Improved territorial policy, as the direction of increase of efficiency of sphere of services

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Improved territorial policy, as the direction of increase of efficiency of sphere of services
Section 13. Economics and management
Balashova Raysa Ivanovna, Donetsk national technical University, Dr. of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor E-mail: stalkraysa@yandex. ua
Improved territorial policy, as the direction of increase of efficiency of sphere of services
Abstract: In the article the urgency of formation of effective spatial economic policy. It is determined that one of the priorities of this policy is the development of services. It is proved that the main objective of this policy is the optimal combination of actions, methods and means that ensure the interaction of manufacturing and services to meet current and future needs of the territory.
Keywords: regional policy, services, directions of development, efficiency, tourist centers.
Functioning of the territorial economy can guarantee the competitiveness of the service sector only on condition of effective territorial policy associated with the general strategy of the territory and also with the basic tools of management. Absence of the unified general strategy leads to uncertainty in relations with intermediaries (agents) and consumers of the customers.
Under the modern conditions, the development of tourism is on the way to creation of tourist centers, in which hotels, restaurants, travel agencies and other facilities that cater for tourists, are covered by the unified territorial policy. Services provided in recreation complexes of the tourist centers are the result of taking relevant territorial measures and synthesis of such indicators, as the quality of means and other material objects used for the service production, as well as the level of customer service.
The relevance of the study lies in the fact that the process of service provision in a tourist center is either directly or indirectly linked to the territorial processes. Logically, they are one of the main tools of ensuring tourist center'-s integrity and functioning.
Foreign authors, such as: A. Zorin [1], H. Montaner Mon-tehano [2], O. Beidik [3], concentrate on the problems in the functioning of a tourist center. Ukrainian scientists, in particular, V. Danilchuk [4], N. Sviridova [7] reviewed various activities of tourist centers.
It follows from these works, that the structure of the tourist attraction involves many different objects, and the static typology of tourist centers offers four basic classification types: axiological, natural, recreational and multi-factor/mixed-type.
Despite the lack of legal definitions for the & quot-tourist center& quot- and the & quot-tourist zone& quot-, V. Danylchuk, referring to the Spanish experience, defines a tourist center as a destination, in which the & quot-minimum number of non-temporary accommodation reaches at least 500& quot-, while the territory it occupies is approximately 10 hectares. Tourist area is than defined as a destination & quot-that sites two or three centers for receiving tourists, with the total of at least 5000 places to stay& quot- and, assumingly, the appropriate area of no less than 100 hectares [4, 33].
Economic development of the territory is defined by the process of interaction and synthesis between factors that require coordination of available resources. Such a process starts with reconciliation in the parameters of effective functioning and use of performance indicators native to the services sector. An emphasis
here is on the tourist center and its transformational influence on the economic performance of the territory and related areas.
The problem of tourist center activity is especially acute in Donetsk region — a richly populated and a heavily industrialized area. Many a samples of natural reserve fund of the region are traditionally used by the population for recreation and tourism (mostly temporary and unorganized). However, in order to shift their usage to stationary and organized recreation and tourism, the question of establishing tourist centers must be raised.
Activities in national parks and other reserves that are united into tourist zones and are protected by clear legislation can be the source for self-funding and help preserve nature even further. Also, there are possibilities for parks and territories development through country'-s internal budget or via international investment.
Tourism and recreation planning deserve special attention as uncontrolled expansion of touristic activities leads to disruption of the natural and cultural environment and deterioration of the area'-s preservation conditions. Activities in the protected areas should be planned and carried out in strictly controlled amounts and types.
The most important stage in developing a theme parks is to determine the thematic direction of the area in question. World experience shows that theme parks and other family leisure centers are much more popular with visitors when given distinguishable vibe as opposed to sites that have no unique inimitable style [3].
Primary activities in these areas are scientific and cognitive tourism, hiking, aqua sports, fitness and other types.
Judging by the results of previous researches, it is advisable to acknowledge the following: a tourist center is an area that has a certain tourist resource and adequate infrastructure on the territory.
Once again, tourist center typology can be taken as a basic principle for outlining recreational activity. Full range of services can be provided by the center, accounting for behavioral possibilities to realize specific recreational goals, evident from of guests'- enquiries [5, 127].
Full spectrum of desirable services can only be realized under the condition of adequate functioning of all main factors in the system of quality assurance: aims and objectives on the directions of enhancement, support and improvement ofthe product quality should be at the center of economic policy of the tourist center- achievement of the required quality of services with minimal costs- the main criterion of achieving product quality is meeting the needs of consumers-
Section 13. Economics and management
the use of systematic approach while ensuring product quality control- continuous and systematic training of workers and employees- respectful attitude towards consumers- constant, conscientious and creative work of all employees to improve and enhance the quality of tourist products on the territory of the tourist center.
