Handwriting of the person and «Graphology»
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Section 12. Criminal law and criminology
Satybaldynov Dzhambul Duysebaevich, Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi, senior lecturer, the Faculty of Law
Meyramgaly Nuraly Sungatovich, Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi, undergraduate, the Faculty of Law
Begazova Gulnapisa Zhandarovna, Humanities University of transport and law named after D. A. Kunaev, senior lecturer, the Faculty of Law
E-mail: B_ali_77@mail. ru
Handwriting of the person and «graphology»
Abstract: This article discusses the issues of graphology.
Keywords: the criminalistics, graphology, tests, graphic, documents.
In one of sections of the criminalistics which is engaged in technical and criminalistic research of documents, handwriting of the performer of the letter is considered as the component which is subject to research of the contents of the hand-written document. Studying of a structure of handwriting, its general and private signs is carried out by handwriting examination, generally for the purpose of its identification. From the criminalistic point of view, handwriting is habitual and steady system of movements, peculiar for each person, at written fixing of the speech.
The letter is the thought of the person recorded by means of graphic signs and rules of their combination. The semantic and graphic parties differ in it. The concept of a semantic aspect covers the contents, style and a manner of a statement, lexicon and other features. Handwriting — the system of the developed movements serving for the image of letters, words, figures, signs belongs to the graphic party. At research of the letter both of its parties — semantic and graphic — are considered in their unity and interrelation.
Here is how it is told in the textbook ofcriminalistics: «handwriting in criminalistics is understood as individual and dynamically steady program of graphic equipment of the letter which is based on the visual and motive image of implementation of the manuscript, realized by means of system ofmovements. It should be noted that such essential properties of handwriting as identity and stability, are a studying subject only of criminalistics& quot-
Except the criminalistics such science as a graphology is engaged in studying of handwriting.
Graphology — the doctrine about handwriting as reflection of properties of character and mental conditions of the person, is told in the explanatory dictionary of Russian language of Ojegov S. I. and Shvedova N. Yu.
Studying an origin and development of the analysis of handwriting, the history testifies that the graphology in that look in what we know it now, arose no more than three centuries ago. At the same time there are many mentions of this subject in many ancient documents. So, in the letter of the emperor Neron it is told: «I am afraid of this person because
his handwriting shows that he has a treacherous nature». In Confucius’s works it is told: «Be afraid of the person which handwriting reminds the movement of a reed, waved by a wind». The first book which is specially devoted to a graphology was published in 1630 and was written by the Italian professor Camillo Baldo. Its long name said «Tratto come una le-tra si cognoscano la natura e qualita del scrittore», that is «How to learn the nature and qualities of the person, having looked at a letter which he wrote» That book made a certain impression on the reading public, but no more because at that times people considered that it is necessary to have the gift of clairvoyance or intuition to understand character of the person on his handwriting.
Approximately in two hundred years, people in France returned to a subj ect of handwriting when the scientific churchman abbey Flandrin became interested in Baldo’s book. The abbey decided that it deserves serious discussion and the analysis. He created a group which participants dealt with an issue and subjected classifications handwritings of the people differing from each other on interests and by the nature of occupations. Participants of research developed rules which formed the basis of the modern analysis of handwritings.
Two Greek words — «grapho» (to write) and «Lagos» (science), designated this new branch — a graphology.
Flandrin’s pupil abbey Mishon developed graphological researches more intensively and surpassed the teacher. In 1872 he wrote the book «The system of a Graphology». So the word «graphology» was used for the first time. Approximately in 1880 Mishon’s work gained further development in Krepye-Zhamen's researches in which more accurate methods of classification ofvarious traits of character which were revealed by the analysis of handwriting were applied. People became interested in a graphology at first in Germany, then in England where many intellectuals devoted a lot of time to improvement of the analysis of handwriting. Amateur handwriting experts were the prime minister — the minister of England Disraeli and the American writer Edgar Allan Poe.
Handwriting of the person and «graphology:
At the beginning of the XX century the doctor Ludwig Klages (Germany) created a large scientific work on definition and justification of the principles of a graphology, methods of its application and interpretation. Modern researchers of handwriting consider doctor Klages as the father of a modern graphology. Since the XIX century there were graphological societies in various countries. In Europe the graphology is considered with due consideration and takes a worthy place in work of the psychologist and psychiatrist.
