Information management tools of social control in the area of procurement for state and municipal needs
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- Экономические науки
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INFORMATION MANAGEMENT TOOLS OF SOCIAL CONTROL IN THE AREA OF PROCUREMENT FOR STATE AND MUNICIPAL NEEDS
N. A. Mamedova Candidate of Economic Sciences,
A. N. Baykova research assistant,
Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics, Moscow, Russia
Summary. The article explores the architecture, content, and the current settings of information resources used by the subjects of social control in procurement. The subject of the study is presented: Russian official site for posting procurement, centralized public administration sites, sites of public organizations (associations). Defines the basic conditions for the functioning of information resources needed to implement the special function of social control. Studied the needs and preferences of user'-s data information resources. Keywords: dataware- public control in procurement- information resource.
Effective implementation of the measures of social control in procurement is not possible to provide information openness and transparency of public and municipal customers. Speaking about the role of information in the system of social control in procurement, should be understood as information support for the creation of conditions of object information management, providing the necessary information included in the system search tools, receiving, storing, stockpiling, transfer, information processing, organization of data banks . Prerequisite development, implementation and use in the management of information security is to build and operation of information-analytical automated control systems . It is a life-giving information support mechanism, which allows the
subjects of social control to fully realize their powers through an open information field.
In Russia, the contract system in procurement formed and developed in such a way as to ensure maximum transparency of the processes related to the planning, deployment and execution of procurement. The level of information provision is a basic factor determining the effectiveness of the tools of social control . The main indicators of the level of development of information security are the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of information resources used by the subjects of social control. Differentiating the totality of information resources should be allocated to the following groups. Firstly, it is the resources that are created on the initiative of the State — a nationwide official website for posting information about procurement (www. zakupki. gov. ru), centralized government sites. Secondly, it is the resources that are created on the initiative of the subjects of social control — sites of public organizations and associations.
Subjects for the realization of the function of social control needs access to the full, open and reliable information about the activities of customers, specialized organizations, operators of electronic platforms, control authorities in the area of procurement. Using this information the subjects of social control is carried out to monitor the information, tools used to appeal actions (inaction) of officials of customers and other organizations, as well as have the opportunity to take part in public discussion of major purchases. It is on the basis of obtained from official centralized information resource data subjects of public control form their own information resources that illustrate their activities — ongoing research and activities.
The state creates and regulates the formal and centralized information resources (websites). Of course, first of all, these resources are necessary for the functioning of the system of procurement of accommodation through which participants procurement can be informed of planned, ongoing and completed procurement customers. However, the higher the degree of openness of resources than more strictly regulated activity of the customer to deploy the resource documents for procurement planning, carrying out procurement procedures, negotiation and execution of contracts, the more opportunities for public oversight entities to implement a special function. On the other hand, there are resources of information security, which are created and work on the initiative of the subjects of public control in order to promote social goals and outcomes of their activities. These resources are designed to inform the public involvement on a voluntary or other basis of active citizens and civil society organizations in the implementation of the function of social control.
Thus, to answer the question to what extent the resources of information support, as established on the initiative of the state, and at the initiative of subjects of public control, contribute to the development of the system of social control in procurement, should initially determine what parameters and functionality should possess information resources?
The official site for posting procurement, as well as centralized sites of state authorities should in fact be the portals, because these resources are visited by a large number of users and the resource itself contains a lot of services, links and content. In this connection, the user experience provided a clear interface, almost intuitive navigation and original content. Modern user to work effectively on the portal are also required communication services — forums, news ticker with the possibility of thematic subscription, rating data and other feedback. If we consider the classification sign of division portals on the vertical and horizontal, the portal official site for placing procurement, as well as portals and sites of government relate to the vertical structure.
Vertical (specialized) portals as opposed to universal horizontal portals have a specific theme and are designed for a specific range of users. Content vertical portals thematically limited, but it can provide a large number of services. For official portals and centralized sites are characterized by the following features:
• membership of a particular state structure-
• limiting access management portal-
• special order of work with citizens and legal entities-
• strictly legitimate character hosted informational content.
Regarding the content should be noted the following. Content management is carried out by means of special systems — Content Management System (CMS), which is software that functions on the side of the web server and repeatedly simplifies the job site administrator. Using this control system only requires technical skills for editing text and multimedia information. The content of the information content is prepared by experts of government, regulates the operation of the site. The CMS allows you to manage large volumes of structured data (DBMS) using intuitive and user-friendly interface. The total content of the site is a collection of original data unstructured kind, so data management using one of the varieties of CMS: Enterprise Content Management System (ECMS) — content management system size of the organization or Web Content Management System (WCMS) — a system of web content management. The first system is used to structure the data content of the official website for placing procurement, since this content integrates data placed customers. The second type of system is used to control the content of centralized government websites, which provides information on its activities.
