Historiography of the Russian Diaspora in the USA

Тип работы:

Узнать стоимость новой

Детальная информация о работе

Выдержка из работы

Kabachnik M. I., ed. 1988. Aleksandr Nikolaevich Nesmeianov. Moscow: Nauka.
Lubrano L. L. 1993. The Hidden Structure of Soviet Science. Science, Technology, and Human Values. 18 (2). Р 147−175.
Lubrano L. L. 2011. Governmentality through Science Communities // The International Journal of Science in Society. Vol. 2, № 4. Р. 33−44.
Lubrano L. L. and Solomon S. G., eds. 1980. The Social Context of Soviet Science. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Rose N. 1999. Powers of Freedom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Welsh W. A., ed. 1981. Survey Research and Public Attitudes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. N. Y.: Pergamon Press.
E vgenii Grigorievich Pivovarov
Doctor of Sciences (History), senior researcher at the St Petersburg Branch of the Institute for the History of Science and Technology, RAS, St Petersburg, Russia- e-mail: pivovaro@mail. ru
Historiography of the Russian Diaspora in the USA
The article is devoted to the historiography of four waves of Russian emigration to the USA. It describes perception of the migration processes in Soviet Russia/USSSR (V. Obolensky, L. Bagramov, E. Nitoburg), paying particular attention to the works published by the Academy of Sciences- emigrants' self-appraisal (M. Vilchur, V. Petrov, I. Okuntsov) — its interpretation by Western scholars (J. Davis, G. Govorchin, M. Raeff).
Keywords: migrations, Russian Diaspora, USA, historiography, Academy of Sciences, scientific communication.
The US «Russian» Diaspora consisting of four waves emigrants' descendants is the largest in the world. Each of migration waves had different social structure, home country escaping reasons, political views, religious beliefs and its own level of adaptation to American society. At the end of the XIXth century emigration from the Russian Empire began drawing attention of statisticians (Бородин [Borodin], 1915- Воблый [Vobluj], 1904) and diplomats (Щербатский [Ch'erbatskii], 1915- Курчевский [Kurchevsky], 1914) who put the bases for the further studies and created the migration processes evaluation methods. They tried to describe emigrants' ethno-religious and social structure and their reasons to resettle in the USA, emphasizing illegal nature of emigration. To give a brief description of the literature devoted to the topic is a complicated problem and leads to reduction of materials into three groups: 1) Perception of the migration processes in Soviet Russia/USSSR (V. Obolensky, L. Bagramov, E. Nitoburg) — 2) Emigre self-appraisal (M. Vilchur, V. Petrov, I. Okuntsov) — 3) Its interpretation by Western scholars (J. Davis, G. Govorchin, M. Raeff).
1) After 1917 the hegemony of ideology in the works made by Soviet scholars and its rejection by the majority of their emigre and Western colleagues caused difficulties in the mutual enrichment of the researches conducted within and outside Russia which was overcome only after censorship cancellation during «Perestroika» resulted in a boom of original Russian articles and monographs, documents publication, reissue of the emigre literature and works of the Western scholars.
Certain interest to the Russian emigrants in the USA appeared in the early 1920s, when Soviet Russia authorities discussed the emigrants' mass repatriation prospects. The research by the USSR Central Statistical Office head V. V. Obolensky (Osinsky) (Оболенский [Obolensky], 1928) was based on a great number of statistical records. He analyzed the demographic structure of Russian emigrants' main ethnic and religious groups from the end of the XIXth century to the beginning of the World War. The work by G. Smolyansky (Смолянский [Smolyansky], 1926) mostly reflecting the global migration at the turn of the XXth century partly described Russian Diaspora in the USA. Unlike the pre-revolutionary researchers both authors emphasized the causes of emigration, especially highlighting negative impact of the tsarist government. They draw attention to the difficult social and economic situation of immigrants in the US, trying to justify the necessity of their returning to Soviet Russia.
