Algae flora of typically-brown soil of Fergana Valley

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Section 1. Biology
of Pinnularia P. borealis found in common slopes, P. mesolepta detected in samples of the northern slope. Rhode Hantzschia presented species H. amphioxys, H. capitata found on the northern and southern slopes, and H. amphioxys var. capitata is found only on the northern slope. From the genus Nitzschia N. amphibia identified on the south, N. palea on the northern slope. Weakly developed Gom-phonema acuminata in samples of the southern slope. The species diversity of the northern slope is represented by 11, 9 species of South meteriologicheskih causing development and edaphic factors. The total number of cells of algae in a light brown soil, depending on the time of year ranges from 26.5 to 75.0 thousand per 1 g. of soil.
Favorable soil factors, temperature and water regime (especially in summer), a well-defined structure, according to different favor the development of abundant moisture-loving green, yellow-green and diatoms than blue-green. As the number of species dominated by filamentous forms. Characteristic are Bumilleria klebsiana, Bu-milleriopsis terrieola, B. brevis from yellow-green, and species of the genus Phormidium of blue-green. Representatives Chlorococcaceae and Oosystaceae giperatsitnye blue-green evolved less. Because diatom samples often come across Navicula mutica var. nivalis, N. cryp-tocephala, N. minuscula, Pinnularia mesolepta.
1. Booth V. P. Community algae of some soils of the Western Pamirs and their change under cultivation. Abstract of diss. PhD. — Dushanbe, 1963. — 24 p.
2. Gorbunov N. P. Algology. — M.: High school, 1991. — 256 p.
3. Hollerbach M. M., Shtina E. A. Soil algae. — A.: The science, 1969. — 228 p.
Tuhtaboyeva Yulduzkhon Abdusattorovna, Tojiboev Sharobiddin, Namangan State University, Uzbekistan, Masters, professor
E-mail: repititor_bio@mail. ru
Algae flora of typically-brown soil of Fergana Valley
Abstract: It was researched the species diversity of the algae flora, identified and defined 106 species, 45 of them are green, 30 of them are blue-green, 16 species are diatoms, 15 species are yellow-green. Dominated by order Chlamydomonadales, Ulothrichales, Nostocales, Heterothrichales. The greatest number of species falls on the family. Chlorococcaceae, Oocystaceae, Oscillatoriaceae. Richly represented species of the genus Chlamydomonada — 7, Phormidium — 8. Most births were from one to three species. On the spread of algal flora affects the exposure of the slope. North Slope is dominated by green, yellow-green, blue-green part, on the southern green and blue-green algae. The number of species and algae cells varies depending on the meteorological and edaphic factors.
Keywords: phycology, view, typical brown soil, the Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan).
Algae is a permanent component of soil microbiocenoses and responsive to the changing soil environment. This is evidenced by the classic works of Musayev [6], Hollerbach, Shtina [3], Shtina, Hollerbach [3], Getsen (1990), Gorbunov [2], Kabirav [5] and other researchers. The study of the composition and dynamics of soil algae, physiological and biochemical processes occurring in the soil is the primary goal of researchers — algologists. These issues are clearly expressed in the natural environment, in complex relationships with various algae and organisms of the soil. Identification and species composition is the initial task of the matter.
Subjects and methods
According to A. Z. Genusova [1] in Chatkal-Kurama area in high-altitude zones, where it was held Algological study area covers a large brown soil subtypes. We study of brown typical soils in the redistribution of the Papal area of 1600 m. above sea level. Northern slopes steep 34 ° dismembered midlands. Vegetation blackberry-forbs, grass powerful, strong. Southern slopes steep 28 ° - vegetation wheat grass — awn chaff-forbs covered 50% of the surface of the soil, gravelly. Humic horizon painted in brown tones, especially shaded slopes. We apply the methods described in the classical works of Hollerbach, Shtina [3], Shtina, Hollerbach (1979).
The results and analysis
In typical brown soil it was identified and defined 106 species and forms in species dominated by green algae (47%), 44. 34%
from total number of species. Green presented the class representative Volvophyceae, Chlorophyceae I Ulothrichophyceae. How to detect Volvophyceae representatives belong to the genus Chlam-ydomonas number 7 species. In most samples across Chlamydo-monas isogama, Ch. oblonga of the northern and southern slopes. The richly represented by species class Chlorococcophyceae number 13 species distributing to 9 families. The greatest number of species falls on family Chlorococcaceae (7), Oocystaceae (6 types). Considerable development had Palmella hualina, P, minita, Gleo-coccus schroeteri, Protosiphon botryoides, Chlorococcum humi-cola, Ch. imfusionum, Chlorella vulgaris, Ch. terricola, Tetracoc-cus botryoides, Trochiscia aspera, Eremosphaeria virides f. minor, Macrochloris dissecta, Pleurochloris vulgaris. Along unicellular and colonial forms have evolved considerably and filamentous. Class Ulothrichophyceae contains 9 species. Family Ulothrichaceae presented the family Ulothrix views U. subtilissima, U. tenerrima, U. variabilis. Rod has Hormidium kinds H. dissectum, H. rivulare, H. nitens. Rhode Stichococcus contains species S. minor, S. variabilis, S. bacillaris. Family Trentepohliaceae presented views Trete-pohlia gobia and T. piceana although they are not widely spread.