Consequently, modern quality service management at the tourist center should be directly focused on customer needs, their structure and dynamics- market capacity and market environment- incentives conditioned by economic and technical competition.
At the same time, regardless of the form of ownership and volume of tourist center services, its main task is ensuring an optimal blend of actions, methods and tools to provide manufacturing and provision of services to meet customers'- needs and wants, as well as the development of new services, able to meet the future needs and requirements of the market.
Creation of tourist centers and theme parks requires investments in relevant projects. Investment choice of recreational areas and projects accounts for the following characteristics: natural attractiveness- accessibility- possibility to organize tourist flow- ability to create the appropriate infrastructure.
There are several directions in the choice of areas and facilities for tourist centers and theme parks [7, 106]: — defining priorities for restoring recreational areas and facilities via continuation of the research into the methodology of estimating recreational resources- - developing characteristics of recreational territories and objects to the fullest- - managing process of investment projects.
Actions sequence for selecting recreational areas, facilities and theme parks:
— evaluation of the potential use of territories and objects for recreational purposes-
— satisfaction with the recreational areas and objects of social values-
— satisfaction with the recreational areas and facilities, meeting the requirements of the standard services-
— satisfaction with the projects of development of the recreational areas and projects that require investment.
Study the current state of functioning of a tourist center creates basis for creating a mechanism of evaluating feasibility of investment attractiveness of the relevant recreational territory and adjacent projects of tourist attraction and theme parks [6, 25].
The complexity in validation of a tourist center structure lies in the following:
• Tourist center is a formation that requires a variety of industrial capacities and production activities, each of which carries out independent functions. These same functions they can perform in other economic systems of the region, which causes difficulties in allocating them to the components of the tourist center and complicates the detection of the limits of the complex-
• Further on, successful development and operation of the tourist center is possible on the condition of availability of the multiple linkages between sectors of the economy, which are involved in the process of holiday makers servicing, but hardly all of them can be included in its composition-
• Next, formation of specific tourist center takes place under specific conditions that define the structure of the development.
For example, formation of a tourist center can be a combination of production sectors and non-production areas that promote or limit recreation. Similarly, natural conditions determine the specialization of the tourist center. Finally, the development level of a transport network defines logistical boundaries of all projects.
Tourist Center as a recreational and tourist complex is a component part of the general territorial complex that combines a sophisticated system of recreational and tourist establishments, servicing enterprises, infrastructure and other sectors, which have close trade and economic ties by sharing the resources in order to meet a variety of recreational, educational, cultural and other needs of the population.
Therefore, the internal structure of the tourist center cannot be clearly standardized. Each particular site will have its own specifics. Composition and the structure of a tourist center can vary due to the emergence of new kinds of tourism and recreational activities as well as improvements in the customer service industry.
Territorial structure of the tourist center is formed by:
— the area and facilities that directly serve recreational and tourist purposes (tourist zones, cultural and historical recreation parks, sightseeing centers) —
— the area and facilities that indirectly serve recreational and tourist purposes (natural reserves, national parks, monuments of nature).
The smallest taxonomic unit of a tourist center is, as researchers state, the & quot-enterprise"-, i. e. a separate institution, similar to other territorial production complexes. As any commercial complex, tourist center performs all the necessary functions. Its primary function is the maximum satisfaction of the population'-s recreational needs, spiritual and physical development.
Researchers N. Sviridova, M. Pristjuk, S. Liskova, A. Dov-gal [7, 115] suggest dividing social functions of a tourist center into three main groups: medical and biological- social and cultural- economic and political ones. Addition thematic purposes such as ecological, military, international, integrational, and city-forming functions can easily be added to the mix.
Establishing criteria and indicators for attractiveness of recreational territories is also of great importance. Substantiation of accepted critical loads on the environment, analysis of conformity of the new services with the requirements of the market and competition, and their concordance with the specialization of the tourist center are all factors to consider.
Designing a tourist center necessitates considering the balance between creativity, memorability of features and design value of the project. It is than advisable to collect, summarize and analyze the latest data on the quantitative and qualitative composition of natural recreational resources, to identify environmentally safe recreational capacity of its individual areas.
Combined differences in the natural, economic, and social conditions of the region, as well as recreational and tourist establishments placed there, influence the size, specialization, industry structure, intensity and stages of the service sector development. These are essential factors for the rational use of natural, medical, touristic and other resources in the region for the purpose of forming an efficient regional economy.
1. Zorin I., Kvartalnov A. Encyclopedia of tourism: Reference book. — M.: Finanse and statistics, 2000. — 356 p.
2. Montaner Montehano H. Structure of the Turkish market: /[Translation from Spanish by M. Voytovych]- Edited. By N. Mironenko. -MSU named after M. Lomonosov, Small Humanitarian University Geographical fakulty. — Moscow, Smolensk: B. i.: Edition of Smolensk humanitarian university, 1997. — 219 p.