With the end of re-emigration from America in the late 1920s until the 1950s no significant studies concerning Russian emigration to the USA were made in the USSR. Communist propaganda painted «white» emigrants in one color — black. Since Stalin’s death several attempts were made to overcome the gap. L. A. Bagramov (Баграмов [Bagramov], 1957) in his monograph gave a detailed description of the major ethnic groups in the US having been formed by the middle of the XXth century. He also provided brief analysis of US immigration laws. Later E. Pletnev (Плетнев [Pletnev], 1962), A. N. Shlepakov (Шлепаков [Shlepakov], 1966) and C. B. Filippov (Филиппов [Filippov], 1973) studied immigration processes in the USA, ethnic and social structure of its population, the ratio of «new» and «old» immigration, the contribution of individual national immigrant groups to the evolution of the American nation. Using the Marxist-Leninist approach to the problems of emigration, they described the difficult economic and political situation of emigrants and their role in the development of the American working class and the socialist movement and their struggle for economic and political rights.
Sh.A. Bogina studied the immigration to the USA as an American nation ethnic formation process. She investigated large national groups of immigrants (Irish, Germans, English), examined the ethnic and social structure of the U SA population. In her book «Ethnic and cultural processes in the United States» she determined the basic types of immigrants' assimilation showing the influence of ethnic and cultural contacts between immigrants on the assimilation course and pace (Богина [Bogina], 1965, 1976, 1986). The issue of reemigration of Russian immigrants and their participation in the reconstruction of Soviet Russia was studied by G. Ya. Tarle who later published and edited a number of researchers devoted to the topic (Тарле [Tarle], 1968, 1993- 2006).
In the 1980s Russian emigration studies revived in the Soviet historiography. G. P. Ku-ropyatnik ([Kuropyatnik], 1981), A. Ya. Kiperman (Киперман [Kiperman], 1980), A. M. Chernenko (Черненко [Chernenko], 1989) wrote about political emigration from the Russian Empire, mostly about the Narodniks and the Social Democrats. Speaking about the pre-revolutionary emigration N. L. Tudoryanu characterized Russian immigrants as «labor» coming to the US to find a better-paid work, and highlighted the impact of Rus-
sian immigrants on the social, political and labor movement in the country (Тудоряну [Tu-doryanu], 1986). Despite the researchers made in the 1980s were obviously ideological, they were the first scientific studies in which the Soviet scholars summarized data collected by pre-revolutionary, Soviet and partially American researchers using a wide range of documents from the Soviet archives the same time.
Perestroika marked positive changes in the development of the migration processes studies in the USSR allowing scientists to expand the field of study, shifting its emphasis. A new stage in the study of Russian emigration abroad started, the trend became very popular, thousands of professional and not very scholarly books and articles have been devoted to the different issues of the Russian emigration to the USA, a large number of papers restored the biographies of the Russians emigrated to the USA during and after the Civil War in Russia. Such interest to the «white emigration» was a result of the unofficial ideological interdiction on its studies and the fact that unlike the pre-revolutionary emigrants the representatives of the next wave made a significant contribution to the cultural and social development of the recipient countries.
Since early 1990s many Russian libraries created specialized book collections devoted to Russia abroad, the largest are in the Russian State Library, State Public Historical Library and in the Institute of Scientific Information on Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1992 the Committee of the Archives of the Russian Government initiated the state program Foreign archival «Rossica» aimed at the identification and return of documents from the collections having belonged to the Russian emigrants. One the major reference books prepared by contemporary historians of Russian emigration: an encyclopedic biographical dictionary «Russia abroad. The Golden Book of emigration. The first third of the XX century» (Русское зарубежье. Золотая книга эмиграции [Russkoe zarubezh’e. Zolotaja kniga jemigracii], 1997). It contains biographies of 417 most prominent Russian emigrants mostly during the period of the 'white' emigration (История российского зарубежья: Проблемы историографии (конец ХГХ-ХХ вв.) [Istorija ros-sijskogo zarubezhja: Problemy istoriografii (konec ХГХ-ХХ vv.)], 2004).
Monographs and articles published in the 1990s by V. M. Kabuzan were devoted to migration processes in Russia in the XVIII-XX centuries. Using both local and foreign sources the author analyzed emigrants' ethnic structure. He tried to speak about emigration causes, extent and orientation. A large number of sources giving sometimes conflicting data did not allow creating a complete picture of ethnic structure of Russian emigrants in his works (Кабузан [Kabuzan], 1996, 1998). The Ural scientist A. A. Pronin tried to analyze historiography of the Russian emigration abroad mainly summarizing contemporary authors' efforts. He concluded that a great deal of emigre studies made by Russian researchers in the 1990s was descriptive, contained errors, unverified information- noted uncritical approach to the sources, in some cases the published books and articles were pure compilations (Пронин [Pronin], 2000, 2009).
