Actual situation and measures for children pronunciation practice for 5-6 years old children who are low at language development at kindergarten through play

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УДК 378
PhD student Nguyen Thi Quynh Anh
Faculty of Education — University Vinh
Preschool children in general, 5−6 years old children at kindergartens in Vinh city in particular face many mistakes in pronunciation, often mispronounce the components of difficult syllables and mostly wrong about the tone, especially those children who have delayed language development (DLDC) encounter much difficulty in pronunciation. Among them, game is an extremely effective means to practice pronouncing for the child. This article wishes to overcome this situation through the use of games as a means to discipline and help DLDC completing pronunciation apparatus, comply with the standards of sound language, minimizing delay language development for children.
Children with delayed language development- Training pronunciation- DLDC
1 Problem
& quot-Language is the basis of all the intellectual development and is the treasure of all knowledge. All understanding starts with language & quot-(KD Usinxki). Preschoolers have huge demand in the world'-s perception around. Once he/ she has a certain amount of language, the child uses language as means of expression of his/her awareness. Clearly, language plays an important role in the intellectual development of children. Through language, the child is aware of the world around them in a thorough, clear and accurate way. Language helps children to be active, creative in intellectual activity. However, in this period children still have much difficulty and have many pronouncing errors. Vietnamese is the monosyllabic and non-morphological language, which reflects in the highly distinguishable syllabic characteristics. One syllable in Vietnamese is always pronounced with a tone. So if mispronounce a tone lead to the change in the meaning of the words. Therefore, language development as well as enhancing the correct pronunciation for preschoolers is a very important issue and deserve attention. Early intervention and proper instruction would have high potential for success, help them quickly integrate into friends the same age, effectively promote the socialization process of children. Especially for DLDC, assistance in practicing correct pronunciation, in developing language is extremely favorable factor to help children catch up with friends, confident and prepared ready for the first grade at primary school.
2 Contents
2.1 Some related theoretical issues
* Language
Language is a special social phenomenon, it exists and develops in the existence and development of human society. There are many theories and different fields to discuss the concept of language. Under each perspective, language is defined in different ways. However, all the definitions given have one thing in common: language is a special signal system, the basic and important means of communication of the human being community. Language is the means to develop thinking, conveying culture — history communication from generation to generation.
* Delayed language development (DLD)
DLD phenomenon is considered a language disorder in young children who have normal intellect, relatively normal hearing ability, normal sound-producing organs but the norms of language as language pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar is less than normal. In communication these children often use gestures as pointing, nodding, shaking his head to express his wishes. DLD is common in children with abnormal medical conditions such as being
МЕЖДУНАРОДНЫЙ НАУЧНЫЙ ЖУРНАЛ «ИННОВАЦИОННАЯ НАУКА» № 11/2015 ISSN 2410−6070 frequently sick, malnourished or abandoned or children who lack of family care. DLD in children may be normal if to a certain time criteria of language development of children is guaranteed (ie children are only slowl during the period close to the time of evaluation but then they have normal language development if timely impacted).
* Pronunciation and the role of correct pronunciation practice
The pronunciation of the child depends on the pronunciation apparatus system, to teach children correct pronunciation the teacher should guide children to regularly practicse some pronunciation apparatus such as lips, tongue, teeth, flexible development of jaw … There are many children pronounce incorrectly, unclearly due to the inflexible and inaccurate movement of lips, tongue, jaw, mouth, uvula and the coordination of those organ, or the poor ability in hearing, distinguishing phonemes.
The fact that the majority of the misspelling of schoolchildren are because of mispronunciation. Preschoolers suffer from speech errors as the sound procucing organ is in the process of completion, on the other hand, this is the stage when the children acquire a large amount of vocabulary so they make many mistakes in pronunciation. In addition, some regions have distinct characteristic dialect which have very big influence to pronunciation error of preschool children. Especially for children with delayed language development, the pronunciation encountered more obstacles. Practising pronunciations apparatus to develop language is just like exercising to develop your body. So to teach children how to pronounce correctly and perfect the sound standards is one of the key contents of the development of language for children and the important task of preschool.
