Theoretical legal analysis for criminal works trafficking people article 418-a and smuggling of migrants from article 418-b from the criminal code of Repub
- Тип работы:
- Юридические науки
Детальная информация о работе
Выдержка из работы
ливает уголовную ответственность за менее тяжкий случай геноцида,
Общим для законодательства России и Германии является наличие нормы, содержащей важное уголовно-правовое предписание о том, что сроки давности не применяются к геноциду (ст. 78 УК РФ, § 5 Уголовного кодекса о преступлениях международного характера). Такая норма имплементирована в уголовное законодательство большинства современных государств, не применяющих сроки давности к преступлениям против человечности и к военным преступлениям Правовой основой для этого является Конвенция о непри-
менимости срока давности к военным преступлениям и преступлениям против человечества от 26 ноября 1968 г. [1, с. 522].
Таким образом, в качестве примера имплементации норм международного уголовного права во внутреннее национальное законодательство РФ и Германии можно привести ст. 357 УК РФ и § 6 германского Уголовного кодекса о преступлениях международного характера, которые устанавливают уголовную ответственность за геноцид.
1. Международные акты о правах человека. Сборник документов / Сост. д.ю. н., проф. В .А. Карташкин, д. ю. н., проф. Е .А. Лука-шева. — 2-е изд., доп. — М .: НОРМА-ИНФРА-М, 2002, — 944 с.
2. Основной закон Федеративной республики Германия. — Бонн, 1996.
4 Уголовный кодекс Германии — Гамбург, 2006.
5. Уголовный кодекс РФ- М., 1993.
UDC 343. 431+341. 215. 43
THEORETICAL LEGAL ANALYSIS FOR CRIMINAL wORKS TRAFFICKING PEOPLE ARTICLE 418-A AND SMUGGLING OF MIGRANTS FROM ARTICLE 418-B
FROM THE CRIMINAL CODE OF REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Панов B.T. Теоретико-правовой анализ уголовных преступлений торговля людьми, предусмотренного статьей 418-а, и незаконный ввоз мигрантов, предусмотренного статьей 418-б Уголовного кодекса Республики Македонии. — Статья.
В статье исследуется соотношение миграции и торговли людьми, а также проводится связь между незаконной миграцией и торговлей людьми в целях уточнения понятий, проанализированы уголовные преступления торговля людьми и незаконный ввоз мигрантов, предусмотренные статьями 418-а и 418-б Уголовного кодекса Республики Македонии, а также устанавливаются сходства и различия между этими двумя уголовными преступлениями с тем, чтобы отличать поняття торговли людьми и незаконный ввоз мигрантов, поскольку конвенции и протоколы по международной организованной преступности подчеркивают необходимость их разграничения.
* Panov Blagoj Tose — PhD student Department publichnopravni Science and Public Management, Southwest University, Neophyte Rilski-Blagoevgrad-R. Bulgaria.
Ключевые слова: торговля людьми, незаконный ввоз мигрантов, эксплуатация, миграция
Panov B. T. Theoretical legal analysis for criminal works Trafficking people article 418-a and Smuggling of migrants from article 418-b from the Criminal code of Republic of Macedonia. -Article.
This article aim is to examine the complex relationship between the migration and trafficking people and to establish the relationships between the smuggling of migrants and trafficking people and to introduce clarity in the concept, to analyze the criminal offences of trafficking people and smuggling of migrants provided by article 418-a and article 418-b from the Criminal code of Republic of Macedonia and to establish the similarities and the differences between this two criminal offences indispensable necessary for distinguishing the phenomenom trafficking people and smuggling of migrants because the Conventions and the protocols for international organized crime emphasize the need to distinguish them
Keywords: trafficking people, smuggling of migrants, exploitation, migration.
Панов B.T. Теоретично-правовий аналіз кримінальних злочинів торгівля людьми, що передбачено статтею 418-а, і незаконне ввезення мігрантів, що передбачено статтею 418-б Кримінального кодексу Республіки Македонії. — Стаття.
У статті досліджується співвідношення міграції та торгівлі людьми, а також проводиться зв'-язок між незаконною міграцією і торгівлею людьми з метою уточнення понять, проаналізовано кримінальні злочини торгівля людьми та незаконне ввезення мігрантів, що передбачені статтями 418-а і 418-б Кримінального кодексу Республіки Македонії, а також встановлюються подібності та відмінності між цими двома кримінальними злочинами з тим, щоб відрізняти поняття торгівлі людьми і незаконне ввезення мігрантів, оскільки конвенції та протоколи з міжнародної організованої злочинності підкреслюють необхідність їх розмежування.