Sustainable low-carbon development: turning point in global economy
3. Beidik O. Dictionary-reference book on geography of tourism, recreology and recreational geography/O. Beidik. — K.: Palitra, 1998. — 130 p.
4. Danylchuk V. Cultural and natural inheritage of Ukraine as the basis for the national tourist product creation//Scientific and practical problems of creation and functioning of the tourist centers and theme parks: V International and practical conference. — Donetsk: DITB, 2005. — P. 20−23.
5. Balashova R. Methodological features of business planning for tourist center/R. Balashova, V. Nakalyuzhnyi//Scientific and practical problems of creation and functioning of the tourist centres and theme parks: V International and practical conference. — Donetsk: DITB, 2005. — P. 126−128.
6. Balashova R. Development of tourist centers as a direction of the efficiency improvement of tourism/Modern problems of socioeconomic development and informatization: new challenges and perspectives- materials of the international scientific-practical conference, Kutaisi, 26−27 October 2013. [Col. of theses]. — Kutaisi: KNU, 2013. — P. 23−27.
7. Regional tourism development: theory and practice of management: monograph/N. Sviridova, M. Pristjuk, S. Liskova, A. Dovgal. -Lugansk: Knowledge, 2012. — 212 p.
Gaidutskiy Ivan, PhD in Economics, researcher at management and marketing faculty, research laboratory of national technical university of Ukraine,
& quot-Kyiv Polytechnic Institute& quot- E-mail: ivan. gaid@gmail. com
Sustainable low-carbon development: turning point in global economy
Abstract: The threatening increase of human impact on the climate took place during the period of the global economy industrial development. It has been already proved that the warming by over 2 °C can lead to catastrophic climate changes. To avoid this it is necessary to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (equivalent to carbon emissions (Hereinafter)) by 50% during the next 20 years and by 85% - within the next 50 years. To do this, the society must urgently move to a model of sustainable development, which stipulates the economy growth provided the reduction of carbon emissions. An important condition for solving this problem is the introduction of an effective system to promote sustainable low-carbon development. This is possible by creating an incentive system that would combine stimulating and forcing measures in influencing businesses and encouraging their ecologically friendly behaviour. The overall system of such incentives covers at least four cooperating institutions: international environmental organisations- national state governments- transnational corporations (TNCs), and consumers. Harmonisation of economic and environmental interests of such businesses and consolidation of their efforts is capable of ensuring the facilitation of sustainable low-carbon development.
Keywords: sustainable development- low-carbon development- globalisation- anti-carbon tools.
The most complete and comprehensive research of the problems related to the threatening human impact on climate has been provided in the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future [1]. This issue has been also studied to this or that extent in the works of many scientists, in particular: N. Andreieva [2]- B. Burkynskyi [3]- O. Veklych [4]- A. Prokopenko [5]- T. Tunytsia [6]- Yu. Tunytsia [7]- S. Kharichk-ov [8]- M. Khvesyk [9]. However, these studies were mostly of segment and sector character. We lack comprehensive research and theoretical and methodological development of proposals regarding the solving of the problem of creating a global incentive system for sustainable low-carbon development thus proving the rationale of this article.
The anthropogenic impact on the environment is estimated at the level of 95% of the climate change risks. This is primarily due to the rapid growth of carbon emissions, which significantly outpaced the growth of population and economy. To the greatest extent this was due to the rapid development of carbon-rich energy, which accounts for 80% of the volume of all carbon emissions. In turn, the growth of carbon energy was due to its increased funding by the state. Carbon energy funding is in fact the funding of carbon emissions that create global catastrophic threat to the climate. Moreover, studies have shown that carbon energy funding is opportunistic and
does not contribute to any improvement in the energy availability or energy security, stability, or environmental sustainability. State funding of carbon energy is a terrible manifestation of the contradictions of national economic and global environmental objectives.
The transition to sustainable low-carbon development can be a success through the implementation of the global economy energy conversion. However, energy conversion requires effective financial support. In many countries where such support is provided (mostly in the EU) there is good progress in economy energy conversion. Moreover, such countries are characterised by significantly better energy availability, security, stability, and environmental sustain-ability. However, in many countries such funding is very low, thus resulting in high intensity of carbon emissions. But the most paradoxical is the fact that many countries have dualistic policy: funding the carbon energy and the carbon-free one simultaneously. This once again demonstrates the inability to address this issue at the national level and the need to implement a global incentive doctrine for sustainable low-carbon development.
A tax mechanism is a generally accepted effective way to mobilize the financial resources. The advantages of such a mechanism are the double effects, which are greatly acceptable to motivate low-carbon development. However, environmental taxes, which have been widely applied in the countries since the end of the twentieth

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