The graphology is the interesting and valuable way allowing to understand and learn the nature of other people. In the countries of Europe the graphology is applied in testing of the specific person directed on knowledge of lines of his character agrees the source given the Internet long ago, since recent time it gained official recognition in the USA.
Use of the samples of the letter of the patient received under hypnosis became one of the new and most important directions in research of handwriting. At suggestion to adults of that they — at children’s age, their handwriting changed that gave the chance to analyze change of handwriting during all life, and, as a result, to track development of the person from children’s to an adult state. Other interesting experiments are connected with detection of specific diseases which are shown in nature of handwriting.
These tests are carried out by professional handwriting experts in cooperation with hospitals. Though so far these researches are at an experiment stage, insurance companies treated them rather seriously and give to handwriting experts essential financial support. However a graphology-is not panacea from all troubles and not a miracle. The handwriting expert isn’t able to change characters of people, his task is reduced only analyzing handwriting signs. On the basis of this analysis of people I understood the abilities and I managed to use them in the best way, I tried to adapt the personality for persons of other people to derive the greatest benefit in any of spheres of the human relations: personal relations, social, study, business life.
Ability to analyze handwriting is also not gift with which the person is born. The graphology is based on certain rules which have to be observed accurately to come to reasonable conclusions.
If to speak in brief, the analysis of handwriting opens internal traits of character of the person which are expressed in writing of letters. Handwritings of people are so various, as well as their individual qualities as their fingerprints. The analysis of handwriting has certain limits of opportunities. First, it is impossible to tell, whether handwriting belongs to the man or the woman if the text isn’t signed. The dear granny possessing strong and aggressive nature can appear the author of the large, wide letter which was written at first sight by the man. Often small letters with easy pressing which were written to all appearances by the woman, actually were traced by the timid man with tendency to sentimentality. The handwriting expert can’t define a sex of the writing person.
Secondly, handwriting doesn’t show also age of the author of the letter. Can seem that handwriting of the teenager
belongs to the senior citizen because mind of the teenager ripened not on age, and the letter of the old person can look childish because it kept youthful enthusiasm. Therefore the letter opens intellectual, but not chronological age. Certainly also, whether that the handwriting expert won’t be able to give the answer to a question the person is married or is single as marriage doesn’t change the main traits of character. Therefore, it is impossible to determine by handwriting, whether there are at the author of the letter children or not. It is impossible to learn a work sort, nature of occupation or hobby of this or that person as many people are engaged in affairs for which they initially aren’t suitable on handwriting, but successfully cope with them thanks to the mind or ability to adapt to various circumstances or owing to need. At the same time handwriting can open existence of competitive spirit, ability to think clearly, to work accurately, show persistence on achievement of the purpose, presence of a financial thrift, and also other qualities which help the person to succeed. It is impossible to guess on handwriting, whether people belong to the same family because handwritings don’t possess family similarity. Even in case people are similar to such an extent that their own parents hardly can distinguish them from each other, their handwritings can show existence of absolutely different lines.
So, as it was already told, it is important to mean that the analysis of handwriting doesn’t allow to guess or tell the fortunes of the person. The handwriting expert can tell the person about his character, his tendencies and temperament that will allow it to direct the actions. How it uses knowledge of lines of the personality to define the life in the future, doesn’t enter competence of the handwriting expert. All that the handwriting expert can make is to point to existence strong and weaknesses of the examinee, and the last can use information in every possible way to strengthen the advantages and to minimize the shortcomings.
Stopping on possibility ofcarrying out the analysis of handwriting, it is possible to tell that the ideal example of handwriting has to be on the big sheet of the usual white paper which isn’t ruled and without fields. For the text it is better not to copy something from the book or the newspaper, but to suggest the person to write that comes to his mind. In this case handwriting will be more natural. It is desirable to receive also the signature of the person because the signature differs from other text. Besides an example of the handwriting received directly for the analysis, existence of a sample of the letter prepared earlier, when the examinee didn’t know about the analysis of his handwriting, is desirable. If for a sample the letter consisting of several pages is chosen, pay attention to the last page as the author doesn’t make conscious efforts for the end of the letter any more in order to write more beautiful letters. On the last page handwriting is most natural. The analysis of handwriting is carried out equally regardless of the floor writing.