Department of blue-green algae number 30 species (28.3%) from total number. Class Chroococcophyceae represented by three species. Rhode Aphanothece contains two kinds A. custagnei, A. saxicola and Gleocapsa minia are not widespread. In soils of the south-western spurs of the Tian Shan K. Y. Musayev [6] identified
Algae flora of typically-brown soil of Fergana Valley
seven species of the genus Gleocapsa and they had a wide distribution. The soils studied abundantly represented Hormogoniophyceae representatives ofthe class numbering 51 species (48.1%) from total number of species. The order includes 13 Nostocales view of most representative family Anabaenaceae. The genus Anabaena comprises A. variabilis to form tenuis, A. oscillarioides, A. constricta. Rhode Nostosc has three kinds of N. punctriforme to form populo-rum N. microscopicum and N. commune forming a proliferation of ground. During wet periods, there has been films Macrocoleus vagi-natus and Phormidium foveolarum.
The order includes 13 Oscillatoriales views. Family Phormi-dium includes 8 species of them Ph. autumnale, Ph. foveolarum, Ph. fragile, Ph. molle, Ph. subfuscum found in samples of the northern and southern slopes, they are few. Rare species of the genera are Oscil-latoria, Plectonema, Borzia neotmechen species of the genus Lyngbya.
Yellow-green algae are represented by 15 species and about Heterococcales Heterothrichales contains 7 and 8 species. From the family Pleurochloridaceae identified and defined 5 types. The widespread were Pleurochloris commutata, Botrydiopsis arhiza, B. eriensis, Polyedriella helvetica, Bumilleriopsis brevis, B. terricola, Bumilleria klebsiana. From nitchatnyh Heterothrix bristoliana, H. exilis, H. stichococceides, Tribonema viride, T. vulgare.
Diatoms are varied, it includes 16 species, represented mainly by genera Navicula, N. atomus, N. cryptocepala, N. dicephala identified in samples from the northern slope of the more damp and Navicula minuscula, N. mutica and N. dicepala var. turundulata. Rhode Pinnularia includes P. borealis, P. mesolepta. Numerous species of Hantzschi, H. amphioxys c var. capitata, H. virgata c var. borealis.
Nitzschia genus contains two species N. amphybia, N. palea. Rhode Gomphonema has one type of G. acuminata.
The number of species of algae of the northern and southern slope is always the same number. In samples from the northern slope of the typical brown soils identified and defined 87 species constituting 82.0% of total species of algae. North Slope richer in species of green algae (48.3%), largely dominated by single-celled colonial forms. The prevalence of these forms is marked K. Y. Musayev [6]. According to him in the mountain belt Chatkal-Kurama ridge of Tien Shan from 1300 to 2000 m. above sea level, is dominated by green, yellow-green and partially ethereal order Noctocales.
South slope detected and identified 73 species, 68.9% of total algae. By quantity ofkinds of green (28 species) prevailed from cya-nobacteria (25) of algae. Yellow-green, and diatoms have almost the same number (10 and 9) species.
The total number of algal cells in a typical brown soil depending on meteorological conditions and edaphic factor ranges from 39.0 to 80.8 thousand 1 gram of soil.
Typically, the brown soil sampled areas of biological diversity in the flora of 106 species of algae. As the number of species dominated by green (45 species) and blue-green (30 species). Better than other members of the family have evolved Chlomydomonadaceae, Ulothrichaceae, Nostocaceae, Anabaenaceae and filamentous forms of order Heterothrichales. Green and yellow-green to blue-green algae are permanent components of soil algal flora brown soil explore the area. Diatoms are mainly represented by species of the genus Navicula, and Hantzschia.
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2. Gorbunov N. P. Algology. — M.: High school, 1991. — 256 p.
3. Hollerbach M. M., Shtina E. A. Soil algae. — L.: Nauka, 1969. — 228 p.
4. Getsen M. V. The algae in the ecosystems ofthe Far North. — L.: Nauka, 1985. — 165 s.
5. Kabirov R. R. Soil algae in the system of environmental regulation. — 2007.
6. In Sat.: Actual problems of modern algology. Abstracts. Mezhdunar III. Conf. — Kharkov, 2005. — 64−65 p.
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