The significant contribution to emigre studies in the last two decades has been made by E. L. Nitoburg (Нитобург [Nitoburg], 1996, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 a, b, c, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005). Using a wide range of Russian and Western published and unpublished documents he reconstructed different stages of migration from Russia to America in the late XK-XX*11 centuries. In his monograph «The Russians in USA history and destiny, 1870- 1970: an ethno-historical essay» he summarized previously analyzed data depicturing Russian Diaspora’s life and stressing the idea that the factors having influenced the level of Russian emigrants' adaptation to the American realities were different for different emigrants'
generations but not unique. Other ethnic groups having arrived to the country experienced similar difficulties in the course of their inclusion to the American economical, political and cultural life.
Observing recent publications devoted to the history of the Russian emigration to the USA one may have found an increasing flow of the books, articles and documentaries describing prominent Russian emigre scientists' legacy. Such publications expand the source base of the further research and specify the details of the Russian Diaspora history but do not give a broad picture of the Russian emigrants' influence on the development of American society. A great deal of them are just complications of borrowings from the works of the Russian emigre scholars. J. Brodsky’s biography written by L. Losev (Лосев [Losev], 2006) and the book «Russian scientific emigration: twenty portraits» edited by G. Bongard-Levin (Российская научная эмиграция: Двадцать портретов [Rossij skaja nauchnaja jemi-gracija: Dvadcat' portretov], 2001) are not the only but bright exceptions from this flow of often not original and not very well verified data.
2) First attempts to describe different groups of emigrants from Russia were made by the participants of Russian revolutionary movement who had to escape to America in the late XlX-early XXth centuries. Some of them left the country and did not make any significant contribution to its culture- others like Peter Demens or Isaac Hourwich were naturalized and stayed in the USA to the end of their lives. P. Demens was not only a successful businessmen and politician he frequently published articles in Russian periodicals, left two books of memoirs about his life in America helped the emigrants from the Molokan Church creating the bases for the researches devoted to the Russian religious minorities migration. I. Hourwich unlike many American authors studying migration to the USA that time noted that Eastern European immigrants could make a significant contribution to the development of the country showing the positive impact of the migration from Russia on the American economy and industry (Hourwich, 1912).
A book written by a former head of the New York Public Library Slavic Division A. Yar-molinsky described the early attempts of the Russian revolutionaries to organize agricultural communes in the USA. He sympathetically portrayed the failure of W. Frey’s social experiments based on the ideas of «positive religion» (Yarmolinsky, 1965). M.E. Vilchur may be regarded as the first emigre scholar writing in the US about Russian emigrants' resettlement and economic situation, level of their adaptation to consumer and cultural environment in America. He described Russian emigrants' social organizations, labor groups, their cultural achievements speaking primarily about the first and the second waves (Вильчур [Vilchur], 1914, 1918). A small ethno-sociological study «Molokans in Los Angeles» was published by L. Sokolova in 1919 in California (Socoloff, 1918). Several informative but not very academic books and articles by V. Petrov (Петров [Petrov], 1992) and I. Okuntsov (Окунцов [Okuntsov], 1967) gave an eye witnessed picture of the Russian Diaspora’s life. They were reissued several times and may be found in the Internet so they have been widely quoted in the contemporary studies.
Emigrants' periodicals and other publishing enterprises have always been a reach source of the information about the Russian Diaspora. Hundreds of newspapers, magazines and journals have been issued in America since the end of the XIXtb century. One of the fist attempts to give their bibliographic description and save to the future generations was made in 1928 by M. Vinokouroff and M. Karpovich. In the local emigre newspaper they published an article «This must be done» — an appeal to Russian writers and publishers interested in preserving Russian literature in the USA. They offered to make a bibliography containing
information about all Russian books, newspapers and magazines published in the country. Later the pamphlet was printed as a brochure sent out to all Russian emigre organizations. During the next decades a private imitative of Russian scholars was adopted by the major American institutions holding significant collections of Cyrillic Books. In 2003 the collaboration of Russian and American scholars B. Budnitsky, A. Tartakovsky and T. Emmons resulted in publishing four volumes of the Russian books, newspaper and magazine publications issued abroad annotated index (Россия и российская эмиграция в воспоминаниях и дневниках [Rossija i rossijskaja jemigracija v vospominanijah i dnevnikah], 2003−2006).
