Informational law in the sphere of mass media in Kazakhstan

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Государство и право. Юридические науки


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Informational law in the sphere of mass media in Kazakhstan
of legal awareness. Monographic studies of Kazakhstan scientists were used as theoretical basis for research as also scientific developments of leading Russian scientists were investigated. As local so foreign humanitarian and actually legal literature had a large value for study relating indirectly and directly to this theme. It is clear, that education of legal awareness begins with mastering of moral values, norms in family, school, in spiritual communication.
Legal thinking as well opinion and legal awareness of young citizens are developing during the process of life observing and thinking about ordinary going events, as also about domestic and social conflicts related to the norms of law. Belletristic literature, mass media play a large role in legal education. Therefore, the opinion of V P. Каzimirchuk and V. N. Kudryavtsev, that legal awareness of citizen and sense of justice are closely associated categories, is very actual [4, 125].
1. Nazarbayev N. A. Modernisation of State Administration On Principles of Corporate Management, Transparency and Accountability to the Public Society. //Kazakhstanskaya Pravda. — Sep. 2nd, — 2006, — No. 203 (25 174).
2. Baymakhanov M. T, Vaysberg L. M., Beyssenov A. U. and others. Interaction of Legal Awareness with Ethics and Morality in the Society of Transition Period. — Almaty, 1995. — P. 4.
3. Legal Awareness and Legal Culture of Employees of the Department of Internal Affairs. — L., 1981. — P. 46, 47.
4. Kazimirchuk V. N., Kudryavtsev V. N. Modern Sociology of Law. — М.: Yuridicheskaya Literatura, 1995.
Smanova Akmaral Bakhtiyarovna, Teacher of law faculty of the Kazakh National University named after al-Farabi E-mail: Akmaral. Smanova@kaznu. kz
Informational law in the sphere of mass media in Kazakhstan
Abstract: The world is going through a fifth information revolution, which allows almost instantaneous transmit and receive the necessary information. The rapid development of computer technology, communication and communication provides a unique opportunity for the formation and development of interstate information cyberspace. Mass computerization, the rapid pace of development of information technology has led to a revolutionary change and breakthrough in the development of business, industry, research, education and social life.
Today around the world are increasingly using the concept of «information society& quot-, one of a kind company did not recognize any state or territorial boundaries. The primary means of development of information society is multimedia — the result of merging the Internet and media.
It is the Internet and the media are the most important means of receiving, processing, analyzing and disseminating information. Accordingly, in the modern world that are highly dependent on the timeliness and accuracy of information obtained their role to play.
Mass information — intended for the general public print, audiovisual and other reports and materials. The media — print periodical, radio and television programs, documentaries, audio and video recording and some form of periodic or continuous public distribution of information, including the WEB-sites in public telecommunication networks (Internet and others), free speech, creativity and expression in print and otherwise, of their views and opinions, receive and impart information by any means not prohibited by law is guaranteed by the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Keywords: Media, mass media, freedom of speech, censorship, media owner, journalist, editor, recording media, government secrets and other Internet sites, providers, the circulation of information, the information society, hackers, online retailers, the Internet — the company, the IT -government, information technology.
Questions of the rights and duties of modern mass media are disputable. In spite of the fact that the list of the normative legal acts, regulating activity of the Kazakhstan journalists and mass media, seems huge and
exhaustive, lawmaking process in this area doesn’t stop. For example, such drafts of laws as the Law of the RK «About Publishing" — Law of the RK «About Informatization& quot- are developed. Separate regulations on mass
Section 2. Science of law
media contain in industry codes (civil, civil and procedural, criminal, criminal procedure, tax, administrative and other codes) which play extremely important role in the general framework of the legislation on mass media. These acts contain the provisions defining such legal aspects, as slander, invasion into private life, the admission of mass media to judicial hearings and lighting them in the press, etc.
Informational legal relationship are regulated also by a number of laws which directly concern activity of mass media or regulate separate aspects of their activity. Laws on mass media, on national security, on languages, on licensing, on communication, on advertizing concern to them, etc. Besides, there is a number of laws which are connected with activity of mass media, journalists, however their action extends (and even more) on the relations which aren’t concerning mass media. The Law «About Copyright and the Adjacent Rights& quot- concerns to that, for example. From bylaws in the field of mass media it is possible to carry government resolutions — about an order of registration of foreign mass media, about some questions ofuse of a radio-frequency range of RK, of accreditation of correspondents and many others.
Unlike other CIS countries, where there are the separate laws regulating TV and radio broadcasting, in Kazakhstan regulation of these relations continues to be carried out at the level of bylaws (The resolution of the government of RK of July 18, 2007 No. 607 «About the approval of rules of licensing and qualification requirements to activity on the organization television and (or) broadcastings»). It represents a fertile field for abuses in the field of mass media.
But the subject of the rights and duties of journalists, their powers of office is most interesting to me. Especially, as this subject in our legislation is insufficiently precisely regulated.
But let’s go one after another. What is a basis of regulation of mass media? Certainly, Constitution. In the Constitution of Kazakhstan the freedom of speech and creativity is guaranteed, censorship is forbidden, the right of everyone to receive and extend information any way not forbidden by law is consolidated. At the same time
there are also the restrictions accepted in the international practice. Point 3 of article 20 of the Constitution of the RK doesn’t allow promotion or propaganda of violent, change of the constitutional system, violation of integrity of the republic, undermining safety of the state, war, a social, racial, national, religious, class and patrimonial superiority, and also a cruelty and violence cult. Specified freedoms, the rights and restrictions are reproduced and in article 2 of the Law of the RK «About Mass Media».
The rights and duties of the journalist respectively are listed in articles 20 and 21 of the Law of the RK «About Mass Media». But what their practical realization in real conditions? As in modern conditions of development of computer technologies, the Internet, absolute general availability of information the journalist can fulfill such duties as: to grant requests of the persons which have provided information, for the indication of their authorship, preservation in secret information source, observance of reliability of information.
Thus, definition of a circle of the rights and duties of journalists is one of the most important elements of the Kazakhstan legislation on mass media as the volume of these rights and duties speaks about an essence of professional activity of workers of mass media. Specifics of a profession of the journalist allows it to have the rights inaccessible to other citizens, but it involves also a duty to fulfill a public debt. So, the state has to help journalists to realize it.
Prompt emergence of new technologies and their continuous convergence, mass media cardinally changing the nature, influence and a condition of mass and information law. Whether will lead these processes to revolution in information law? As it is represented, adaptation of traditional standards of copyright, inviolability of private life, honor and dignity protection and other human rights to new forms of collecting, storage and distribution of mass information will be their result only. The computer right, the right of new technologies and communications will expand an existing legal framework, will force legislators and judges to master unknown to them while right application areas, but at all won’t replace the existing right of mass media.
1. The law of the Republic of Kazakhstan «About mass media» ofJuly 23, 1999. — No. 451-I.
2. [Electronic resource]. — Available from: http: //www. 100storon. ru/smi20_years/20 111 114/249517667. html
3. Конституция Р К. //"Норма-К», — 2012.

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