Phraseological units with somatic tooth element in different structured languages

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Phraseological units with somatic tooth element in different structured languages

of understanding properties, actions, responsibilities of the portrayed — a generalization of them. Thus, the preceding context causes nomination of the subject of a description-portrait. Such lexical units include the following group of words: seeker, exile, liquidator, offender, discoverer, waiting, winner, wannabe, admirer, destroyer, devastator, switchman (metaphor.), founder, curator, and many others. Without the prior context the similar words are informatively insufficient, as their significance is situational: they have a meaning of the result of an action performed earlier (the intruder is the one, who violated- the winner is the one, who won, wannabe is the one, who can and has shown his ability to imitate, etc.) or caused by consituation (hero of the day, the bankrupt, the birthday boy, someone on the waiting list, etc.).

Awareness of the importance of such words, based on the previous introduction, and use of them as a subject of description-portrait defines the value of the descriptive

text itself. This description-portrait seems to be generalizing, concluding in a scene fragment.

Thus, the use of context to describe as a clause to identify the functional-semantic and stylistic properties of the designational words «a person, a man», allows you to split the entire array of the designational words into several groups:

1) meanings of designational words used in a role of description subject-

2) meanings of designational words that can be the subject of a descriptive text only with stylistically reduced labelling-

3) meanings of words that cannot be the subject of description, even if it is stylistically labelled-

4) meanings of situationally dependent words that do not perform introductive function as subject descriptions and therefore involve premonitory text explaining the emergence of a subject with certain properties.

References:

1. Nechaeva O. A. Functional-semantic types of speech (description, narration, reasoning): diss. of Doctor of Philological Sciences. — Moscow, 1975. — 394 p.

2. Khamaganova V. M. Typology and alignment of actantial kernel of a descriptive text (as exemplified by interior-description, and landscape-description)//Siberian Journal of Philology. — Novosibirsk: Publishing House of the Novosibirsk State University, 2006. — № 3. — Р. 87−94.

3. Khamaganova V. M. Structural and semantic properties of stating texts: the extension and intension of their semantics//Research on semantics. Interuniversity scientific collection. Edition 25. — Ufa: PPC BSU, 2013. -

S. 305−311.

4. Russian Semantic Dictionary. Explanatory Dictionary, systematized on classes of words and meanings. V.1./ RAS. Inst. of Rus. Language- Edited by N. Yu. Shvedova. — M.: Azbukovnik, 1998. — XXIII p. — 800 p.

Khmara Victorya Vladimirovna, post graduate student, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv E-mail: mistyweather@mail. ru

Phraseological units with somatic tooth element in different structured languages

Abstract: This article offers comparative analysis of Phraseological Units with somatic element tooth based on Russian, Ukrainian, German and English. The purpose of this article is to show semantic features, isomorphic and allomorphic traits in four linguistic cultures.

Keywords: a comparative analysis, linguoculture, Phraseological Units.

The present paper focuses on comparative analysis of phraseological units with somatic element tooth in English, German, Ukrainian and Russian languages to identify semantic means of picture of the world manifestation and highlight isomorphic and allomorphic features in four linguistic cultures. 112 phraseological units with

somatic element tooth (12 — English, 32 — German, 44 — Ukrainian and 24 — Russian) have formed the empirical data of our research.

Cultural Studies is the science that shows close connection between culture and language. The study of the linguistic and cultural peculiarities of different languages

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gives us an opportunity to elucidate the processes of perception and reproduction of the cultural experience through the language means. One of the main functions of the language is that it accumulates all epic achievements in scientific, social and cultural life of the nation [5, 20]. From this point ofview we regard language as the main source of cultural information and a specific way of information transfer.

Cultural codes match archaic views of people. They are universal. So coding of the space has only national peculiarity and it is special for every national cultural communities [4, 62]. There are such basic codes: somatic, zoo, space, time. One of the oldest codes of culture is somatic. It is connected with parts of the body [1, 16].