The creation and management of work study sites used ready content management system, which differ in the way of work. For example, the pages can be generated by the user'-s request, the method used in all information resources with the presence of contextual features and advanced search based on a sample user-defined criteria. If you are using a content management system ready for editing site administrator information stored in the database, and the database information should be representation module when processing queries
visitors. The second method works ready content management systems — when the generated pages while editing information by the administrator, the third method is a mixed type.
Most of central government sites as well as the official site for posting procurement function by the third method of content management. This is due to the presence of relatively stable information content — news ticker, user registration module, feedback module with the technical service, module summary data framework, structures, and other contacts- and the presence of a constantly changing (updated) content generated by users (for the official website — customers, other authorized bodies (organizations), operators of electronic platforms).
The result of using a content management system is expressed in the characterization of the information architecture of an information resource, which is the process of systematization of content and site navigation. The main objective of the information architecture — as simple as possible for users to find the information you need with the help of a competent module placement site, hyperlinks, as well as the organization of the amenities a visitor to the site.
Designing information architecture consists of two sequential processes -content analysis of information resources and development process of its structure. Properly designed information architecture has the following advantages:
• high index of relevance of pages in the index of search engines-
• reduction of time spent by the user navigate the site and find the information-
• reduction of the time spent on the site technical support and update the content of the information resource.
Thus, the logical construction modules of the site provide the user with an understanding of the interface and usability services.
Information architecture site of paramount importance attaches organization navigation system, which is a menu system that allows a virtual mode to navigate through the interface and use the resources of the site. It is believed that the perfect navigation does not exist, and the main difficulty is the harmonization of the graphic component, the ratio setting and accommodation modules and hierarchy information content. Speed of movement between pages, working hyperlinks inadmissibility hang processes of displacement and load, moderate contrast of the visual elements, and, of course, the accuracy of the information content is the basic conditions for effective navigation, which are necessary to provide a modern user and that should be the body (organization), administers the information resource. Management sections of the site should be one that is visualized through the navigation menu and organizing a thematic catalog.
Thematic catalog is a collection of links to sites which are united by topic. In the catalog may also include links to various resources that share a common theme, so that the user can switch to other thematically related websites. Despite the fact that usually links to the directory are selected automatically for the functioning of the official website and the sites of centralized government selection
of references made by the moderator, these measures will help to avoid fraud, false references. For sites subjects of public control is more typical automatic selection of links, and if possible free to add links, they must undergo inspection by the moderator to ensure information security.
Subjects of social control, administer information resources should also examine with special attention to the content of the content. Baseline characteristics of the content (literacy, substance, relevance and reliability) provide influx of users. Developers and site administrators should take into account the difference in the speed of the Internet connection users. Using a large number of «heavy» elements — multimedia, graphics, promotional materials leads to a reduction in the speed of loading pages, a system error, which reduces the interest of users to the site.
Another important aspect of setting information architecture and content of the site content is to use duplicate content. First, duplicate content can distort the results of the indexing of pages by search engines. Secondly, it reduces the potential navigational system and loss of members. Content may be duplicated within one information resource, i.e. its contents is repeated on different pages, and may be at different sites, the content of sites where repeated with different domain names. The user can check the uniqueness of the site'-s content, you can apply for this program, services to check the text for uniqueness (Similar Page Checker, Copyscape, Xenu Sleuth), or use the search engine duplicate content in any search engine.
Even with the obvious differences in the methods of producing content for centralized sites should be noted that the observance of copyright, citation, the presence of links to official sources of information — have the necessary conditions for the formation of content on which depends the quality of the public trust placed in the information resources data. Of particular importance for these conditions are the subjects of social control sites, for which the number of authorized users is one of the performance indicators.
Authorization is a confirmation of the user'-s identity. Authorization by site administrators determine the level of access rights profile. It also makes clear the system and network resources that the user is at any given time on the site, to perform certain actions, enjoys certain services. User authentication occurs using login and password, registration data, the user fills himself, checking data filling man — one of the standard procedures for registration (to avoid the risk of manipulating data on the number of registered users and their activity on the site). Access password can be assigned automatically to enable or disable the option to change the password authorized user, or may be initially set by the user when registering on the site. Sites subjects of social control often use the option of filling the user profile for more efficient interaction of the type «user -administrator» and «user — the user.» This provides an information exchange, effectiveness feedback growth of volunteerism and other mechanisms of action.
Cumulative system of statistical and analytical information is used by administrators of the site to conduct internal ratings, content updates, verification and diversification of site services. For sites of public organizations are characterized by fast (simple) authorization or lack thereof, in most cases, authorization is required only in special cases — when sending circulation, technical request to participate in a forum or a particular procedure. On the one hand it simplifies the user experience with a site in the early stages, it saves time, serve to maintain the necessary distance and confidentiality of personal data. On the other hand, even a quick authorization allows the site administrator to collect primary statistical data and services for the development of the site can be used processing function offers the user comments or when an error on the site.
