Economy and culture of Kazakh people in papers of Russian researchers in the second half of XIX century

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История. Исторические науки


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Shishlov Maxim Ivanovich, A History teacher Secondary school № 21 Pavlodar, Kazakhstan
____________________________ Email: max. shishlov2015@yandex. ru
Abstract. The article studies the works of Russian researchers of the second half of the XIX century, which contain the information about the economy and culture of Kazakhs period of accession of Kazakhstan to Russia. The aim of this work is a historical analysis of the works of Russian researchers of the second half of the XIX о century.
Key words: economy, culture, works of Russian researchers of the second of the XIX century.
Studying history of Kazakhstan in a period of joining to Russian, especially the last period, is one of the actual problem of native history. The opinion directed to suggest an idea about economic backwardness, lack of culture being colonized by Russia, so it was in the period of Soviet Power, predominated for many years. To authorize colonial policy, developing history favorable paradigm was imposed. The idea of saving from starvation based on absence of own developed civilization was put into people’s mind and people perceived policy of colonization as inevitableness. Having got independence Kazakhstan people could study authentic facts about the past of the country. It is worthwhile to study researches of Russian historians and scientists. Studying these papers it is necessary to use critical approach because of subjectivism presence, some conclusions are not objective as scientists did not take into consideration interconnection of climate peculiarities, structures of conducting, economy and nation’s mentality.
To study economy and culture of Kazakh people the author paid attention to the works of such researchers, as A. I. Levshyn, M. Krasovsky, G.M. Bronevsky, and N. K. Konshyn. There papers relate to XIX century and contain material about middle zhuz — Pavlodar area belongs to.
In their papers A. Levshyn, M. Krasovsky, G. Bronevsky and N. Konshyn in details describe economy, customs, traditions and the Kazakh way of life. In the
article «Describing Kirgiz — Kazachy or Kirgiz — Kaisatsky hordes and steppes» A. Levshyn [4] writes that Kazakh people had a lot of cattle which were the main object of home and foreign trade, he also describes customs and traditions of Kazakh people. The author gives conception of name origin. Clothes, armament, likings are described in the article.
M. Krasovsky in his work" Region of Siberian Kirgiz" [3] says that at that time there was home and foreign trade. The author describes customs, traditions and religious education which was available for well-to do groups of society. Talking about home needle-working, the author points out that the first place was taken by wool, especially manufacturing koshma [3, p. 110].
Especially interesting materials about hunting and fishing by M. Krasovsky. They used different approaches to breeding and feeding of a species of domestic animals. It proves that the Kazakh knew animal' habits, could turn good local conditions in their own advantage. We understand that fishing was out of vital importance. We understand it reading «It doesn’t matter how palatable fish was -mutton was better. Poor people replaced fish for meat [3, p. 131].
A researcher major — general labeled people as illiterate and ignorant still ° remained in primitive simplicity [1] being joined by the state unity. In his papers we can find information about khans raising to the throne, list of their names. The author pays much attention to the Kirgiz armament consisting of matchlock gun, saber, bow with arrows and aibalty an axe with a long helve [1, p. 174].
G. Bronevsky describing spiritual life comes to conclusion that Kirgiz plasticizing Mohamed laws are ignorant in other ways [1, p. 450]. It is connected with preserving and sending pagan traditional ceremonies to Moslems.
The beauty of the land is described by N. Konshyn in «From Pavlodar to Karkaralinsk: road notes& quot-[2]. He admires the nature of Kazakhstan. Bayan aul stanitsa became one of the famous country place in steppe regions. Healthy fresh air, a lake, pinery, picturesque sites make this territory as the best place to improve heath [2, p. 3].
Here you read information how trade was developed. For example: a trade fair is usually held in May 25 — June 25. Fair buildings in shape of four long rows are placed on a flat country. Manufactured goods by A. Derov (form Pavlodar) Volkov brothers and another great traders are sold here [2, p. 39].
Thus, researchers sent by the government of Russian Empire to study life of Kazakh people in order to use these researches for further for carrying colonial policy out, proved the presence of own civilization. More over these materials are evidence of existing state institution and legal relations in nomadic society.
1. G. M. Bronevsky Notes about Kirgiz — Kaisac Middle horde. Sib. 1896. 500 p.
2. N. K. Konshyn. From Pavlodar to Karkaralinsk: industry and commerce. Road notes. Pavlodat. 2001. 300 p.
3. M. Krasovsky Region of Siberian Kirgiz. In a book: Materials for geography and statistics of Russia, collected by the officers Of General army head quarters. Sib. 1868. 540p.
4. A. I. Levshyn, Describing Kirgiz — Kazachy or Kirgiz — Kaisatsky hordes and steppes. Almaty. Sanata 1996. 530 p.

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