2.2 Pronunciation actual situation and pronunciation teaching for preschoolers in Vinh City
We have conducted a survey on 94 kindergarten children in three class of 3 preschools in Vinh city (Trung Do kindergartens, Vinh Tan kindergarten and Practical kindergarten of Vinh University) at the end of the year when the child has fully learned the letters. We also simultaneously exchange, chat with Vice principal who are in charge of expertise charge and 6 classroom teacher about your child'-s speech errors as well as organizing educational activities for children to have correct pronunciation in preschools
* Status of errors of pronunciation and intonation
Results through the test that requires a child to pronounce 25 words attaching in the logo reveals that, kindergarten children Vinh city in general are still suffering most pronounced fault. Of which 5. 3% of all children suffer from 5 — 6 errors, these are young children with language disabilities like stutter, including 2. 1% subject of DLDC. Some common errors of pronunciation in kindergarten in VinhCity as follows:
+ Error with initial sounds: children often confuse the pronunciations of consonant pairs (like l — n- ch — p- s -x- r — d- p — b and c — ch …). Northern Vietnamese children have confusion in the pronunciation of the first syllable as l — n, ch — p, s — x, r — d, meanwhile those in Vinh City rarely commit this kind of errors as the pronunciation of the first syllable in Nghe Tinh dialect is correct. Only 4. 3% children are affected by this error.
+ Error with tone: Among the tone in Vietnamese, Children often mistake bar (~) and bar (.) by two bar complex geometry. Specially pre-school children in Vinh city who influenced by Nghe Tinh regional dialects do not distinguish clearly or accurately pronounce such words as & quot-cua- cua-cua& quot-- & quot-nga-nga-nga"- … This is very striking fault made by children living in Nghe Tinh teritory. In the opinion of many linguists, the tone system of Nghe Tinh dialect is incomplete in national language because all bar (~) are pronounced as bar (.). In terms of look and feel, it seems the modulation of the bar in Nghe Tinh dialect donot correspond with the same bar in the national language so people confuse (/) with (?) Or (~) with (.). So when young children living in this language environment children will be affected by the dialectal characteristic, especially if the adults in the process of teaching children to speak often use local language (dialectal pronunciation) instead of Standard Vietnamese Pronunciation will make it difficult for them to distinguish right tone. This is also the cause of the children with a lot of tone error when pronounced. In kindergarten, if the teacher read as a demonstration, children may cause fewer error, but in everyday activities most children commit this erros especially error with tone, typical errors about (~), Up to 90% of children in Vinh city have this error.
+ Error with main syllable: This error is caused when children confuse the diphthongs. The vowel syllables contain diphthongs have complex syllable structure makes it harder for children to pronounce (con ech — coong at/ac, qua luu — qua liu, chuan — chan, buoi chieu — boi cheu, qua chuoi — ca choi) or & quot-uou — ieu& quot- (Rugu — rieu, huou -hieu, khuou -khieu). Many adults sometimes mispronounce & quot-uou"- to & quot-ieu"- so chilldren mimics naturally without
knowing it is wrong (27% of children commit this error)
+ Error with buffer sound: Buffer sound are often quickly pronounce so children often ignore when pronounce (khoac lac — khac lac, khuya khoat — khia khat, thoan thoat — than that .). By the age of 5 — 6 many children can mostly pronounce like adults but with difficult words that seldom appear in children daily communication there are 5. 3% of children still experience this error.
+ Error with last syllable: in some ending consonant sounds children often pronounce & quot-ch"- becomes & quot-n, nh& quot- becomes & quot-t, n& quot-- & quot-n"- becomes & quot-ng"- (qua chanh — qua chan, canh — can, thach thanh- that than, man quan — mang quang…). this kind of error often occurs in younger children, to the last year at the kindergarten this error almost disappear, only children with delayed language expression or children with lisp have this error (account for 3. 2% of children).
