System of exercises in formation of foreign students’ cross-cultural competency

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Народное образование. Педагогика


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System of exercises in formation of foreign students' cross-cultural competency
Задача 5. Через центр правильного треугольника ABC со стороной, а проведена параллельная KP к стороне AC, так, что K е AB, P е BC. M — внутренняя точка KP. Доказать, что расстояние от точки M до сторон треугольника об-
разует арифметическую прогрессию (рис. 5).
Решение. От точки M проведем перпендикуляры ME = h2, MF = h, MN = h3 соответственно сторонам
AB, AC, BC и соеденим M к вершинам треугольника.
Тогда SABC — SAMB + SBMC + SAMC ИЛи:
1 aH = 1 ah2 +1 ah3 +1 ah, (Q = H) или h. ,+ h 2+ h 3- H.
Поскольку h -= - H, то получаем 2h ,= h2 + h3, которая означает, что hp h2 и h 3 образуют арифметическую прогрессию.
Список литературы:
1. Антонов Н. П., Выгодский М. Я., Никитин В. В., Санкин А. И. Сборник задач по элементарной математике. Гос. Изд-во физико-математической литературы, — Москва, 1962.
2. Атанасян Л. С., Бутузов В. Ф., Кадомцеви С. Б. Геометрия 7−9 класс, 19-е изд. — М.: Просвещение, 2009.
3. Лидский В. Б., Овсянников Л. В., Тулайков А. Н., Шабунин М. И. Задачи по элементарной математике. — М.: Изд-во «Наука», 1969.
4. Никольский С. М. и др. Алгебра: учебник 9-го класса. Издание: 3-е изд. — М.: Просвещение, 2006.
Palchickova Alexandra Alexandrovna, Kryvyi Rih National University, postgraduate student, the Faculty of Ukrainian Philology
E-mail: jenny. bond@mail. ru
System of exercises in formation of foreign students' cross-cultural competency
Abstract: System of exercises in formation of foreign students' cross-cultural competency is examined in the article. Types of exercises presented in the article are selected according to developed criteria.
Keywords: system of exercises, criteria, cross-cultural competency.
Today the organization of teacher-student or student-student activity can be implemented by means of exercise. One of its functions resides in forming of readiness of a practical use of acquired knowledge, abilities and skills. In accordance with this the determination of classification of exercises is an important task for modern linguodidactics and a condition of cross-cultural competency forming in the process of foreign students' learning.
Nowadays the role of exercises and choice of their optimized system for acquisition of material is the point at issue. The importance of selection of exercises was pointed out in the works of E. Azimov, Y. Vereshchagin, I. Zimnya, V. Kostomarov, O. Mitrofanova, Y. Passov and others.
Y. Azimov and A. Shchukin mark that exercises is a basis of any activity. In a «Dictionary of methodical terms» scientists consider exercise as a basic unit of methodical material organization, which acts in the process of learning, provides subject actions with this material and mental activity forming. Thuswise we support the position of the researchers, according to which exercises are considered as purposeful interrelated actions, which are carried out in the sequence of increase of language and operating difficulties, depending on the order of language abilities and skills formation [1].
Accordingly we’ll establish the criteria of exercise selection and give their classification in the process of foreign students' cross-cultural competency forming.
In compliance with A. Leontyev’s activity theory, psycholinguistic researches of T. Ryabov-Akhutin there was developed a scheme of the stepwise formation of mental actions, speaking abilities and skills, according to which one distinguishes different classifications of exercises, within which there is a division into two groups: 1) pre-speech, training, preparatory- 2) speech, creative, communicative.
The main purpose of the first group is the organization of a speech unit or a single language operation learning (formation of grammatical forms, division ofutterances into semantic segments and other). The second group includes the exercises focused on mastering one offour types of activities, developing of the ability to participate in communication in the language studied.
From viewpoint of Y. Passov exercise arrangement should consider the following points: 1) automation of the material (structure, vocabulary) — 2) assimilation of grammatical, lexical or pronunciation side of speech activity- 3) total language learning [6]. Consequently, taking the criterion of communicativeness as a basis, the linguist distinguishes the following types of exercises: conditional and speech — which form speech skills and speech ones — fo-
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Section 5. Pedagogy
cused on practical application of abilities and skills in the process of communication [5].
To S. Shatilov’s mind one of the main criteria of exercise selection is the formation of language and speech skills. The researcher defines the first ones as «the skills of operating language material outside the terms of communication& quot-, whereas under the second he understands «automated components of speech skills (complex speech activity)» [8].
