The definition of “extremism”
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- Государство и право. Юридические науки
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Section 11. Science of law
5) high social status of businessmen and high credit of trust to it by public, prostituted by businessmen delinquents, which serve as undercover to carry out their criminal activity.
6) anonymity, absence of victim personification.
7) lack of direct contact with victim.
8) peculiarity and majority of offence subjects.
9) peculiarity of the subjects of economic criminality.
10) mass and generic nature of crimes.
11) crimes secrecy.
12) selfish nature of crimes.
13) reference to the category of nonviolent crimes.
14) availability of phenomenon of insensible, indifferent attitude of public to economic criminality.
Thus, complex analysis of the subject matter of economic criminality, various approaches to its definition in the scientific society was carried out in this scientific article, own conclusions were also made concerning the nature of economic crimes, as well as its main characteristics.
1. Dementyeva E. E. Economic crime and struggle with it in the countries with developed market-based economy//Legal-ity. — No. 5. — M., 1992. — Р. 5−50.
2. Saterland E. White-collar crime. — New-York, 1949. — Р. 272.
3. Burlakov V. N. Criminology XX century. — Saint-Petersburg, 2000. — Р. 554.
4. Mishin G. K. Problem of economic criminality. Multi-disciplinary research experience. — M., 1994. — Р. 88.
5. Criminology. Text-book for legal higher educational institutions/Under the general editorship of the doctor of legal sciences, professor A. I. Dolgova. — M., 1997. — Р. 484.
6. Criminology: Text-book/Under the editorship of V N. Kudryavtsev, V E. Eminov — M., 1997. — Р. 316.
7. Rogov I. I. Economics and criminality. — Almaty, 1991. — Р. 159.
8. Medvedev A. M. Economic crimes: concept and system//Soviet state and justice. — No. 1. — M., 1992. — Р. 78−88.
9. Volzhenkin B. V Economic crimes. — SPb., 1999. — P. 312.
10. Kuznetsova N. F. Codification of the norm on economic crimes//Moscow University Messenger. Series 11. Legal right. -M., 1993. — C. 5−23.
11. Gaukhman L. D., Maximov S. V Criminal responsibility for crimes in the sphere of economics. — M., 1996. — Р. 290.
Dzhansarayeva Rima Yerenatovna, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Head, Chair of Criminal Law, Criminal Process and Criminalistics, Doctor of Law, Professor
E-mail: jansarayeva@mail. ru Bissengaly Lilya Bissengalyevna, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, assistant Chair of Criminal Law, Criminal Process and Criminalistics, master of jurisprudence
The definition of «extremism»
Abstract: On the basis of analysis of the definitions of «extremism& quot- in the contemporary scientific literature, its characteristics, forms of expression, is introduced into the scientific revolution the author’s definition of extremism and its symptoms, examines the ratio of extremism and terrorism.
Keywords: terrorism, countering, legal means, legislation, crime.
Extremism in the modern sense of the word is the embodiment of a certain kind of negative developments, which aim to generate members of the international community doubts about the possibility of maintaining stability in the world on the principles of democracy, respect for human rights and freedoms of man and citizen. Today extremism in one form or another is so firmly entrenched in many spheres of social life, that there is a need to give a legal response to this phenomenon. However, repeatedly made in recent years trying to discover the essence of extremism from the perspective of law, continue to cause controversy among lawyers about the possibility of a legal assessment of this phenomenon in principle.
In Encyclopedic Dictionary defines extremism as «adherence to extreme views, measures (usually in politics)» [1, 52]. However, this definition is vague and does not reflect all the features of this complex phenomenon. It should be noted that it is not clear what looks to be recognized «extreme», and what — no, and who will determine whether any specific extreme views. Any universal criterion for the interpretation of this concept has not yet produced as a conceptual analysis of the phenomenon of extremism in general and the construction of its theoretical models are just beginning to enter the research plans. In doing so, the notion of «views» and «measures» carry completely different meanings. Under the «look» with a certain approximation can be understood as
an ideology, ideological beliefs, not necessarily related to any practical, especially illegal actions. A «measure», in turn, provide the commission of any specific action, including violence aimed at overthrowing the constitutional order or destabilize the situation in the country.
