but the level of the V12 quality of life. Interdependence of the baulk with scoliosis one arched with lumbar V3, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H0 — lack of the interdependence between the scoliosis one arched with lumbar V3, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H1 — existence of the interdependence between the scoliosis one arched with lumbar V3, but the level V12 qualities of life. Interdependence of the baulk with scoliosis two arched with V4, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H0 — lack of the interdependence between the scoliosis two arched with V4, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H1 — existence of the interdependence between the scoliosis two with V4, but the level of the V12 quality of life. Interdependence of the baulk with scoliosis tree arched with V5, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H0 — lack of the interdependence between the scoliosis tree arched with V5, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H1 -existence of the interdependence between the scoliosis tree arched with V5, but the level of the V12 quality of life. Interdependence of the baulk with the asymmetry of V6 spatulas, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H0 — an interdependence is lacking the V12 quality of life between the asymmetry of spatulas V6, but the level. H1 — existence of the interdependence between the asymmetry of spatulas V6, but the level of the V12 quality of life. Interdependence of the baulk with the asymmetry of hips V7, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H0 — an interdependence is lacking the V12 quality of life between the asymmetry of hips V7, but the level. H1 — existence of the interdependence between the asymmetry of hips V7, but the level of the quality of life V12. Interdependence of the baulk with the number of defects V8, but the level of the quality of life V12. H0 — an interdependence is lacking the V12 quality of life between the number of defects V8, but the level. H1 — existence of the interdependence between the number
V8, of defects and with level of the quality of life V12. Interdependence of the baulk with the level of pain V9, but the level of the quality of life V12. H0 — an interdependence is lacking the V12 quality of life between the level of pain V9, but the level. H1 — existence of the interdependence between the level of pain V9, of defects and with level of the quality of life V12. Interdependence of the baulk with the level of the physical fitness V10, but the level of the quality of life V12. H0 — an interdependence is lacking the quality of life V12 between the level of the physical fitness V10, but the level. H1 — existence of the interdependence between the level of the physical fitness V10, but the level qualities of life V12. Interdependence of the baulk with the state of mind V11, but the level of the quality of life V12. H0 — an interdependence is lacking the quality of lifeV12 between the state of mind V11, but the level. H1 -existence of the interdependence between the state of mind V11, but the level of the quality of life V12.
For the Regression of the rope repeated interdependence: Linear regression of the interdependence of the baulk with scoliosis one arched deep V2, the scoliosis one arched lumbar V3, the scoliosis two arched V4, the scoliosis tree arched with V5, the asymmetry of V6 spatulas, the asymmetry of V7 hips, the number of V8 defects, the level of V9 pain, the level of the V10 physical fitness, the V11 state of mind, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H0 — a rope baulk is lacking the interdependence with scoliosis one arched deep V2, the scoliosis one arched lumbar V3, the scoliosis two arched V4, the scoliosis tree arched with V5, the asymmetry of V6 spatulas, the asymmetry of V7 hips, the number of V8 defects, the level of V9 pain, the level of the V10 physical fitness, the V11 state of mind, but the level of the V12 quality of life. H1 — existence of the interdependence of the rope baulk with scoliosis one arched deep V2, the scoliosis one arched lumbar V3, the scoliosis two arched V4, the scoliosis tree arched with V5, the asymmetry of V6 spatulas, the asymmetry of V7 hips, the number of V8 defects, the level of V9 pain, the level of the V10 physical fitness, the V11 state of mind, but the level of the V12 quality of life.
Methods, tools and research techniques
They conducted research using computer apparatus for the photogrametric examination with method — 3D Moire. Let’s for thorough examining the degree of the curvature of the spine in the coronal plane, of differences in heights of bars of spatulas and the like Before the starting point they conducted research with every person, brief poll entered into the software. She concerned personal details so as name, the surname, the age, the body weight and the pursued profession of the patient. After receiving results of the measurement they carried out an analysis statistical: descriptive statistics (the average and standard deviations, min., max.) — correlation of all variables between themselves with studying the statistical gravity, in addition correlations were carried out parametric and nonparametric- a mathematical model of the repeated linear regression of the level of impact of
an operands of the baulk was built with scoliosis one arched deep V, with scoliosis one arched lumbar, with scoliosis two arched, with scoliosis tree arched, with asymmetry of spatulas, asymmetry of hips, number of defects, level of pain, level of the physical fitness, state of mind, and with level of impact of dependent variables of the quality of life.