The scientist proposes three types of exercises: 1) communicative — implement the act of speech activity in a foreign language- 2) conditional and communicative — imitate and model communication in definite situations- 3) non-communicative — used for comprehension and conscious learning of phonetic, lexical and grammatical language material in various kinds of speech activity outside the speech situation [8].
According to G. Pifo’s criterion of communicativeness, there has been developed a classification of exercises based on the ideas of gradual organization of speech communication in the educational process. The researcher allocates exercises in the preparation of communication (receptive) — in communication structuring (reproductive and reproductive-productive level) — in communication (productive level) and in the control of the level of formation of skills to communicate in the language studied [7].
Among modern Ukrainian linguodidacts, who developed the exercises in the context of sociocultural training line, special attention should be paid to the classifications of V. Doroz and V. Zahorodnova.
In the process of working at language material, in the formation of lexical and grammatical skills, in V. Doroz’s opinion, it is advisable to use analytical and analytical-constructive exercises. The first ones involve the following tasks: finding and writing out ethnocultural words from the text.
In the framework of analytical and constructive exercises one does extracting with insertion, substitution or addition of ethnolexemes- building of phrases and sentences with ethnocultural lexemes etc.
In her classification the linguodidact finds place for communicative exercises, the essence of which is to implement a basic motive — a desire to express an opinion for reporting, asking questions, persuasion, inducement to action etc. [2].
To V. Zahorodnova’s mind, exercise selection should be done according to the criterion of operations' performing, focused on building skills that form the basis of Russian students' cross-cultural communicative competence. Accordingly, the researcher selects information-receptive exercises aimed at awareness, understanding and systematization of knowledge of the theoretical material- reproductive and analytical exercises, where the main goal is to reproduce verbal, non-verbal and extralinguistic information about discursive phenomena, reconstructive — focused on language mastering by means of different types of discourses and their differentiation in non-similar extralinguistic application spheres- constructive-creative — in which the main objective is the development of skills of cohesive texts
construction in the process of communication in spontaneous situations [3].
Elaborating the classification of exercises in the framework of the research suggested, we appeal to S. Shatilov’s viewpoint, according to which language fluency should be achieved by means of simultaneous work on both language and language propedeutic exercises.
Thereunder, we differentiate speech and language skills and refer to the first ones language operating outside communication terms, whereas under the second we understand automated components of speech abilities [8]. Therefore, one of the criteria underlying the selection of the classification of exercises proposed is the correspondence to language and speech skills. Therewith, in keeping with the distribution of exercises on communicative, conditional and communicative, non-communicative, given by the above-mentioned methodist, we distinguish the criterion «communicativeness» as a leading one. The important criteria of exercise selection is their focus on information acquisition or transmitting. Due to the defined criterion it is worthwhile to refer to the typology proposed by G. Pifo, which comprises receptive, reproductive, productive exercises.
The first type of exercises is characterized by the perception of the information through ear or optic canal, which makes it obvious how an individual identifies, differentiates sounds, grammatical structures, i. e. understands the essence of the statements. Reproductive exercises are aimed at full or partial reproduction of the information, perceived by the individual. Productive exercises encourage a student to speech self-generation from the level of a sentence to a text one [7]. Within the abovementioned types of exercises O. Bihych, N. Brazhnick, S. Haponova, G. Hryn’uck, S. Nickolayeva, T. Olyinick distinguish types of exercises according to the criterion «operation, action, or activity that must be performed by the subject of education» [4]. Hence, referring to the classification, proposed by the abovementioned scientists, in the context of receptive communicative exercises we distinguish the following subtypes: reading of dialogues/texts for sociocultural information obtaining- defining of equivalent/non-equivalent lexical units of the Ukrainian and native language- reproductive communicative exercises are introduced by text retelling- productive communicative exercises include a description of the sequence of actions shown in the pictures, reproduction of a dialogue, plan outlining, preparation of a story based on comparative learning of the peculiarities of national character/standards of conduct/everyday life/tradi-tions/customs/holidays/national cuisine of Ukrainians and representatives of foreign cultures.