Ключові слова: торгівля людьми, незаконний ввіз мігрантів, експлуатація, міграція.
For a long time researchers, reporters and even the government agencies use the terms trafficking people and smuggling people together to explain every organized transportation of people from one country to other. In many reports from public to private subjects this two terms are still used together In the effort to change the harsh reality from the diverse exploitation and enslavement of people, the wider community, including the international institutions, more often and more organized encourage and implement various measures and activities directed at preventing and suppression of trafficking people. The efforts in this direction are reflected in defining the legal basis and normative rounding which should make them more effective The interest of international community for resistance of human trafficking and similar procedures of them is indivisible and recognizable in many international documents
The United Nations distinguish between trafficking and smuggling. According to the Protocol of prevention, preventing and punishing
trafficking people, especially women and children (popularly known as the Protocol of Palermo) trafficking people means recruiting, transport, transfer, acceptance or receipt of persons under threat or with abduction, coercion, fraud, seduction or coercion, or with giving or receiving unlawful monetary or other means of payment to achieve a condition in which a person has control over other person, to set him in any kind of exploitation. The abuses include minimum exploitation of prostitution or other form of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or things like slavery, serving or taking organs
On the other hand the Protocol against smuggling of migrants by land, air, sea (other part of the Protocol of Palermo) smuggling of migrants means facilitating the illegal entry or illegal residence in a country, in which the person is not a citizen or permanent settlement, in order to directly or indirectly acquire financial or other material benefit.
According to the international organization of migration, trafficking people occurs
when a migrant is illegally engaged/ recruited, kidnapped, sold etc or transferred or in national boundaries or in international boundaries
In the Convention of International Organized Crime with a reason is mentioned that traders manipulate and distort the migration process in order to achieve their criminal goals, but they mentioned that it should be borne in mind that some people are leaving their homes voluntarily in search of better life/ lawful or unlawful/ and it would be wrong to assume that every person is an illegal migrant or is suspected of illegal migration is simultaneously a victim of trafficking people Although that it indicates that trafficking people is a special form of abuse migration and in guideline number 2 from the recommendations and guidelines of human rights and trafficking people stresses that trafficking means more than an organized movement of people in order to gain profit, and as an additional factor that separates trafficking of people from smuggling of migrants stresses the presence of force, threat or spoof through or in some part of the process, whereas the fraud, enforcement or the threat are used with the aim of exploitation.
According the rule a potential migrant is the one that first contacts with smugglers and knows that there is smuggling out the border, unlike individual that traders have chosen as their victim, who in that moment does not know anything about their fate as victims to human trafficking. Viewed through the prism of the object of protection, smuggling of people is a felony against the country that violets its laws about borders and immigration, and trafficking of people is a serious felony against the victims that also includes some kind of exploitation form after the legal crossing of the state border.
Although, unlike illegal migrations that involve illegal crossing the international borders based on a voluntary decision and such engaging of the smuggler, after its paid in advanced in most cases helps the migrant to illegally enter the country of his choice, trafficking of people
does not necessary means crossing the border in internal trafficking of people.
Contemporary Europe is based on three important terms: freedom, security and justice The first and fundamental term freedom means freedom of movement as well. But if we ask ourselves what does freedom of movement means in this context we will see that this freedom is not a broad term and it means freedom of movement within the country in which the person has right to live or stay and freedom to leave the country But nobody has that right to enter a country in which he wishes, and that the stay in any previous way was not approved to him
Migration of population is not a peculiarity of only this region, of only this time. Each time a large number of immigrants are leaving their country of origin migrating to other country in search of better opportunities or demanding protection from persecution or violence
According to some statistics around 150 million people today are living outside the country they were born or outside the country of their citizenship
There is no official data about the number of those who illegal enter the European Union. According to some rough estimates by some European Commissions in year that number is between 500 000−1 000 000
From all of those who in every price go on a way towards the countries of their dreams, only 30% of them reach the goal. Many of them, since it is about people who have not accomplished all the requirements for entering the country and all the conditions required for passage through the transit territory countries to one of the stages of their journey they are stopped or returned from the state from which they started or from the country in which they entered directly in which they are detected as illegal immigrants
For the reasons that it is a citizen of distant countries, especially as illegal occupants, they cannot find their way on their own they often become the victim of a well-organized
international smuggling groups to which they pay a huge fee, and sometimes they invest the entire property hoping will successfully lead to the desired goal
Currently the European Union, which has about 500 million people illegally are staying two to four million people
Republic of Macedonia has ratified all the above mentioned documents and in its national legislation incorporates all ratified conventions, protocols and agreements
In Republic of Macedonia the criminal act trafficking people was first incorporated in 2002 in the Law on amendments to the Criminal Code, published in the Official newspaper number 04/2002, that undergone several amendments and the Official newspaper of RM number. 19/04, 7/08 and 114/09 so after the performed amendments the same is provided in Article 418 of the Criminal Code.