Several Russian — born American scholars chose migration processes as their major field of study. E. Kulischer, a sociologist working for the Library of Congress in the 1940s, coined the phrase «displaced persons» and was one of the first scholars who tried to document the number of people lost in the Holocaust and during relocation of millions of Europeans after WWII (Kulischer, 1948). One of the country’s leading scholars of Russian history Marc Raeff created the fundamental research concerning various aspects of Russian Diaspora’s life in Europe, Asia and America. He described Russian emigrants' political, cultural and social organizations- spoke about their religious associations and publishing activities (Raeff, 1990). He is also the author of the introductory chapter in the one of the best emigre books describing the past of the Russian Diaspora in the US — «The Russians in America. Waves of Russian emigration to the United States» (Русские в Америке. Волны русской эмиграции в США [Russkie v Amerike. Volny russkoj jemigracii v SShA], 2011).
3) I will only briefly mention several American scholars having written about the Russian Diaspora. The development of such studies was not as ideologically dangerous as it was in the USSR but political confrontation between two systems also restricted cooperation with Eastern European colleagues. In American historiography Russian emigration has been traditionally seen as a part of the US ethnic history. American scholars have studied Russian Diaspora’s social structure and ethno-religious characteristics, a lot of books are devoted to various minorities and local communities (Berokoff, 1969- Moore, 1973- Morris, 1991).
Books written in the 1920s by J. Davis put the bases for the Russian emigre studies in the USA. Using results of sociological researches the author examined emigrants' life and work conditions proving their socio-cultural adaptation possibility (Davis, 1922 a, b). Several scholars investigated the separate ethnic groups: Ch. Bernheimer analyzed Russian-Jewish Diaspora in America (Bernheimer, 1905), G. Blok and E. Essing wrote about Russian emigrants in San Francisco (Blok, Essig, 1933). Polish community was analyzed by P. Fox (Fox, 1922).
The 1920s stricter immigration laws significantly reduced the flow of newcomers from Eastern Europe. Russian emigre studies began declining. A new period began after the WWII. Usually the information about Russian emigrants may be found in the special chapters of the books analyzing the USA social structure. Only few scholars wrote solely about the Russian Diaspora: N. Eubank (Eubank, 1973) — E. Hassel (Hassel, 1991), G. Govorchin (Govorchin, 1993). N. Eubank researched the history of Russian emigration to the US from the colonization of Alaska to the middle of the XXth century. Despite the small amount of a book the author tried to show the emigrants' contribution to the development of national literature, music, theater, science, and American society. G. Govorchin using federal documents described size, age, gender and social structure of Russian Diaspora from the end of the XIXth century to the 1980s.
The US libraries and scientific institutions have been holding the biggest collections of the Russian emigre papers, manuscripts, books and periodicals allowing to trace all stages
of Russian Diaspora’s evolution. Only a quick search trough the Library of Congress Informational Bulletins revealed several dozens of Eastern European emigre scientists who were employed by the LC in the 1940−1960s. Except M. Vinokouroff, S. Yakobson and E. Kulischer having been already mentioned I may without looking into the notes recall poets and novelists Gizella Lakhman, Vladimir Ilyashenko, Tatiana Fessenko, Boris Nart-sisoff, lawyers Samuel Kucherov, Vladimir Gzovsky, Leo Okinshevich. Being bilingual they influenced both the advance of the Slavic studies in the USA and development of Russian literature and science in exile paving the way for the further collaborations between American and Russian scholars. Scientific exchanges between two countries during last two decades, new informational technologies, especially Internet databases broaden the academic dialogue, allow to observe large volumes of published and manuscript materials, draw verified conclusion about a long scale processes, clarify known data and avoid misinterpretations in the future.