Also, there is some other error as stuttering, cannot pronounce difficult words (as khuya khoat, kMc khuyu…). However, each child may experience some personal fault showing difference in the pronunciation of each child. For young children who are suffering from DLD experience 4−5 error.
* Actual situation teaching pronunciation for 5−6 years old at kindergaten in Vinh city
Through the survey, study and exchange lesson plans with teachers on the pronunciation teaching for kindergarteners children, we obtained the following results:
In th e kindergarten 5−6 years old children are taught pronunciation through learning letters. With difficult letters or letter that children often make mistakes children do not have chance to practise. For these pairs difficult letters, letters pronunciation mistakes young or the young have learned but little practice. Forms of phonetic training for preschool children mainly incorporated into lessons for children to become familiar with letters, through story time, in the music lesson, or in the free time. . There are no games for pronunciation practising or documents for language development and pronunciation teaching, the education of children mainly depending on qualifications and experience of each teacher. By studying the lesson plans, some games teachers often organized for children like blowing the ball, smelling flowers, breathe, or some traditional games, game performance, read the names of all objects in the pictures aimed at physical development or language development without going straight into training pronunciation for children. Therefore, pronunciation training issues for preschoolers has not really been effective, DLDC hardly have proper care, there are no program, no lesson plan dedicated to DLDC.
* The cause
-In the new preschool program clearly states the requirement for content integrating language development content into joint activities with academic purposes but does not specify the lessons, the specific content need to integrate. Therefore, It'-s hard to assess the teachers'- implementations in teaching prounciation
— Method in preschool education is renewed in view of youth-oriented activities, but teachers remain passive in organizing class by personal experience but not actively seek out new measures, they are not creative in the design of educational activities, especially in activities for children to practise pronunciation. The use of games to teach children pronunciation is not systematic and widely known
— Due to the large number of children and the large amount of work in class, teachers do not have enough time to closely follow each individual, they find it hard to learn to design the activities for teaching pronunciation as well as correcting mistakes. In fact, teachers just have enough time to give a little more vocabulary, helps children speak full sentences, express coherent language and become familiar with letters that are integrated, mainstreamed in language development period. They can not carry out a pronunciation lesson properly
— Error commited by children mainly due to the impact of dialect, pronunciation error influenced by relatives, most parents use local language while communicating with young children so they hardly realize the mistake. In addition, adults are not interested in or have little time to fix the child, so preschoolers who suffer from errors in pronunciation are still in large propotion. For DLDC, teachers almost have no time for any special attention, so the condition among DLDC isnot improved much.
2.3 Proposed measures for teaching Pronunciation in the kindergarten
* Series of measures on enhancing the flexibility of pronunciation apparatus
Purpose: Use attractive games will help children practice the flexibility of the pronunciation aparatus, paving the way for the children to have good pronunciation and strengthen, standardise the pronunciation as well as spelling
afterward. Methodology:
Based on the purpose of pronunciation organ exercises, the teacher can prepare objects, toys or pictures, children can practice licking tongue, deeply and strongly breathing, and practice with their nasal cavity, mouth … or teacher can prepare the image of the feelings, then set training tasks through the game. Measure 1: Prepare for the flexibility of the tongue, mouth Purpose: Train the flexibility, coordination of pronunciations organ parts Measure 2: Train in the nasal cavity, mouth Purpose: to practice the nasal cavity, mouth Measure 3: Practice breathing
Purpose: Practice breathing and enhance breath control Conditions of implementation:
— The pictures, toys which are put into use should have content related to training purposes
— Quantity of pictures given are not too many, the picture is clear, understandable and the content must suitable with the ability of the child. — Each game should only train one content. Teachers should base on the purpose of education to choose suitable content, methods and forms of organization
— Games in this series of measure can be organized for young players both inside and outside the classroom, can be flexible in the design with multiple modes of play. Teachers need training pronunciation organ of the children at anytime and anywhere to get the best results.