1. In the Article 418 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Macedonia under the term Human trafficking it means the one that by force, serious threat, misleading or other forms of coercion, abduction, fraud by abuse of position or pregnancy, impotence, physical mental or other disability, or creating or receiving money or other benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, or otherwise recruits, transports, transfers, buys, sells, harbors or receives persons for exploitation through prostitution or other forms of sexual exploitation, pornography, forced labor or servitude, slavery, forced marriages, forced fertilization, illegal adoption or similar terms or illegal transplantation of human body shall be punished with imprisonment of at least 4 years.
2. The one that will take away or destroy identity card, passport or somebody else identification document for committing the crime of this article shall be punished with imprisonment of at least 4 years
3. Any person who uses or allows another to use sexual favors or other exploitation
of the person that he knew or was obliged to know is a victim of trafficking in persons shall be punished with imprisonment from 6 months to 5 years
4. If the crime from items 1, 2 and 3 of this Article is committed by an official in the performance of duty shall be punished with imprisonment of at least 8 years.
5. The consent of a victim of trafficking of people with the intention exploitation set forth in paragraph 1 is important for the existence of the criminal offense of paragraph 1.
6. If the crime is made by a legal person he shall be punished with a fine
7. Property items and vehicles used for committing the offence shall be seized As seen from the definition, the crime of trafficking of people referred to in Article 418 ofthe Criminal code ofthe Republic of Macedonia has two heavier forms and one special form This crime also provides a chain for taken actions and proof of the same cannot be made without a statement of a person because of the possible danger to life, health, liberty, physical integrity or properties larger disagrees as a witness to testify in criminal proceedings and for certain crimes where this belongs
Basically while performing this act three phases are carried: the first phase concerns the recruitment and hiring of the victim in the country of origin or within the country, which is mostly achieved through fraud, the second phase in essentially covers transport of the victim to the destination country that is well organized and the third phase includes exploration or exploitation of the victim arrived in the country for sex, labor or other exploitation
In 2004, is adopted the Law on Amendments to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Macedonia / Official Journal of RM. number. 19/2004 / which is added to Article 418-B relating to crime, smuggling of migrants and with the addition of paragraph 5 of this Article, the integral text reads:
1. A person who by force or serious threat against the life or body, abduction, fraud, greed and abuse of his official position or by taking advantage of the weakness of other illegal migrants passed through the state border, as well as one that procures or possessing false travel documents for such purposes shall be punished with imprisonment of at least 4 years.
2. Any person who recruits, transports, transfers, buys, sells or accepts migrant shelters, shall be punished with imprisonment of one to five years
3. If during the execution of the works referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 endangered the life or health of the migrant or the migrant is treated degrading or cruel, or is prevented from exercising rights granted him by international law, shall be punished with imprisonment of at least 8 years.
4. If the crime from items 1 and 2 is committed by a minor, the offender shall be punished with imprisonment of at least 8 years
5. If the crime from items 1,2,3 and 4 of this Article is committed by an official in the performance of duty, shall be punished with imprisonment of at least 10 years
6. Objects and vehicles used for committing the crime are confiscated
The crime, smuggling of migrants, of Article 418-B of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Macedonia is far more common than the crime, human trafficking, as provided in Article 418 of the Criminal code of the Republic of Macedonia.
As apparent from the definition that the basic form of crime, smuggling of migrants, is done with force or serious threat to life and body, of abduction, of fraud, of greed and abuse of his official position or taking advantage of the weakness of other illegal migrants passed through the state border, and he is doing, acquires or possesses a false travel document for that purpose.