There is the following definition of extremism «is an activity for the dissemination of ideas, trends, doctrines, which are aimed at the elimination of the possibility of legal pluralism, free exchange of ideas- on the establishment of a single ideology as a state- on the division of people according to class, property, race, nationality or religion- on the rejection of absolute values of human rights» [2, 10].
Thus, in the modern scientific literature extremism in its broadest sense is defined as the ideology of providing for compulsory dissemination of its principles, intolerance to opponents and forced their suppression.
Extremism is endowed with the following features, which include:
— Denial of dissent and intolerance to supporters of other views (political, economic, religious, etc.) —
— Attempts ideological justification of violence against not only active opponents, but also to any person who did not share beliefs extremists-
— Appeal to any known ideological or religious teachings, claims to their «true» interpretation or «deep-ening» and, at the same time, the actual denial of many basic provisions of these exercises-
— The dominance of the emotional impact of ways in the process of promoting extremist ideas- appeal to the feelings and prejudices of the people, not to their reason-
— The creation of charismatic leaders image extremist movements, striving to present these individuals «infallible», and all of their orders are not negotiable [3, 112].
It should be borne in mind that all of these features not only occur, but in most cases, work closely together- derive one from the other- are unbreakable inner connection. Most of them are inherent in any extremist movement — from radical religious sects to the pro-fascist organizations.
However, extremist violence against dissent is often called terrorism, which in many cases is inevitable companion of extremism.
Terrorism is one of the most dangerous and complex phenomena of our time, is becoming more rampant. Terrorism — one of the few events that have not received a clear terminological definition in law. Long effort to develop a common definition of international terrorism did not lead to positive results [4, 67].
In the scientific literature, there is more than one hundred definitions of terrorism. Classic terrorism represent either as a specific form of armed violence, either as motivated violence for political purposes, or as a systematic intimidation through the use of violence to achieve political, ideological or social goals in objective reality. For example,
The definition of «extremism»
the following definition of terrorism, this American specialists: it is — «the threat or use of violence for political purposes by individuals or groups of people — acting for or against the existing government in a country where such actions are intended to strike or intimidate a larger group than the immediate victims were subject to violence «, which was supposed to reflect all forms of terrorism that exist in different regions of the world [5, 29].
E. G. Liakhov defines terrorism as «the systematic execution of extreme violence to achieve political or public pur-poses» [6, 21].
S. I. Ozhegov in his dictionary adds: «Terror — physical violence, including physical destruction, in relation to political opponents» [7, 611].
In the literature, even the scientific concept of «extremism» and «terrorism» are often treated as synonyms, although they are different entities. However, extremism in its content is much broader than the concept of «terrorism», because it is through terror extremist organizations achieve political goals. Extremism assumes any ideology, theoretical justification of violence, although often argument is based primarily on emotional rather than rationalistic view of the world. Terrorism is, in most cases, is a system of actions, based usually on extremist ideology. However, extremism is not confined to the nomination of any theoretical concepts. He implies certain actions, often forced to achieve the objectives put forward. Terrorism can be represented as an integral (though not necessarily) of the extremism of his most vivid and effective expression in social and political life of society.
However, and terrorism itself is not necessarily associated with extremist activities, as it has in its content elements that can not be reduced only to extremism.
Thus, it can be argued that the concept of «terrorism» and «extremism» is closely related to each other, but can also act as independent objects of study which are not always determined by each other.
In the current research literature usually distinguish three main forms of extremism: political, national and religious [8, 66].
It seems that such a division extremism on political, ethnic or religious grounds, which is present in the majority of scientific papers devoted to this problem, is conditional, since all the factors affecting the kakoe- a social phenomenon, in close cooperation and mutually influence each other. Therefore, the isolated forms of extremism, as a rule, never actually appear in «pure» form [9, 16].
National extremism almost always contains elements of extremism political and often enough — religious. In turn, political extremism, as a rule, is based on if not a purely religious idea, the pseudo-religious. Such an ideology, in most cases, based on the blind emotional faith, to «revelation» rather than on logical rationalist principles and in many ways resembles the ideology of the sectarians. This is proven by any extremist movement, whether it is pseudo-nationalist or religious overtones.