Баграмов Л. А. Иммигранты в США. М., 1957. 157 c. [Bagramov L. A. Immigranty v SShA. M., 1957. 157 s. ]
Богина Ш. А. Иммиграция в США накануне и в период гражданской войны (1850−1865). М.: Наука, 1965. 250 с.- Иммигрантское население США, 1865−1900 гг. Л.: Наука, 1976. 273 с.- Этнокультурные процессы в США. М.: Наука, 1986. 111 с. [Bogina Sh. A. Immigracija v SShA nakanune i v period grazhdanskoj vojny (1850−1865). М.: Nauka, 1965. 250 s.- Immigrantskoe naselenie SShA, 1865−1900 gg. L.: Nauka, 1976. 273 s.- Jetnokul’turnye processy v SShA. M.: Nauka, 1986. 111 s. ]
Бородин H. A. Северо-Американские Соединенные Штаты и Россия. Пг., 1915. 319 с. [Borodin N. A. Severo-Amerikanskie Soedinennye Shtaty i Rossja. Pg., 1915. 319 s. ]
ВильчурМ. Е. В американском горниле. Из записок эмигранта. N. Y., 1914. 93 с.- Русские в Америке. N. Y., 1918. 157 с. [VilchurM. E. V amerikanskom gornile. Iz zapisok jemigranta. N. Y., 1914. 93 s.- Russkie v Amerike. N. Y., 1918. 157 s. ]
Воблый К. Г. Заатлантическая эмиграция, ее причины и следствия. Варшава, 1904. 195 с. [VoblujK. G. Zaatlanticheskaja jemigracja, ee prichiny i sledstvja. Varshava, 1904. 195 s. ]
История российского зарубежья: Проблемы историографии (конец XIX—XX вв.). Сборник статей / под ред. Ю. А. Полякова, Г. Я. Тарле. М.: Институт российской истории РАН, 2004. 253 с. [Istorij a rossijskogo zarubezh’ja: Problemy istoriografii (konec XIX-XX vv.). Sbornik statej / pod red. Ju. A. Poljakova, G. Ja. Tarle. M.: Institut rossjskoj istorii RAN, 2004. 253 s. ]
Кабузан В. М. Русские в мире: динамика численности и расселения (1719−1989). Формирование этнических и политических границ русского народа. СПб.: Русско-Балтийский информ. центр «БЛИЦ», 1996. 352 с.- Эмиграция и реэмиграция в России в XVIII — начале XX века. М.: Наука, 1998. 272 с. [Kabuzan V. M. Russkie v mire: dinamika chislennosti i rasselenja (1719−1989). Formirovanie jetnicheskih i politicheskih granic russkogo naroda. SPb.: Russko-Baltijskij inform. centr «BLIC», 1996. 352 s.- Jemigracja i rejemigracja v Rossii v XVIII — nachale XX veka. M.: Nauka, 1998. 272 s. ]
Киперман А. Я. Разночинская революционная эмиграция (1861−1895). Тамбов: Тамбов. гос. пед. ин-т, 1980. 156 c. [Kiperman A. Ia. Raznochinskaja revoljucionnaja jemigracja (1861- 1895). Tambov: Tambov. gos. ped. in-t, 1980. 156 s. ]
Куропятник Г. П. Россия и США — экономические, культурные и дипломатические связи (1867−1881). М.: Наука, 1981. 373 c. [Kuropyatnik G. P. Rossja i SShA — jekonomicheskie, kul’turnye i diplomaticheskie svjazi (1867−1881). M.: Nauka, 1981. 373 s. ]
Курчевский Б. О. О русской эмиграции в Америку. Либава (Libau): Либавский комитет кассы взаимопомощи эмигрантов, 1914. 47 c. [Kurchevsky B. O. O russkoj jemigracii v Ameriku. Libava: Libavskij komitet kassy vzaimopomoshhi jemigrantov, 1914. 47 s. ]
Лосев Л. Иосиф Бродский. М.: Молодая гвардия, 2006. 446 с. [Losev L. Iosif Brodskij. M.: Molodaja gvardija, 2006. 446 s. ]