Human trafficking by many elements is an international, organized criminal phenomenon that has grave consequences
for safety, progress and human rights of its victims and society in general
Trafficking of people in the area of organized crime is an activity that covers several types of the occurrence This term means criminal activity migrant smuggling, organized prostitution and trafficking in human organs
Although this phenomenon comes from the historical shape human trafficking, in modern types that represents a new phenomenon with significantly different content
The process of globalization and stratification in the world, especially the breakdown of some socialist countries and a sharp depletion of some regions in the world have led to migration processes in which there is a suitable soil for smuggling people from the poor in developed regions found numerous criminal organizations
Trafficking people, today is one of the most basic things in the world and an estimated annual income is over $ 8 billion
Smuggling people is associated with trafficking through criminal offense without a clamp down we can call a modern slavery. Every illegal immigrant is very easy prey not only for smugglers, but also for traffickers, because he is mostly a person without identity, a person who is convicted of hiding the authorities of the country through traveling or wants to live her permanently
Human trafficking is the dark side of the movement of the population, which damages people and is a kind modern slavery It is forced and violent form of movement which must be prevented as opposed to safe migration, which should be promoted as an opportunity for a new life, beneficial for all. The border between migration bright side and trafficking as a dark side of migration of the population, is too complex and interwoven, much more than you think Migration is a broad general concept, and trafficking is just part of that broader category concept
The movement or transfer from one place to another of a person who is sold, sometimes is wrongly understood as migration. The transfer or mobility may be a common element of human trafficking and migration but not a criterion to determine the difference The determining factor would be of course the presence or absence of coercion, exploitation, abuse, lack of control over life choices or the work The absence of one or all of these elements represents a migration of a person and the presence of these factors is actually the resale of that person.
National, regional and global attitude, norms and practices relating to migrants and victims of trafficking, supports the assumption that the two groups had different objectives, intentions and consequences in their life experiences and expectations
The difference between migrants and victims of trafficking is next:
— People who are trafficked are lured or forced to relocate, and emigrants are usually not recorded or forced to leave their place of residence
— And trafficking and migration means changing place of residence, but with many effects, because people who are subject to trade are in a subordinate position
— Human trafficking is a phenomenon that hinders development, and migration is a process that promotes.
— Human trafficking is antisocial, morally degrading and monstrous case, migration is a process that promotes good if it is well managed Exploitation, profits and illegality is on the idea of trafficking people. It is certainly not the case with the migration process.
The smuggling ofmigrants is a phenomenon in which a person acts illegally to cross the border, with the help of other person and by making a financial or other payment There are differences between trafficking in persons and smuggling of migrants in the process of moving and the ultimate goal The critical factor that distinguishes trafficking from smuggling is the existence or threat of coercion
through the entire process or in part -with the violence or the threat to the essence of exploitation In cases where the person has the wrong information about the dangers of the trip and was not aware of the treatment that will get into the hands of traffickers, provided there is mutual agreement on transportation and provided there is mutual consent and provided transportation to be developed exploitative relationship or it was not provided between the two sides, then is considered as smuggling of migrants The only situation in which the unforced movement is the extent of human trafficking if the person is a child.
Smuggling is a way a person enters the country, the involvement of third parties that helped to make it into. Hence, potential migrants requires and pays a third party to assist in the transition to another country where the migrant has no right to stay, and the involvement of third party /smugglers/ does not go beyond enforcement of illegal border crossing. Human trafficking is a complex concept because it requires consideration not only in the way the migrant enters the country, but also to his working conditions /result/
Trafficking people involves coercion and exploitation, and the main goal is to put people in a subordinate situation in which their work can be exploited under conditions that involve violations of human rights Trafficking people have a greater capacity especially against women and children, and includes trade for commercial sexual purposes and forced labor in substandard conditions, begging, domestic and agricultural work, and if forced or fictitious marriages Human trafficking is not a single phenomenon, but a process that begins with gaining the people, and then continues with the journey and ends with the exploitation of the person found Differences between smuggling and trafficking are:
— Typically, smuggled migrants are aware of the conditions of travel and voluntarily
engage themselves in the process of illegal migration Persons who are victims of human trafficking are rarely aware of the entire process. Even if they handed themselves at free will to the trader, did not gave a permission for the abuse, exploitation or violation of their human rights, which will be subject
— While smuggling of persons undoubtedly involve international transboundary movements, trafficking can also occur within state borders
From the above mentioned we can conclude that the primary difference between trafficking and smuggling is coercion, exploitation and the violation of human rights.
1. Distinction between Human Smuggling and Human Trafficking /2005/ http: //www. unodc org /pdf/crime/final instruments
2. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially in Woman
and Children, Supplementing the United Nation Convention against Transnational Organized Crime/2000/ http: //www. unodc. org /pdf/crime/final instruments /
3 Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, Supplementing the United Nation Convention against Transnational Organized Crime/2000/ http:/ /www. unodc. org. /pdf/crime/final instruments
4. A Global Alliance Against Forced Labor. 2005 http: //www. ilo. org
5. Kambovski Vlado, Kazneno pravo, poseben del, Skopje 2010 g.
6. IOM, World Migration 2005, Section 3, International Migration Data and, Statistics, 418
7 Migration connected with trafficking in women and prostitution, 25 April, 2003, Report, Committee on Equal Opportunities for Women and Man, Reporteur: Mc Zwerver, Netherlands, SOC
8. Krivicen Zakonik na Republika Makedonija