Within the bounds of receptive conditional and communicative types ofexercises we distinguish the following ones: reading of a message, sentence or group of sentences, contained in the phrase- reproductive conditional and communicative exercises comprise such types: imitation of speech patterns, insertion, transformation, expansion, completion of a statement- building of set expressions/phraseologisms/dialogues/texts based on visual or word support, text retelling- productive
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Stronins pedagogical views on Education of the Person in the collective
conditional and communicative exercises include generation of utterances at the sentence (students put questions to the text) or text level (reporting about facts- description of appearance, place of residence, climate, customs, traditions, etc).
Receptive non-communicative exercises include: perception, identification of lexical units/grammatical structures- reproductive non-communicative exercises comprise such types as: naming of the subject, depicted in the photos, search of equivalents of linguocultural units in the native and Ukrainian language- revealing of the level of similar-ity/dissimilarity in the meaning of concepts in the native
and Ukrainian language- substitution/insertion of lexical units, change of grammatical form, building of speech patterns following the example, transformation of a sample, expansion/restriction of a sentence, combining of simple sentences into complex ones.
To sum up, learning of the Ukrainian language at the preparatory department should be based on such criteria of exercise selection as: compliance with language and speech skills, communicativeness, orientation on information acquisition or transmission, which creates conditions for successful mastering of verbal, non-verbal and socio-cultural material.
References:
1. Azimov E. G. Slovar metodicheskych terminov (teoriya i praktika prepodavaniya yazykov)/E. G. Azimov, A. N. Shchukin. -Spb.: Zlatoust, 1999. — 472 s.
2. Doroz V F. Linhvokulturolohichnyi pidhid do vyvchennya ukrayinskoyi leksyky u 5−6 klasah shkil z rosiiskoyu movoyu navchannya: dys… kand. ped. nauk: 13. 00. 02/Doroz Viktoriya Fedorivna. — Berdyans'k, 2005. — 270 s.
3. Zahorodnova V F. Kros-kulturne navchannya ukrayinskoyi movy rosiiskomovnyh ychniv v umovah mizhetnichnoyi ko-munikatsii: dys. kand. ped. nauk: 13. 00. 02/Zahorodnova Viktoriya Fedorivna. — K., 2012. — 498 s. — S. 127.
4. Metodyka vykladannya inozemnyh mov u serednih navchalnyh zakladah: [pidruchnyk dlya vyshiv]/[Bigych O. B., Brazh-nick N. O., Haponova S. V ta in. ]- za red. S. Y. Nickolayevoyi. — [2-he vyd., dop. i pererob.]. — K.: Lenvit, 2002. — 328 s.
5. Passov E. I. Ponyatiinaya systema osnovnyh metodicheskih kategoriy/E. I. Passov//Russkiy yazyk v natsionalnoy shkole. -1981. — № 2. — S. 38−45.
6. Passov E. I. Systemnost' uprazhnenyi dlya obucheniya govoreniyu/E. I. Passov//Inostrannyi yazyk v shkole. — 1977. -№ 6. — S. 12−15.
7. Piepho H. E. Kommunikative Didaktik des Englisch-unter-richts. Frankonius Verlag GmbH, Limburg, 1979. — 253 s.
8. Shatilov S. F. Metodika obucheniya nemetskomu yazyku v sredney shkole: [uchebnoye posobiye dlya studentov peda-gogicheskih institutov]/Sergey Fedorovich Shatilov. — L.: Prosveshcheniye, 1977. — 295 s. — S. 30−31.
Pylypenko Vadym Valerievich, the Poltava National Pedagogical University named after V. G. Korolenko, postgraduate student, department of social and correctional pedagogy
E-mail: mzktm@mail. ru
Stronins pedagogical views on Education of the Person in the collective
Abstract: In the article the views of A. Stronin on the problem Education of the Person in the collective. The main directions of collective organization, mutual relations of teacher and pupils. The analysis of the basic notions of the investigation is presented and the corresponding theoretical grounds are generalized.
Keywords: A. Stronin, education, personality, collective.
Пилипенко Вадим Валериевич, Полтавский национальный педагогический университет им. В. Г. Короленко, аспирант кафедры социальной и коррекционной педагогики
E-mail: mzktm@mail. ru
Педагогические взгляды украинского учителя А. Стронина на воспитании личности в коллективе
Аннотация: В статье изложены взгляды А. Стронина на проблему воспитания личности в коллективе. Раскрыты главные направления взглядов на организацию коллектива, взаимоотношения педагога и воспитанников. Проанализированы базовые понятия и обобщены соответсвующие теоретические положения.
Ключевые слова: А. Стронин, воспитание, личность, колектив.
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