Нитобург Э. Л. Русские в США: История и судьбы, 1870−1970: Этноисторический очерк. М.: Наука, 2005. 421 с.- Вклад русской иммиграции в науку, технику, культуру США // США. Канада. Экономика. Политика. Культура. 2002. № 10. С. 104−115- В поисках своей ниши в американском обществе // Отечественная история. 2004. № 1. С. 83−93- a) Как русские в США превращаются в американцев // США. Канада. Экономика. Политика. Культура. 2001. № 9. С. 79−97- Русская православная церковь в США // Там же. 2000. № 4. С. 34−54- b) Русские «перемещенные лица» в США: история и судьбы // Новая и новейшая история. 2001. № 4. С. 11−26- Русские религиозные сектанты и староверы в США // Там же. 1999. № 3. С. 34−55- с) Русскоязычная пресса в США // США. Канада. Экономика. Политика. Культура. 2001. № 1. С. 58−74- Судьбы русских иммигрантов второй волны в Америке // Отечественная история. 2003. № 2. С. 102−114- У истоков русской диаспоры в США: вторая волна // США. Канада. Экономика. Политика. Культура. 1998. № 8. С. 70−83- У истоков русской диаспоры в Америке // Там же. 1996. № 7. С. 84−95. [NitoburgE. L. Russkie v SShA: Istorja i sud’by, 1870−1970: Jetnoistoricheskij ocherk. М.: Nauka, 2005. 421 s.- Vklad russkoj immigracii v nauku, tehniku, kul’turu SShA // SShA. Kanada. Jekonomika. Politika. Kul’tura. 2002. № 10. S. 104−115- V poiskah svoej nishi v amerikanskom obshhestve // Otechestvennaja istorja. 2004. № 1. S. 83−93- a) Kak russkie v SShA prevrashhajutsja v amerikancev // SShA. Kanada. Jekonomika. Politika. Kul’tura. 2001. № 9. S. 79−97- Russkaja pravoslavnaja cerkov' v SShA // Tam zhe. 2000. № 4. S. 34−54- b) Russkie «peremeshhennye lica» v SShA: istorja i sud’by // Novaja i novejshaja istorja. 2001. № 4. S. 11−26- Russkie religioznye sektanty i starovery v SShA // Tam zhe. 1999. № 3. S. 34−55- c) Russkojazychnaja pressa v SShA // SShA. Kanada. Jekonomika. Politika. Kul’tura. 2001. № 1. S. 58−74- Sud’by russkih immigrantov vtoroj volny v Amerike // Otechestvennaja istorja. 2003. № 2. S. 102−114- U istokov russkoj diaspory v SShA: vtoraja volna // SShA. Kanada. Jekonomika. Politika. Kul’tura. 1998. № 8. S. 70−83- U istokov russkoj diaspory v Amerike // Tam zhe. 1996. № 7. S. 84−95. ]
Оболенский (Осинский) В. В. Международные и межконтинентальные миграции в дореволюционной России и СССР. М.: Изд-во ЦСУ СССР, 1928. 138 с. [Obolensky (Osinsky) V. V. Mezhdunarodnye i mezhkontinental’nye migracii v dorevoljucionnoj Rossii i SSSR. M.: Izd-vo CSU SSSR, 1928. 138 s. ]
Окунцов И. К Русская эмиграция в Северной и Южной Америке. Буэнос-Айрес, 1967. 423 с. [OkuntsovI. K. Russkaja jemigracja v Severnoj i Juzhnoj Amerike. Bujenos-Ajres, 1967. 423 s.] Петров В. П. Русские в Америке XX век. Вашингтон: Изд-во Русско-Американского ист. о-ва, 1992. 149 с. [Petrov V.P. Russkie v Amerike XX vek. Vashington: Izd-vo Russko-Amerikanskogo ist. o-va, 1992. 149 s. ]
Плетнев Э. Международная миграция рабочей силы. М., 1962. 375 с. [Pletnev E. Mezhdunarodnaja migracja rabochej sily. M., 1962. 375 s. ]
Пронин A. A. Историография российской эмиграции. Екатеринбург: Изд-во Урал. унта, 2000. 188 с.- Российская эмиграция и российское зарубежье в отечественных диссертационных исследованиях 1980−2005 годов (библиометрический анализ) // Библиотековедение. 2009. № 3. С. 72−80. [Pronin A. A. Istoriografija rossijskoj jemigracii. Ekaterinburg: Izd-vo Ural’skogo universiteta, 2000. 188 s.- Rossjskaja jemigracja i rossjskoe zarubezh’e v otechestvennyh dissertacionnyh issledovanijah 1980−2005 godov (bibliometricheskij analiz) // Bibliotekovedenie. 2009. № 3. S. 72−80. ]
