Innovations in translation technologies

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INNOVATIONS IN TRANSLATION TECHNOLOGIES
© Шевченко O.H. *
Национальный технический университет Украины
«Киевский политехнический институт», Украина, г. Киев
В этой статье предлагается краткий обзор современных инструментов автоматизированного перевода (CAT), которые позволяют переводчикам обеспечивать наилучшее качество перевода, увеличивать объемы переводов, ускорять процесс перевода, управлять терминологией, работать со сложными форматами файлов и многое другое. Память перевода создается в процессе перевода текста. Она хранит и автоматически использует соответствующие по смыслу сегменты языковых пар для ускорения процесса перевода. Основные принципы и функции наиболее популярных САТ не имеют больших различий. Однако некоторые из них имеют отличительные особенности.
Ключевые слова инструменты автоматизированного перевода (САТ-tools), память перевода (ТМ), терминологическая база данных (ТВ), точные соответствия, неточные соответствия, язык-источник и целевой язык.
This paper gives a brief overview of modem computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools which allow translators to provide best quality translation, increase the translation volumes, accelerate the process of translation, manage terminology, work with complex file formats and much more. A translation memory™ is created in the process of text translation. It stores and uses matching segments from different language pairs to accelerate the translation process. The basic principles and functions of major CAT-tools are not very much different. However, some of them have distinctive features.
Key words: computer-assisted translation tools (CAT-tools), translation memory™, terminology database (TB), exact matches, fuzzy matches, source and target language.
One of the most significant achievements over the recent years is the development and introduction of different types of translation software which is now widely used as an important instrument to enhance the quality of translation. Among such instruments we can mention CAT-tools (Computer-assisted translation) tools which can be described as a 'blend' product of cybernetics and linguistics. It is most useful in the field of specialized translation involving the translation of scientific, technical, and other such texts and documents.
CAT-tools is basically a specialized software created to help translators to work faster and more efficiently. It should be borne in mind that CAT tools mean a kind of translation in which a human translator uses computer software which
* Старший преподаватель кафедры Английского языка гуманитарного направления № 3 факультета лингвистики, МВА.
Филология и лингвистика
63
provides and supports the translation process. These tools are not expected to completely substitute a human translator.
Anyone who deals with the translation of non-literary texts, like scientific, technical, legal texts, etc. has noted that quite often certain parts of the text are repeated — sometimes they are whole sentences, sometimes certain phrases. A Cat-tool performs the translation by using several main subsystems. First, the sentence is divided into the so-called segments which upon the translation are stored in a database and can be employed in subsequent translations. This collection of segments in the source and the target languages is called a translation memory™. The terminology database enables the translator to store terms and segments of a text which can be retrieved for further reuse when a new translation is being made.
In the process of translation the CAT tools continue to form the translation memory by extending the existing database. As a result the translation process is getting faster. With each new translation and revision the translator creates and builds up the dictionary. The advantage of a TM is that the translator can use it not only for the current translation but also in future when translating other texts. Another important feature of CAT tools is that by using the TM they can find matching translations for segments and insert them into the translated text while the job of the translator is only to check and to determine the accuracy of the translation. In some cases the Cat tools in the process of search provide partially matching segments, known as fuzzy matches. The TM or translation database contains previously translated pairs of segments. They are approximate matches rather than equivalent terms in the other language and the translator decides himself whether to accept or to reject them. The CAT tools have proved their usability and are ideal for document translation, for translation of technical texts which are highly repetitive or for translations devoted to one subject.
Nowadays CAT-tools continue to gain popularity among professional translators for certain objective reasons. The amount of translation work continues to grow and more and more professional translators resort to auxiliary translation tools to increase their productivity and to cope with other challenges they are facing during the translation process. Today among the most popular CAT-tools we can find SDL Trados, WordFast Classic, memoQ and some others.
SDL Trados, especialy its latest versions seem to be the most advanced of all CAT-tools available on the translation tools market. When working with these tools the translator creates and improves the database known as the translation memory™ and terminology database (TB). The database can offer both fully identical translation of previously translated text fragments (exact matches), and only partially identical text fragments (fuzzy matches) to. Besides keeping the language matching segments the TM also keeps information about the text structure and its content. Due to this feature the program can choose the most suitable translation when the translator works on a similar type of text. Another advantage
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НАУЧНЫЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ И РАЗРАБОТКИ МОЛОДЫХ УЧЕНЫХ
of SDL Trados is the ability to use existing dictionaries made available for SDL Trados users and the exchange of translation memories between multiple server users. In addition, SDL Trados Studio allows the translation and revision of texts regardless of file format, including the translation of graphics via the clipboard. The latest versions of the program support a great number of different file formats, such as SGML, XML, HTML, TXT, Java, Microsoft Office files, etc. The latest versions of SDL Trados provide some improved features which facilitate the work of a translator. The time for importing, opening and saving documents has been considerably cut. The translator can also work simultaneously on several files opened as a single document. The data loss has become practically impossible due to the availability of the autosave option.
WordFast Classic is another CAT-tool which supports the work of a translator by means of a set of tools that computerize various elements of the translation process and eliminate certain types of errors. WordFast Classic does not require any additional installation and works inside Microsoft Word. It allows to translate documents in. doc,. docx and. xls. Before the translation the text is automatically divided into segments (headlines, phrases, sentences, etc.). After the first segment is translated the program moves to the next segment and so on. In the process of translation the translator can see both fragments — the original sentence and its translated version which facilitates the correction work. The TM captures the translation as the translator works and, as a result, the more the translator builds up the TM, the faster he can make the subsequent translations. The TM can be viewed, edited and managed by the user. It also provides the possibility to avoid repetitive translations of certain fragments of a sentence or even sentences. In order to maintain accuracy and consistency of terminology, WordFast Classic provides such translation tools as: glossaries, quick access to external dictionaries, contextual search inside the TM.
In addition to features common to most CAT-tool, memoQ has some unique features. For example, it can open files created in other CAT programs (e.g. Tag-Editor TTX, Star Transit). It also enables the translator to create online projects on the memoQ server and share his work with other translators working on the same project.
References:
1. Kleist S. Quality Assurance in Computer-Assisted Technical Translations/ Warszawa: Komunikacja Specjalistyczna. — 2013. — 29−31 c.
2. Mrochen I. CAT Programs and Trainee Translators: Implementation of Hybrid Systems at University Level. /Teaching Translation and Interpreting: Advances and Perspectives. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012. — 149 c.
3. Utiyama Masao, Graham Neubig et al. Searching Machine Memories for Paraphrases / Machine Translation Summit XIII. — 2011. — 325−331 c.

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