* Series of measures which enhance syllabic discrimination
Purpose: These measures aimed to provide children with the standard of pronunciation, tone and manner of articulation (children hear the sound, see the movement of parts pronunciation organ to imitate and pronounce correctly).
— Teachers choosing games, toys, choose an appropriate time that meet the purpose of education. Toys must be familiar with the children.
— Game of this measure requires children to focus attention so it is neccessary to combine the activities to inspire, to ensure the health and avoid fatigue stress for children
— This game requires a spacious, quiet area which less affected by noise and less distracted by the surroundings. Thus the children can focus attention to the implementation and assessment of his team'-s fault as well as that of opposite team.
-Teacher should remind young players to focus and encourage children to compete with one another Measure 1: Training articulation (through oral movement observation)
Purpose: To help children remember how to pronounce the words, distinguish between the pronunciation of different words across border image
Measure 2: Practice the ability to listen and accurately separate phonemes Team Game 1: Training the ability to listen and distinguish sounds
Purpose: Training children'-s auditory, help them differentiate in height, intensity, length and timbre of the
Team game 2: Pronounce correctly separate phonemes
Purpose: Helping children to distinguish phonemes, pronounce the separate phonemes accurately, practice the correct pronunciation and avoid confusion in pronunciation. Conditions for implementation
— These measures can be flexibly organized. However, this method requires the group to focus on listening so it is nessessary to choose the suitable space, time- requires calm and not dispersive but still ensure exciting when played.
— Pictures, toys used should be closely linked to the content of exercises and are familiar to children
— Here is the difficult content so in a game should use a certain amount of sound. Especially for difficult sound for DLDC, 1−2 sound is enough
* Series of consolidation measures, self-control and automation in pronunciations
Purpose: — These measures help reduce the burden on teachers during correction process and also relieve the children when being corrected.
— These Measures help children improve their ability to pronounce, appreciation, self-correction, learna lot through peers.
This is extremely important method determines the success of training children Pronunciation through games. Teachers should be creative and conduct truly ingeniously, otherwise children may be stressed and inconfident. Let children themselves discovered errors and consciously try to correct.
Measure 1: Training to correct errors with the first consonants (main sound, the final syllable)
Purpose: train the first consonant, help children discover and correct mistakes with initial consonants (main sound, ending sound)
Measure 2: Train voice, tone
Purpose: Training right intonation, right tone right in sentence
Measure 3: Intergrated training
Purpose: train, reinforce the content and pronunciation practice, consolidating many areas of knowledge are integrated in the same topic, theme.
How to Play: The teacher organizes a game as a contest in which children are divided into 2−3 team, the team will be competing in 3 rounds to select the team with the highest score the winner. Each round is designed with a game, 3 rounds will practice three different pronunciations content but all based on the same topic/theme.
Round One: The aim is practicing movements of speaking organs.
Round Two: The aim is practicing correct pronunciation of the first syllable, the sound, the final syllable, tone.
Round Three: Train the fluency, pronunciation, correct intonation. Conditions for implementation
— This method can be used to integrate content in all different forms of game. 5−6 years old children pay much attention to the final winning outcome, so they should be divided into teams to compete with each other. During the game these young players will try to attempt to achieve a result, pay attention to his own and friend'-s mistakes and excitedly solve the educational tasks.
— Educating children through groups of friends are also very effective measures. In a group, each child has its own characteristics, each child is unique, the pronunciation mistakes commited is not the same in every child. Many children are good listening and good at mimicing, but some others are good at listening but cannot pronounce properly. Therefore, teachers need to cleverly divide groups including well- pronounced players, young, badly-pronounced players … so they can support and learn from each other while playing.
— When designing and conducting games, teachers should pay attention to integrated content which compatible the game, the pronunciation practice content, the task should be suitable with children'-s level and condition. Teacher shouldn'-t abuse many contents simultaneously as this may purposes affect children '-s pronunciation practice purpose.
To stimulate children'-s interest and increase the confidence for children teachers should motivate, encourage, set an example — especially for the timid and DLDC. Of course, teachers should not be abused so much easier to lose the value of this measure.