The examination is performed in the entirely darkened room, because a correct reading enables it through the group of the lamp 3D Moire. Examined will melt with front to the wall in the fundamental attitude what the psychotherapist is marking appointing and enabling points on the back all over more distant of working results, and among others spinous processes are them on the spine, bottom angles of shoulder blades, angles of the waist. After about 10−20 seconds we are stopping the registration of the sequence. After performing the examination a deliverables which is showing the degree of the curvature of the spine in the coronal plane, an angle of the deep kyphosis, an angle of the lumbar lordosis are being drawn up, differences into the height of bars, spatulas and angles of the waist. After receiving all results mathematics was performed. For supplementing examinations a method of the diagnostic survey was used, a technique was applied the questionnaire form and tools questionnaire of the questionnaire form. After the analysis of the results of students (of respondents) a method of statistical concluding was applied.
Description of the examined group/trial
30 embraced students of the Radom higher education institution of direction became an examination physiotherapy exercises in 2011. There were 30 women in the examined group in century 25 — of 54 years.
Tbl. 1. Putting together all 30 examined women and appearing defects.
Item number Scoliosis one arched deep Scoliosis one arched lumbar Scoliosis two arched Scoliosis tree arched Asymmetry of spatulas Asymmetry of hips Number of defects
1. — - - - - - 0
2. V — - - - V 2
3. — - - - - V 1
4. V — - - V — 2
5. — V — - V — 2
6. V — - - - - 1
7. V V V — - - 3
8. — - - - V — 1
9. — V — - V — 2
10. V V V — V — 4
11. V V V — V V 5
12. — V — - V — 2
13. — V — - V V 3
14. V V V V — V 5
15. — - - - V V 2
16. — - - - - - 0
17. V — - - - - 1
18. — - - - V — 1
19. — - - - - - 0
20. V — - - V V 3
21. — - - - - V 1
22. — V — - V V 3
23. V — - - V — 2
24. V — - - - - 1
25. V — - - V — 2
26. V — - - V V 3
27. — - - - - V 1
28. — - - - V — 1
29. — - - - V V 2
30. — - - - - V 1
n 13 9 4 1 17 13 57
% 43.3 30.0 13.3 3.3 56.7 43.3 31. 7


Tbl. 2 a, b. Result numerous.
V1 Item number V2 Scoliosis one arched deep V3 Scoliosis one arched lumbar V4 Scoliosis two arched V5 Scoliosis tree arched V6 Asymmetry of spatulas V7 Asymmetry of hips V8 Number of defects V9 Level of pain V10 Level of the physical fitness V11 State of mind V12 Level of the quality of life
1. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 4 4
2. 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 3 3
3. 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 4 4
4. 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 2 3 3
5. 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 3 4 4
6. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 4
7. 1 1 1 0 0 0 3 4 2 2 2
8. 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 3 4 4
9. 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 2 2 2 2
10. 1 1 1 0 1 0 4 4 2 2 2
11. 1 1 1 0 1 1 5 4 1 2 1
12. 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 3 4 4
13. 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 2 3 3 3
14. 1 1 1 1 0 1 5 5 1 2 1
15. 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 3 3 4
16. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 5 5
17. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 4 4
18. 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 3 3 4
19. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 5
20. 1 0 0 0 1 1 3 2 2 3 3
21. 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3 4 4
22. 0 1 0 0 1 1 3 2 2 3 3
23. 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 3 3 4
24. 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 4 5
25. 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 1 3 3 4
26. 1 0 0 0 1 1 3 2 3 3 3
27. 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 4 4 4
28. 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 4 5 5
29. 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 3
N Minimum Maximum Average Standard deviation
V2 30 0 1, 43, 504
V3 30 0 1, 30, 466
V4 30 0 1, 13, 346
V5 30 0 1, 03, 183
V6 30 0 1, 57, 504
V7 30 0 1, 43, 504
V8 30 0 5 1. 90 1. 296
V9 30 0 5 1. 53 1. 279
V10 30 1 5 2. 80, 887
V11 30 2 5 3. 37, 890
V12 30 1 5 3. 50 1. 075
Valid for N (turning off with 30
observation)
Correlations
100%
90%
80%
S 70%
O
-g 60%
-g 50% ro
-S 40%
+¦*
-8 30% o
20%
10%
0%
asymetria asymetria skolioza skolioza skolioza skolioza
topatek bioder jednotukowa jednotukowa dwutukowa trzytukowa
piersiowa l^dzwiowa
Fig. 2. Interest of examined women with the determined abnormal spinal curvature. Source: findings own.