Section 11. Science of law
Likewise, religious extremism usually involves not only the spread of any religion, but also the creation of public or administrative entities in which the religion would be the official and dominant. It is often pursued purely economic and political goals. Thus, religious extremism is a political extremist elements. Not less frequently here, the principle according to which the representatives of a nation or several nations known as potential supporters of a particular religion, and all the rest — its opponents. Representatives of extremist movements often equate a person’s nationality to his religious beliefs.
Based on the foregoing, it can be concluded that any extremist movement not only includes various elements, but these elements mutually influence each other, in each situation appear stronger or weaker.
Extremism — multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon. In our opinion, the concept ofextremism includes such key concepts as «radicalism», «nationalism», «fundamentalism».
In our view, the concept of «radicalism» is not part of «extremism». Ideological extremism is not homogeneous, can manifest itself in both the left and right spectrum of the political process. Unlike radicals acting legitimately seeking to implement its strategy and tactics in the legal field, the extremists seek immediate destruction of the existing state-legal system and the creation of a society on the basis of specific political ideological concepts and doctrines. The hallmark of «extremism» is to focus on the capture of political power or destabilize the means and methods of struggle, that go beyond the legitimate from the point of view of international or national and state law, including the violent methods and terror.
With the concept of «extremism», «radicalism» is closely related to the concept of «nationalism.» For example, Russian researchers have identified five types of nationalism:
1. Nationalism «classic» — the desire for complete independence-
2. Nationalism parity — the desire for possible full sovereignty based on the concept of shared sovereignty-
3. Economic nationalism — autonomy in the economic sphere as ensuring movement toward possible full sovereignty-
4. Defensive or protective nationalism in which ideology and legislative practice is dominated by the defenses of the territory, culture, etc. -
5. Modernization (liberal) nationalism — the ideology of innovation development in comparison with other regions [10, 375].
In its pure form, these types of nationalism can be traced, but singled out by the dominant ideas.
Thus, considered and evaluated as a multi-valued and multilateral phenomenon of extremism, we can give him the following definition: under the extremism should be understood as the activities of social, political and religious associations or other organizations, the media, individuals in planning, organizing, training, financing or otherwise contribute to its implementation, including through the provision of funds, real estate, training, printing and material-technical base, telephone, fax or other means of communication, information services, and other material and technical resources, as well as actions aimed at the establishment of a single ideology as a state- the excitation of the class, property, racial, national or religious hatred, humiliation of national dignity- on the rejection of absolute values of human rights- a violent change of the constitutional order and violation of the integrity of the state- to undermine the security, as well as public calls for such activities or to commit such acts.
1. The Soviet encyclopaedic dictionary. — M. — 1981. — 1072 p.
2. Report on the objectives and means of combating political extremism in Russia. — M. — 1999. — 86 p.
3. Aruchov Z. S. Extremism in modern Islam. — Makhachkala. — 1999. — 212 p.
4. Litvinov N. The struggle against terrorism in modern Russia: problems and paradoxes//Vlast. — 1997. — № 9. — Р. 66−72.
5. Liakhov E. G., Popov A. B. Terrorism: national, regional and international control. — M. — 1999. — 427 p.
6. Liakhov E. G. Terrorism policy — a policy of violence and aggression. — M. — 1987. — 198 p.
7. Ozhegov S. I. Russian dictionary. — M. — 1983. — 968 p.
8. Martinenko B. K. Political terrorism: concept, features, classification//North Caucasus Law Gazette. — 1999. — № 7. — P. 66−74.
9. Verkhovsky A., Papp A., Pribilovski B. Political extremism in Russia. — M. — 1996. — 504 p.
10. Drobizheva L. M. et al. Democratization and images of nationalism in the Russian Federation '90s. — M. — 1996. — 420 p.
Yewtjuchin Jurij Alekseewitsch, Russische Plechanow-Wirtschaftsuniversitat, Zweigstelle in der Stadt Kemerowo, Dozent, juristische Fakultat
E-mail: ewt-in@yandex. ru
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