3. Conclusion
The language is most closely correlated with later cognitive development, and is the most important communication tools. There is strong language development as well as a change in the quality of language in Preschool children, especially 5−6 years old preschoolers. However, not every child has this advantages. During the development, some children do not have normal language development, some children have difficulty in pronunciation, some lose self confidence and fail to establish a social relationship which may lead to delayed language development cases. This is the disadvantage that children have to suffer. From this fact, if given the best education, early intervention and positive measures, the child will have a chance to recover language functions. Parents with preschool teachers need to know, to understand the problem in preschool DLDC in general and badly-pronounced kindergarten children in particular in order to suggest the measures, to design activities and new games for DLDC to ecpress his potential, directly experience, practise the pronunciation to minimize the limitations caused by the pronunciation and develope the language in general. Only by doing this, can DLDC have a chance to develop normally like other normal children of the same age, can they have education and success in the later stages.
1. Do Huu Chau, (1998), The basis of lexical semantics, Education publishing house.
2. Ferdinand De Saussure, (2005), General linguistics textbooks, Social sciences publishing house. (Cao Xuan Hao translator)
3. Luu Thi Lan, (1996), The language development of children from 1−6 years old, Vice PhD thesis Philological Sciences, University of Social Sciences and Humanities — Vietnam National University Ha Noi.
4. The Vietnam Institute of Educational Sciences — The education center for children with disabilities (1993), The content of educational method the child language disability, Teacher training materials.
(c)Nguyen Thi Quynh Anh, 2015
УДК 538. 9
В. Н. Веселов, Р. Х. Булатов, Д.С. Каргин
студенты 2 курса магистерской программы физико-технический факультет Астраханский государственный университет г. Астрахань, Российская Федерация
При приложении магнитного поля электрическое сопротивление манганитов меняется на несколько порядков величины. Предполагается, что манганиты могут находиться в виде разделенных наноразмерных фазовых состояний.
Ключевые слова
Лантан-стронциевые манганиты, колоссальное магнитосопротивление, разделение фаз.
В последние два десятилетия проявляется большой интерес к группе оксидных материалов со структурой перовскита — легированным манганитам типа R1. xAxMnO3 (R — редкоземельные ионы Lа, Pr, Nd- A — щелочноземельные ионы Sr, Ca, Ba и др.), относящимся к классу магнитных полупроводников [1, 2]. Было обнаружено, что при приложении магнитного поля электрическое сопротивление манганитов меняется на несколько порядков величины [3]. Величина этого влияния оказалась настолько большой по сравнению с магнитосопротивлением структур на основе 3d ферромагнитных металлов, что это явление было названо «колоссальным магнитосопротивлением» (КМС) [4]. Столь необычные свойства манганитов открывают широкие перспективы их практического применения в качестве магнитоуправляемых акустических фильтров, генераторов, частотных преобразователей, а также как спиновых клапанов в спинтронике.
Фазовая диаграмма манганитов содержит различные фазы с разными спинами, зарядами, решеткой и орбитальным порядком. При этом предполагается, что даже в самых совершенных по структуре кристаллах манганитов имеются внутренние неоднородности, или, другими словами, в этих соединениях преобладает сосуществование кластеров конкурирующих фаз. Эти фазы обычно ферромагнитные или антиферромагнитные. Все большую поддержку получает предположение, что манганиты могут находиться в виде разделенных наноразмерных фазовых состояний, где две конкурирующие фазы достигают компромисса за счет образования наноразмерных структур. Термин «наноразмерный» характеризует длину этих частиц, хотя некоторые эксперименты подтверждают такое поведение и при их микрометрических размерах. Эти фазы могут иметь одинаковую или разную электронную плотность, но обычно их симметрия разная. Манганиты обладают разнообразными доменными структурами.
Значительная часть исследований к настоящему времени выполнена на лантан-стронциевых манганитах состава La1_xSrxMnO3, где 0& lt-x<-0,9. Фазовая диаграмма этих соединений обладает большим разнообразием, а

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