Российская научная эмиграция: Двадцать портретов / под ред. Г. М. Бонгарда-Левина и В. Е. Захарова. М.: Эдиториал УРСС, 2001. 368 с. [Rossjskaja nauchnaja jemigracja: Dvadcat' portretov / pod red. G. M. Bongarda-Levina i V. E. Zaharova. M.: Jeditorial URSS, 2001. 368 s. ]
Россия и российская эмиграция в воспоминаниях и дневниках: аннотированный указатель книг, журн. и газетных публикаций, изданных за рубежом в 1917—1991 гг. М., 2003 / М.: Российская политическая энциклопедия (РОССПЭН), 2003−2006. 2003. Т. 1. 672 с.- 2004. Т. 2. 696 с.- Т. 3. 640 с.- 2005. Т. 4. Ч. 1. 462 с.- 2006. Т. 4. Ч. 2. 544 с. [Rossija i rossijskaja jemigracija v vospominanijah i dnevnikah: annotirovannyj ukazatel' knig, zhurn. i gazetnyh publikacij, izdannyh za rubezhom v 1917−1991 gg. M., 2003 / M.: Rossijskaja politicheskaja jenciklopedija (ROSSPJeN), 2003−2006. 2003. T. 1. 672 s.- 2004. T. 2. 696 s.- T. 3. 640 s.- 2005. T. 4. Ch. 1. 462 s.- 2006. T. 4. Ch. 2. 544 s. ]
Русские в Америке. Волны русской эмиграции в США / сост. М. Адамович. N. Y.: Adegi, 2011. 328 с. [Russkie v Amerike. Volny russkoj jemigracii v SShA / sost. M. Adamovich. N. Y.: Adegi, 2011. 328 s. ]
Русское зарубежье. Золотая книга эмиграции. Первая треть XX века. Энциклопедический биографический словарь / под общ. ред. В. В. Шелохаева. М.: РОССПЭН, 1997. 748 с. [Russkoe zarubezh’e. Zolotaja kniga jemigracii. Pervaja tret' XX veka. Jenciklopedicheskij biograficheskij slovar' / pod obshh. red. V. V. Shelohaeva. M.: ROSSPJeN, 1997. 748 s. ]
Смолянский Г. Мировая эмиграция и иммиграция. М.: Профинтерн, 1926. 44 с. [Smolyansky G. Mirovaja jemigracija i immigracija. M.: Profintern, 1926. 44 s. ]
Тарле Г. Я. Друзья страны Советов. Участие зарубежных трудящихся в восстановлении народного хозяйства СССР. 1920−1925 гг. М.: Наука, 1968. 369 с.- Зарубежье и родина. M.: ИНИОН, 1993. 98 с.- в соавт.: Адаптация российских эмигрантов (конец XIX—XX вв.). Исторические очерки. Historical Essays). М.: Институт российской истории РАН, 2006. 343 с. [ Tarle G. Ya. Druz’ja strany Sovetov. Uchastie zarubezhnyh trudjashhihsja v vosstanovlenii narodnogo hozjajstva SSSR. 1920−1925 gg. M.: Nauka, 1968. 369 s.- Zarubezh’e i rodina. M.: INION, 1993. 98 s.- co-auth.: Adaptacija rossijskih jemigrantov (konec XIX-XX vv.). Istoricheskie ocherki. M.: Institut rossijskoj istorii RAN, 2006. 343 s. ]
Тудоряну Н. Л. Очерки российской трудовой эмиграции периода империализма (в Германии, в Скандинавских странах и США). Кишинев: Штиинца, 1986. 309 с. [Tudoryanu N. L. Ocherki rossijskoj trudovoj jemigracii perioda imperializma (v Germanii, v Skandinavskih stranah i SShA). Kishinev: Shtiinca, 1986. 309 s. ]
Филиппов C. B. США: иммиграция и гражданство. Политика и законодательство (US Immigration and Citizenship. Policy and legislation). М.: Наука, 1973. 203 с. [Filippov C. V. SShA: immigracija i grazhdanstvo. Politika i zakonodatel’stvo. M.: Nauka, 1973. 203 s. ]
Черненко A. M. Российская революционная эмиграция в Америке (конец XIX в. — 1917 г.). Киев: Вища школа, 1989. 202 с. [Chernenko A. M. Rossijskaja revoljucionnaja jemigracija v Amerike (konec XIX v. — 1917 g.). Kiev: Vishha shkola, 1989. 202 s. ]
