“Bukhorcha” and “Mavrigi” song classes – as a national and noetic spiritual values of the Uzbek nation
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5. Музыкальный словарь Гроува / пер. с англ., ред. и доп.
6. Музыкальная энциклопедия. — М.: Издательство & quot-Советская энциклопедия& quot-, 1973−1982 / глав. ред.
«BUKHORCHA» AND «MAVRIGI» SONG CLASSES —
AS A NATIONAL AND NOETIC SPIRITUAL VALUES OF THE UZBEK NATION
J. T. Yarashev Bukhara State University, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
Summary: In this article is spoken about the fame of Bukhara national folk music classes «Bukhorcha» and «Mavrigi». And written about the performance of the folk songs on wedding parties, ceremonies and national holidays. Introducing to the youth «Bukhorcha» and «Mavrigi» isn’t making them to teach how to sing the songs, but valuate the kind of national folk music and songs also.
Keywords: a musical heritage- generation- national values- musical culture- universal values- executors- a musical composition- melody- national tools- traditions.
«Music has a great miracle, for understanding and feeling it there is no need an interpreter» .
The Uzbek nation’s music art is a great noetic and spiritual value of the Uzbek nation. Social and educational folk songs describing the nation’s character and sense play the main role in the life of youth as making them broad-minded and positive outlook on life.
Our national music’s national sense has always been valued, and nowadays it has being valued. The President of our republic I. A. Karimov has negative criticism to the «general, universal culture», and he proclaimed that this kind of culture is false culture- just relaxing illusion andits art stages might cause to national crisis: «Because, -he continuous his speech, — if human used to listen not serious and unpleasant music, further his or her literary and music sense will decrease, and he or she will have false ideas about it». Eventually it will be difficult for him or her to realize our national masterpiece like «Shashmakom» and the creations of world composers like Beethoven, Bach, Chaykovskiy [1, c. 143].
Like different parts of our country, Bukhara region also has its great contribution to a rich Uzbek music history.
As known old and ancient Bukhara is well known with its masterpieces like «Shashmakom» «Bukhorcha» «Mavrigi». The musical culture of the nation of Bukhara attracts other nations' attention. The characters of Bukhara region music culture has been attracted attention of many musicians and music scientists. A. Eichhorn, A. Leysic, M. Belyaev, N. Mironov, A. Uspenskiy, Y. Romanovskaya, later I. Akbarov, M, Ash-rafiy, Yu. Rajabiy, F. Karomatov, X. Hamidov and others have researched and expressed their opinion about the national music history. In 2005 folklore professions O. Safarov, F. Turayev and composer O. Atoevresearched and explained the origin, aesthetic meaning and the structure of «Bukhorcha» and «Mavrigi» music class in the book which was printed at the Scientific Academy of Uzbekistan «FAN».
«Bukhorcha» and «Mavrigi» music classes are considered usual songs of Uzbek and Tajik national folk work of art, which usually are sung in Bukhara region. Currently this kind of music classes are related to Turkmens too. Because the «Mavrigies» are very popular among the people which moved from the city of Marv of Turkmenistan. In ancient war times people of the city Marv are moved and settled to Bukhara because of lack of water. The provenance of the music class «Mavrigi» might be from that. In ancient times «Bukhorcha» was sung by women at ceremonies and wedding parties like «Nikoh», «Beshikto'yi» and «Khoti-noshiq», but «Mavrigies» were sung by men only, but later there were no differences between two music, and they had sung them together.
«Bukhorcha» music class includes 37 folk songs. But «Mavrigi» music class includes 43 folk songs. Totallyit is 94 with wedding folk songs «To'ymarosim»  and humor folk songs .
«Bukhorcha» music class has divided into three «Times» each of them is sung at exact time of particular ceremony.
«Bukhorcha» music class expresses women charm, their feelings, sense, dreams, troubles and misfortune.
Its music structure especially consists of"sarxonish" and «miyonx-onish, very seldom singers sang this in high voice. „Mavrigies“ were sung only with drummers „doirachilar“
„Mavrigi“ music class has divided into three „Times“. They are: „Shakhd“ „Chorzarb“ and „Shikan-Shikan“.
In each music classes there were „sarxonish“ and „miyonx-onish“. „Sarxonish“ is the song with the same refrains, and this song was sang in choirs.
„Bukhorcha“ and „Mavregi“ music classes are sang in a particularly way. The songs' solo performance had final conclusion. But each of them were devoted to particular theme and condition.
Cultural inheritance of the past centuries and ancestry „Bukhorcha“ and „Mavrigi“ musical classes have been singing on national folk ceremonies, and region and republic concourses. Nowadays SoyibjonNi-yozov, O’lmasOlloberganov, YulduzTurdiyeva, HilolaSamieva, Farhod-Saidov, and participants of the folk song group „Mavrigi Folk Ethnography“ are professional singers of „Bukhorcha“ and „Mavregi“ folk music classes.
In conclusion I can say our national"Bukhorcha» and «Mavregi» folk music class traditions, music culture, the ways of our great ancestry, created work art are valuable for the future generation. And it has great axiological influence to the future generations' mental outlook, intellectual development.
The folk song «Mavrigi» is being sung by men.
The folk song «Bukhorcha» and «Mavrigi» are being sung
by women and men
1. Каримов И. «Юксакмаънавийтенгилмас куч». — Тошкент: «Маънавият». -2008. — 174 с.
2. Сафаров О., Атоев О., Тураев Ф. «Бухорча» ва «Мавриги» тароналари. -Тошкент: «Фан». — 2005. — 278 с.
3. Karimov I. А. Uzbekistan art and literature newspaper. — May 29. — 2002.