One of the ways how to represent somatic code is phraseological units with somatic element. By means of such phraseological units and proverbs the language accumulates the empirical, spiritual and historical experience of the nation. The practical value of the phraseology from the cultural point of view is determined by that fact that during the long history of its development language preserves only those examples which are of great importance to human perception and are closely connected with the models, stereotypes of the nation and culture [6, 155].

Investigations in the field of phraseology show the dependence of linguistic functioning on certain ethnic community activities and the role phraseological units with somatic element in the process of interpretation and accumulation the empirical, spiritual and historical experience [8, 237−238].

Contrastive analysis of phraseological units with somatic element of genetically distant languages allows finding similarities and differences in models, stereotypes and national-cultural peculiarities [3, 22]. So, due to the contrastive analysis it becomes possible to research semantic features of phraseological units of given languages [2, 5−6].

Our investigation shows that the anthropocentric meaning reflected with the help of the somatic component in the phraseology comprises the following spheres: features of character, age, intellectual ability, feelings, emotions and others. Thus, we defined phraseological units with the somatic element teeth/Zahn/зуби/зубы related to 4 languages and have isomorphic meanings: symbol of aggression and reaction to it: Eng.: armed to the teeth- to show one'-s teeth- an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth- Germ.: bis an die Zahne bewaffnet sein- Auge um Auge, Zahn um Zahn- die Zahne zeigen (weisen) — Ukr.: сушити зуби- око за око, зуб за зуб- озброений до 3y6ie- Rus.: око за око, зуб за зуб- быть вооружённым

до зубов- (о)скалить зубы- misspeaking words: Eng.: like pulling teeth- Germ.: etw. zwischen den Zahnen mur-meln- Ukr.: щдйти (прощдйти)iзь зуби-iзь зуби точити- Rus.: сквозь зубы говорить (сказать) — exercising self-control and patience: Eng set one'-s teeth- Germ.: mit zusammengebissenen Zahnen (etw. tun) — die Zahne zusammenbeifen- Zahn aufZahn beifen- Ukr.: зцтити (стиснути, склепити) зуби- Rus.: сжать (стиснуть) зубы- very little amount of smth.: Eng (as) scarce as hen’s teeth- Germ.: das ist (reicht, geht) auf den hohlen Zahn- das ist nur auf або fur den hohlen Zahn- Ukr.: на один зуб- на одного зуба- Rus.: на один зуб.

Other common groups of phraseological units with somatic element teeth/зуби/зубы include:

— experience (in English, Ukrainian and Russian): Eng.: cut one'-s teeth in (on) smth.- Ukr.: зуби на чому стерти (з'гсти) — Rus.: съесть зубы на чём-

— anger (in German, Ukrainian and Russian): Germ.: einen Zahn auf (gegen, wider) j-n haben- Ukr.: скреготати (скреготти, скритти, скрипотти) зубами- гострити зуби- Rus.: скрежетать зубами- точить зуб (зубы) — failing in solving complex task: Germ.: sich (D) an etw. (D) die Zahne ausbeifen (ausbrech-en, stumpf beifen) — Ukr.: горшок не по зубах- обламати зуби- збутися зyбiв- не про зуби- Rus.: обломать себе зубы- лишиться зубов- не по зубам- не по зубам мне эти орешки- to tremble because of cold or fear: Germ.: mit den Zahnen klappern- Ukr.: дзвонйти зубами- зуб на зуб не попадае- клацати зубами- вибивати зубами чечтку- Rus.: зуб на зуб не попадает- стучать зубами-

— gossips (in German and Ukrainian languages): Germ.: j-n durch die Zahne ziehen- j-n zwischen den Zahnen haben- Ukr.: брати на зуби- завЯзнути в зуби- перетирати на зубах-

— hunger (in Ukrainian and Russian languages): Ukr .: класти (покласти) зуби на полйцю (на мисник) — (i) на зуб тчого покласти- на зуб тчого покласти- Rus.: зубы на полку (класть) — на голодные зубы- to divert with the help of conversation: Ukr.: замовляти зуби- зубы заговаривать- to have negative life expiri-ence: Ukr.: пройти мiднi труби i чортовi зуби- Rus.: прошел огни, воды, медные трубы, попадал к черту в зубы и то вышел.