56,7%

43,3% 43,3%

30,0%
13,3%
. 3,3% ,
V2 V3 V4 V5 V6
V2 Pearson correlation 1, 015, 449 *, 212 -, 050
Gravity (double-sided), 939, 013, 260, 794
N 30 30 30 30 30
V3 Pearson correlation, 015 1, 599 * *, 284, 279
Gravity (double-sided), 939, 000, 129, 136
N 30 30 30 30 30
V4 Pearson correlation, 449 *, 599 * * 1, 473 * * -, 053
Gravity (double-sided), 013, 000, 008, 782
N 30 30 30 30 30
V5 Pearson correlation, 212, 284, 473 * * 1 -, 212
Gravity (double-sided), 260, 129, 008, 260
N 30 30 30 30 30
V6 Pearson correlation -, 050, 279 -, 053 -, 212 1
Gravity (double-sided), 794, 136, 782, 260
N 30 30 30 30 30
V7 Pearson correlation -, 086, 015, 053, 212 -, 050
Gravity (double-sided), 651, 939, 782, 260, 794
N 30 30 30 30 30
V8 Pearson correlation 491 * *, 679 * *, 723 * *, 452 *, 407 *
Gravity (double-sided), 006, 000, 000, 012, 026
N 30 30 30 30 30
V9 Pearson correlation, 485 * *, 648 * *, 847 * *, 512 * *, 157
Gravity (double-sided), 007, 000, 000, 004, 408
N 30 30 30 30 30
V10 Pearson correlation -, 571 * -, 517 * -, 585 * -, 383 * -, 201
Gravity (double-sided), 001, 003, 001, 036, 288
N 30 30 30 30 30
V11 Pearson correlation -, 520 * -, 524 * -, 613 * -, 290 -, 325
Gravity (double-sided), 003, 003, 000, 120, 079
N 30 30 30 30 30
V12 Pearson correlation -, 414 * -, 654 * -, 742 * -, 439 * -, 223
Gravity (double-sided), 023, 000, 000, 015, 237
N 30 30 30 30 30
*. Correlation is essential on the level 0. 05 (bilaterally).
* *. Correlation is essential on the level 0. 01 (bilaterally).
V8 V9 V10 V11
V2 Pearson correlation 491 * *, 485 * * -, 571 * * -, 520 * *
Gravity (double-sided), 006, 007, 001, 003
N 30 30 30 30
V3 Pearson correlation, 679 * *, 648 * * -, 517 * * -, 524 * *
Gravity (double-sided), 000, 000, 003, 003
N 30 30 30 30
V4 Pearson correlation, 723 * *, 847 * * -, 585 * * -, 613 * *
Gravity (double-sided), 000, 000, 001, 000
N 30 30 30 30
V5 Pearson correlation, 452 *, 512 * * -, 383 * -, 290
Gravity (double-sided), 012, 004, 036, 120
N 30 30 30 30
V6 Pearson correlation, 407 *, 157 -, 201 -, 325
Gravity (double-sided), 026, 408, 288, 079
N 30 30 30 30
V7 Pearson correlation, 385 *, 324 -, 185 -, 213
Gravity (double-sided), 035, 080, 327, 259
N 30 30 30 30
V8 Pearson correlation 1, 907 * * -, 768 * * -, 804 * *
Gravity (double-sided), 000, 000, 000
N 30 30 30 30
V9 Pearson correlation, 907 * * 1 -, 754 * * -, 783 * *
Gravity (double-sided), 000, 000, 000
N 30 30 30 30
V10 Pearson correlation -, 768 * * -, 754 * * 1, 839 * *
Gravity (double-sided), 000, 000, 000
N 30 30 30 30
V11 Pearson correlation -, 804 * * -, 783 * *, 839 * * 1
Gravity (double-sided), 000, 000, 000
N 30 30 30 30
V12 Pearson correlation -, 879 * * -, 928 * *, 832 * *, 883 * *
Gravity (double-sided), 000, 000, 000, 000
N 30 30 30 30
*. Correlation is essential on the level 0. 05 (bilaterally).
* *. Correlation is essential on the level 0. 01 (bilaterally).
Dependent variable: V12
Tbl. 6. Rope regression repeated.
Model Not-standardized rates Standardized rates
B Standard error Beta
1 (It stood) 2. 063, 551
V2, 311, 183, 146
V3 -, 055, 208 -, 024
V4, 119, 384, 038
V5, 093, 382, 016
V6, 089, 143, 042
V7 -, 076, 157 -, 035
V9 -, 508, 149 -, 604
V10, 214, 130, 176
V11, 434, 135, 359
Dependent variable: V12
Tbl. 7. Variables ruled out.
Model Beta in the model t Gravity
1 V8. and
Model Dimension Personal value

1 5. 798
1. 762
, 788
, 645
, 464
, 341
, 156
, 029
, 012
, 007
Tbl. 9. Statistics of rests.