Шлепаков А. Н. Иммиграция и американский рабочий класс в эпоху империализма. M.: Мысль, 1966. 500 с. [ShlepakovA. N. Immigracija i amerikanskjj rabochij klass v jepohu imperializma. M.: Mysl', 1966. 500 s. ]
Щербатский А. И. Русская эмиграция в Соединенные Штаты. Пг.: Типография
B. Ф. Киршбаума, 1915. 32 с. [Ch'erbatskii A. I. Russkaja jemigracija v Soedinennye Shtaty. Pg.: Tipografija V. F. Kirshbauma, 1915. 32 s. ]
Bernheimer Ch. S. The Russian Jew in the United States. Studies of Social Conditions in New York, Philadelphia and Chicago, with a description of rural settlements. Philadelphia: The John
C. Winston Co, 1905. 426 p.
BerokoffJ. K. Molokans in America. Los Angeles, 1969. 208 p.
Blok G. K., Essig E. O. The Russians in California. San Francisco: California Historical Society, 1933. 88 p.
Davis J. a) The Russian Immigrant. N. Y.: The Macmillan company, 1922. 219 p.- The Russian and the Ruthenians in America- Bolsheviks or Brothers? N. Y.: George H. Doran Company [GDC], 1922. 155 p.
Eubank N. The Russians in America. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Co, 1973. 94 p.
Fox P. The Poles in America. N. Y.: GDC, 1922. 143 p.
Govorchin G.G. From Russia to America with Love: A study of the Russian Immigrants in the United States. Pittsburgh, 1993. 505 p.
Hassell J. E. Russians Refugees in France and the United States between the World Wars. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1991. 96 p.
Hourwich I. A. Immigration and Labor: The Economic Aspects of European Immigration to the United States. N. Y.- London: G. P. Putnam’s sons, 1912. 544 p.
Kulischer E. M. The Displacement of Population in Europe. Montreal, International labour office- London, P. S. King & amp- Staples, 1943. 171 p.- Europe on the Move: War and Population Changes, 1917−1947. N. Y.: Columbia University [U.] Press, 1948. 377 p.
Moore W. B. Molokan Oral Tradition: Legends and Memorates of an ethnic Sect. Berkeley: U. of California Press, 1973. 82 p.
Morris R. A. Old Russian ways: cultural variations among three Russian groups in Oregon. N. Y.: AMS Press, 1991. 398 p.
Raeff M. Russia Abroad: A Cultural History of the Russian Emigration, 1919−1939. N. Y.: Oxford U. Press, 1990. 239 p.
Socoloff L. The Russians in Los Angeles. Los Angeles: The Southern California sociological society, U. of Southern California, 1918. 16 p.
YarmolinskyA. A Russian’s American dream- a memoir on William Frey. Lawrence: U. of Kansas Press, 1965. 147 p.
Историография русской диаспоры в США
Пивоваров Евгений Григорьевич,
доктор исторических наук,
старший научный сотрудник Санкт-Петербургского филиала Института истории естествознания и техники им. С. И. Вавилова РАН, Санкт-Петербург, Россия- e-mail: pivovaro@mail. ru
Статья посвящена осмыслению истории четырех волн эмиграции из России в США. В ней рассматриваются труды отечественных ученых (В. Оболенского, Л. Баграмова, Е. Нито-бурга), в том числе выпущенные Академией наук- работы русских эмигрантов (М. Вильчу-ра, В. Петрова, И. Окунцова) — отдельные исследования западных специалистов (Д. Дэвиса, Д. Говорчина, М. Раева).
Ключевые слова: миграции, русская диаспора, США, Академия наук, научная коммуникация.

Показать Свернуть
Заполнить форму текущей работой