The comparative analysis of phraseological units with somatic element teeth/Zahn in English and German also enabled us to distinguish isomorphic meanings: to work good and quickly: Eng.: get teeth into the job- Germ.: einen Zahn zulegen.

Allomorphic meaning of the phraseological units with the somatic element teeth include:

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Phraseological units with somatic tooth element in different structured languages

• age (in the English language): Eng.: long in the tooth- falsehood: Eng.: lie in one'-s teeth- desire to eat many sweet foods: Eng.: have a sweet tooth- to make bad influence on others: Eng .: rotten tooth injures its neighbours- to take some action that is intended to prevent strife or trouble: Eng.: sow dragon'-s teeth-

• death (in the German language): Germ.: j-m tut kein Zahn mehr weh- disappointing: Germ.: j-m den Zahn ziehen- eat without appetite: Germ.: die Zahne (hoch) heben- lange Zahne machen- mit langen Zahnen essen- to be able to protect one’s points of view: Germ.: j-d hat scharfe Zahne- destructive hand of time: Germ.: der Zahn der Zeit- tipped the girl: Germ.: j-m einen Zahn abschrauben- to check someone: Germ.: j-m auf den Zahn fuhlen- warming to keep silence: die Zahne sollen dir ausfallen!- request not to think about nonsense: Germ.: diesen Zahn lafi dir ziehen (або ausziehen)!

• smile (in the Ukrainian language): Ukr.: торгувати зубами, свтити зубами- risk: Ukr.: до didbKa в зуб- responsible for the actions of others people: Ukr.: Адам з'-гв кисличку, а у нас оскома на зубах- psychological condition when a person uncontrolled emotions and actions: Ukr.: хоч зубирви- detect excessive indulgence, starch: Ukr.: дивитися в зуби-

• unwillingness to lose smth. (in the Russian language): Rus.: зубами держаться- desire to eat: Rus.: разгорелись зубы. Allomorphic meanings of the Phraseological Units with the somatic element зуб are.

So, phraseological units with somatic element have isomorphic and allomorphic features in English, German, Ukrainian and Russian languages. It has been shown that phraseological units with the somatic element teeth/Zahn/зуби/зубы in English, German, Ukrainian and Russian languages have such negative meanings: symbol of aggression, misspeaking words, very little amount of smth.- and positive: exercising self-control and patience. In addition, phraseological units with somatic element teeth/зуби/зубы have positive meaning experience in English, Ukrainian and Russian languages.

Phraseological Units with somatic element Zahn/зуби/зубы German, Ukrainian and Russian languages have such common negative meanings as

anger, to tremble because of cold or fear, failing in solving complex task.

Special meaning for English and German Phraseological Units is to work good and quickly- for German and Ukrainian are gossips. Ukrainian and Russian phraseological units with somatic element зуби/зубы have such negative meanings as hunger, negative life experience, to divert with the help of conversation.

Allomorphic features of the phraseological units with the somatic element teeth in the English language with negative meanings include: to take some action that is intended to prevent strife or trouble, falsehood, to make bad influence on others- and neutral: desire to eat many sweet foods.

Phraseological Units with the somatic element Zahn in the German language demonstrate specific negative meanings: death, disappointing, eat without appetite, warming to keep silence, tipped the girl, destructive hand of time- and positive: request not to think about nonsense, to be able to protect one'-s points of view, to check someone.

Phraseological units with the somatic element зуб in the Ukrainian language demonstrate specific negative meanings: responsible for the actions of others people, psychological condition when a person uncontrolled emotions and actions, detect excessive indulgence, starch- and positive: smiling.

Phraseological units with the somatic element зуб in the Russian language designate specific positive meanings: unwillingness to lose smth and desire to eat.

Thus, contrastive analysis of phraseological units with the somatic element in different languages irrespective of their origin proved to be topical as it allows singling out allomorphic and isomorphic features in the pictures of the world of the definite linguculture. Such approach enabled us to specify positive and negative associations which serve the basis for nomination in different languages.

The perspective of the investigation lies in the contrastive analysis of phraseological units with other somatic elements in East Slavic and West Germanic languages from the standpoint of lingocultural studies.

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