Minimum Maximum Average Standard deviation N
Predicted value 1. 00 5. 30 3. 50 1. 046 30
Standardized predicted value -2. 389 1. 723, 000 1. 000 30
Standard error of the predicted, 128, 296, 167, 036 30
value
Corrected predicted value 1. 37 5. 46 3. 60, 928 29
Rest -, 504, 487, 000, 246 30
Standardized rest -1. 703 1. 647, 000, 830 30
Studentyzowana Rest -2. 713 1. 923 -, 021 1. 095 29
rest removed -1. 278, 664 -, 017, 433 29
Studentyzowana rest removed -3. 327 2. 076 -, 040 1. 184 29
Mahalanobisa Distance 4. 457 28. 033 8. 700 4. 775 30
Distance of Cook, 000 1. 132, 092, 217 29
Centre value of the influence, 154, 967, 300, 165 30
Dependent variable: V12
Analysis of findings
The largest group out of examined persons has an asymmetry of spatulas. This defect is regarding the 56. 7% examined (17 women) in the century of 25−54 years. Out of all 30 women participating in examining only a 43. 3% (13 women) doesn'-t have an asymmetry of spatulas.
An asymmetry of hips was a next aspect of analysis of findings. This defect in the
significant way influences negotiating of segment of the lumbar spinal column in the coronal plane. Out of examined the asymmetry of hips was observed at the 43. 3% (13 women). Remaining 56. 7% (19 women) has hips at the height a standard established by research apparatus is which.
The asymmetry of hips has a significant effect for arranging the lumbar stretch of the spine in the coronal plane. It results from examinations drawn up that this defect is regarding the 30% (9
women) what constitutes not quite 1 / 3 of all examined persons.
A unilateral scoliosis was other factor taken into account in examinations deep. This vice was examined at the 43. 3% (13 women) what constitutes the not quite half of everyone examined.
The percentage of defects in the spine smallest of findings drawn up was recognised at women from two arched and tree arched with scoliosis. Of side to side curve about two bows was stated at the 13. 3% (of 4 women), and in case of three bows at the 3. 3% (1 woman) out of everyone 30 examined.
In the group examined only 3 persons i.e. the 10% of not a May of none of exchanged defects. Remaining different defects have a 90% in the number from 2 to 5 what constitutes about the very large percentage of persons at which irregularities in the attitude were stated.
Statistical conclusion: Correlation: H0 is lacking grounds for rejecting (V6 — V12), however V1 — we are rejecting V12 H0, and we are accepting H1. Essential interdependence statistically p & lt-
0. 05.
Regression: statistical conclusion (repeated linear regression): we are rejecting the null hypothesis, we are adopting the H1 hypothesis — alternative. A linear interdependence letting the repeated linear regression build the mathematical model exists. Model of the essential regression statistically P (F) & lt- 0. 001. Rate of the R 2 determination = 94. 8%. It means that the calculated model is explaining the linear interdependence of variables to the regression in the 94. 8%. Model of the linear regression built with method of the sum of the smallest squares.
y (V12) = 2. 063 ± 0. 551 + 0. 311×2 (V2) ± 0. 183 + - 0. 055×3 (V3) ± ± 0. 208 +
+ 0. 119×4 (V4)) ± 0. 384 + 0. 093×5 (V5) ± 0. 382 ± 0. 089×6 (V6) ± 0. 143 +
+ - 0. 076×7 (V7) ± 0. 157 + - 0. 508×9 (V9) ± 0. 149 + 0. 214×10 (V10) ± 0. 130 +
+ 0. 434×11 (V11) ± 0. 135 p & lt- 0. 001 (F = 0. 000).
71
Conclusions
On the basis of an analysis of own examinations We can state that the purpose of the work was achieved. Based on conducted examinations it is possible to put the following motions forward:
1. Findings of conducted examinations depict that problems within the spine are universal amongst the group of examined women.
2. Amongst coexisting defects with a side to side curve in almost all cases an asymmetry was observed of amounts of spatulas and hips.
3. In the group of examined persons 3 women were stated, of which the silhouette is about the correct structure what the 10% of everyone constitutes examined.
4. With the most frequent defect amongst examined in the deep stretch whereas a scoliosis was rarest, which former scoliosis concerned only one person tree arched.
5. Asymmetries in the examined group showed with general occurrence. Percentage from asymmetry of spatulas a 56. 7% concerned women, whereas a 43. 3% is a percentage of hips examined with the different height.
6. Bases are missing for rejecting H0 in V6 correlation / V12, in remaining H1 was accepted.
7. In the linear regression H0 was rejected and H1 was accepted what he/she is marking, that a linear interdependence of the baulk exists with variables dependent V2, V3, V4, V5, V6, V7, V8, V9, 10, V11 from V12 of students.
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This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http: //creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc/3. 0/) which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.
Received: 24. 07 2012. Revised: 24. 07. 2012. Accepted: 25. 08. 2012.

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