In order to consider hyphens and hooks which often appear before a letter or in its end with the maximum care, it is recommended to use a magnifying glass.
Section 12. Criminal law and criminology
It is necessary to emphasize that any line has no absolute value on the basis of which it is necessary to investigate each handwriting. Various traits of character shown in handwriting have to be considered individually before the adjusted total is summed up. Let’s say that writing of one letter can testify to tendency of the person to slowness, but, considering an example of handwriting in general, we can see that the person wrote the same letter in a different way or in his letter there are other signs which don’t allow to claim about sluggishness. In this case a single indicator which isn’t confirmed with other data, it is possible not to consider.
The skilled professional handwriting expert quickly catches various variations and compares various signs, reaching the correct decision. Often opponents of a graphology give as argument about insolvency of this science that all children at school are trained to write equally. However we should notice that people don’t keep further this uniformity. Subsequently, through a certain period of time, most of pupils start writing variously and thus show individual traits of character and mind. Development of mind and change in character inevitably causes corresponding changes in writing of letters. It’s also remarked that people of one profession don’t write equally. The answer here follows: «Work doesn’t build up character. The teacher can be generous and avaricious, modest and aggressive, but it doesn’t mean at all that he isn’t suitable for teaching work. The doctor can have a sense of humor or he can be serious, he can be the romantic or the rationalist, but from this doesn’t follow that he can’t be the good doctor& quot-
It is possible to hear also statements that the letter is simple a muscle work. But it is not so. Handwriting is an external manifestation of mind and other parties of the personality. If handwriting was only result of a muscle work, it wouldn’t open human emotions. There were cases when the person injured the right hand, and he had to be trained to write with the left hand. Though at first sight the words written by the left hand differ that are written right, the same main lines which are obvious in writing of words this hand open. People who lost both hands, are trained in use of feet for the writing and even in these cases the same regularities of character are shown.
It is necessary to notice that it is impossible to give a certain answer to a question: «Is handwriting good or bad?& quot- The handwriting expert analyzes character, but doesn’t take out judgments concerning it. Each handwriting is individual for the expert and he has to specify the main lines of the
personality which are shown in handwriting, but not to take out judgment. It is possible to tell that there is the share of bad and good lines in each handwriting, but for one can be advantage, for another can be a shortcoming or weakness.
As a matter of fact there is no party of human life where the graphology couldn’t find fruitful application. It is extremely useful in the relations between the chief and the subordinate, between the teacher and the pupil, between the husband and the wife, between the parent and the child.
Not all professional handwriting experts use the same receptions in the analysis of handwriting. Some of them begin with analysis of separate letters and fine details. Others prefer to begin with a general view of the page, and then pass to analysis of various factors and eventually all of them come to identical results. All of this only proves a graphology solvency as separate science which opportunities are extremely wide. The graphology — is objective, its rules work irrespective of desire of the person, therefore graphological testing is one of the most well-tried remedies on the way of knowledge of the personality.
That the experience developed by handwriting experts for many years of persistent work is more valuable. Presently, when old methods give way to new, more modern theories, the graphology has excellent chances of becoming one of the most important methods of personal testing.
Apparently from the aforesaid, results of the analysis of handwriting, are output by handwriting experts on the basis of the general and private signs of handwriting. So, such private signs of writing of separate elements of letters and signs, an inclination of strokes, dispersal, features of performance of separate elements of letters and signs are used in criminalistics in investigation of hand-written documents. Thus carrying out the analysis of handwriting, its assessment, as it was already noted above, is possible to be, owing to such concepts as identity and stability of handwriting of each person and no more than that. Of course, studying of handwriting from the criminalistic point of view doesn’t give the grounds to do any conclusions concerning character and other personal properties of the performer of this manuscript. Such task was assumed by the branch discussed in article under the name «graphology& quot- but as the data used in a graphology, scientifically aren’t proved and aren’t confirmed with practice, therefore perhaps they can have advisory nature, subjective value.
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