Quite rare is the use of complex authorization. An example is the user login to the official website of accommodation to participate in the procurement process of public discussion of major purchases. To do this, the user needs to go beyond the site and register on the portal of public services (http: //www. gosuslugi. ru), related to the disclosure of personal data long enough identity verification, coding, access and other difficulties to which most people are not used to. It is obvious that in this way the government wants to limit abusive and unprofessional use of the service for the organization of one of the stages of the public discussion of major purchases directly on the official website. But it is also clear that such an approach to reduce the number of user authorization.
Thus, for authorization on the study sites are characterized by the following features:
• protection of data (including personal) from access by third parties-
• establishment and implementation of individual rights of access to system resources (for example, the official site profile determines the ability to work in an open and closed part of the site) —
• the possibility of using digital signatures.
Modern information resources should provide the opportunity to work with the services of the site in various programs of the browser, which provide viewing and processing site. This basic characteristic sites of subjects of public organizations, but for sites of government, the official website of this characteristic is not obvious. In this case, the user should be informed that the correct display modules of the site are possible with the opening of a site in one of the browsers. Basic user preferences in Russia are distributed among the following programs browsers: Internet Explorer- Opera- Google Chrome- Mozilla Firefox- Netscape Navigator. For sites of government is characterized by a preference program browser Internet Explorer, this limitation is due, in particular, with the possibilities of operating systems administrators site.
The main purpose of the program is the browser to display the information in well-designed pages. Modern browsers also provide additional features:
• contextual search through the pages-
• check spelling-
• the ability to block pop-up windows-
• warning of the presence and downloading cookie-
• availability of download manager and others.
Browsers differ among themselves interface, features, platforms and Internet protocols, processing speed, relevant pages, features the construction of the results of searches, supported image formats, algorithms, information security. The developers and site administrators should consider these differences to ensure efficient search and you like to work site.
When managing an important information resource tool for promoting thematic profile of the site is exchanging links with other resources. To do this on a site formed by a section where to post links, usually with feedback. Optimize the instrument can by forming a multi-level directory of links or pagination links. All this allows increasing the technical citation index, as well as the overall rankings, that is to optimize the indexing of the site.
Administration of the site is aimed at achieving the same goal — to find the target visitors. Target visitor — a user who is completely satisfied with the result search query, which is oriented to the page of a particular site and can fully use the site'-s service, realizing the purpose of this resource, the options and features of services that took advantage of, and ideally — become a regular user. To increase the number of users and fixing them on the site used multiple approaches, but there is another approach, the use of which occurs infrequently — a design version of the site for people with disabilities.
Many sites of state authorities declare on their websites version available for visually impaired people, however, in some cases special tools design sites do not apply, then the version of the site is limited to the use of more visually distinguishable font decrease in the number of graphic elements and other tools. There are standards compliance checking the content and structure of the site specific validators (quality system requirements), for example, the standard W3C (http: //www. w3. org/QA/Tools). In order to match the site an adequate degree of validation is necessary to create a separate site with its own settings and selecting the content. On the page of the site should be accessible to the user manual, can adjust the style of the site, the ability to use the shortcuts. Of course, it should be possible to customize the appearance of information, formation and processing of the request, which will allow the user to easily change the settings, some CSS properties and save them.
Presented in research settings and content features of information resources are the basis of information support system of public control in procurement. A logical continuation of the study is to develop a methodology and
the formation of centralized resources ranking government authorities and resources of public organizations, associations engaged in measures of social control in procurement. With regard to the official website of the All-Russian advisable to conduct a comparative analysis with similar information resources of foreign countries in which we operate contract procurement system.
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PSYCHO-PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES OF USING ICT IN THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS
S. D. Eshmetov Assistant,
Tashkent University of Information Technologies, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Summary. Development of human activity resulted in a change of one or another of its structural components such as the subject, the objectives, activities content, system operations ensuring the achievement of goals, means of implementation of these actions. Thus no change occurs in any link taken separately, but in the whole structure. As a result, transformed the traditional and new forms of human activity in the world of work, learning and communication. Modern ICT tools have become a new tool, a tool of human activity. Keywords: ICT- information and communication- society- development- pedagogue- culture- education.
Creation and development of the information society requires application of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education, which is determined by several factors.
Firstly, the introduction of ICT in education significantly accelerates the transfer of knowledge and experience of life of mankind not only from generation to generation, but also from one person to another.
Second, modern ICT, improving the quality of teaching and learning, allow a person more successfully adapt to social changes.