Practicability and relevance of the use of developing techniques in the field of sports
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PRACTICABILITY AND RELEVANCE OF THE USE OF DEVELOPING TECHNIQUES IN THE FIELD OF SPORTS
L. V. Marishchuk Е. V. Mikulo
The process of sports training as a technology ensuring the subject-subject interaction of a trainer and a sportsman, as well as their professional and personal development, is analyzed. The author'-s definition of psycho-didactic technology is presented.
Key words: technology, developing, psycho-didactic, system, sportsmen, trainers, sports training.
As G. Dryden wrote, «A human being can only evolve in two directions, i.e., in the direction of development or in the direction of degradation, so if education does not contribute to development, it will contribute to degradation.» Preparation of a high-class athlete is always a problem that can and must be addressed as unique and inimitable . In practice, there is an understanding that in the case of preparation of elite athletes both coaches and athletes need continuous development of professionally significant qualities of their personality, which involves the use of developmental (psycho-didactic) technology. Use of the developmental technology is a first stage in the development of the subjective world of a teacher, which is a basis for mastering subsequent technologies of learner-centered education. Developmental technology provides fundamental education by transferring a teacher from the methodical to conceptual and methodological level of activity . The developmental technology means a technology focused on the creation of appropriate conditions for development of an individual, changing his or her ethical standards and intellectual and physical potential development. Developmental technology is based on a dialogue, construction of subject-subject relationship, defining the nature of interpersonal interaction. The result of this interaction will include the personal growth of its subjects and productivity and profitability of the joint activity. Monitoring of the plan’s implementation makes it possible to correct the process of implementation and to receive the desired result in a timely manner.
A specific feature of the developmental technology is that its use requires high activity of a teacher and students. A teacher’s activity appears in the students' knowledge of personality characteristics, readiness for self-transformation, and making corrections to the technological process. Student activity is manifested in increasing independence and responsibility, that is, subjectivity in the process of interaction. The developing nature of the technology is manifested in the possibility of its influence upon the integral characteristics of the person (needs, interests, motives, values, attitudes, meanings), on the development of professionally significant personal qualities, and determines the dynamics of development of the individual- as a whole, its competence in a chosen activity. The result of the application of the developmental technology is human striving for selfdevelopment, self-regulation, self-reflection, self-determination and self-control, the
ability of self-improvement — the individual subjectivity. Despite the importance of psychological and pedagogical technologies developed on the basis of the principle of education focused on development and self-development, technology actually used in practice is far from the most modern ideas and concepts. Changes occurring as a result of its use are largely random in nature and are not related to the reconstruction of the educational process on the principles of personality-centered learning . It seems important to mention the conclusion of S.A. Goncharov  that it is difficult to teach the developmental technologies unless they become the organizing principle of the educational process, as an interaction which requires adjustment of the professional mentality of all its participants. The synthesis of psychology and humanitarian culture in the process of personality-centered learning in sports activity contributes to fulfillment of the main task — development of personality, and its intellectual and physical perfection.
The basis of the developmental technology includes principles of science, integration, and creativity, whereas means of their development and implementation include conceptual understanding of learning, use of techniques for developing orientation, thematic programs for developing lessons, and monitoring the process of students' personal development. It is interesting to consider the opinion of V.K. Granovsky and his colleagues, who thought that the most virtuosic instrument of developmental technology was the regulation of behavior in interaction — & quot-perspective space" . One of the resources for improving the performance indicators of sports activity is the subject-subject interaction, lack of imperative in teaching and training activities, creation of a system of choice of behavior by subjects of the sports activity, and self-coordinated design of solutions in a given situation. Regulation of behavior is a proactive work in the condition of competitiveness for the initiatives. «The behavior follows the initiative in the space of perspective, and the more prospective this following is, the bigger the benefits and advantages are, the easier and freer this process is… "- . The specific features of interaction in physical culture and sports activities are primarily expressed in the fact that the regulation of an athlete’s behavior is much easier, if he/she finds the benefits and prospects of the sports activity to be promising . It is important and necessary to determine the time and place of psychological training in the system of long-term athletic training, especially in Olympic sports. The dominance of the subject-subject relationship type encourages sports teachers to create conditions for their own professional and personal development, to update the resource capabilities of an individual athlete in accordance with the characteristics of his or her personality .
Today, there is a favorable situation in the field of physical culture and sports, which predetermines the feasibility of use of the developmental technology as an effective means of implementation by a teacher of a personality-centered approach. Among them are: (a) commitment to continuous development of professionally significant qualities of the sports activity subjects- (b) monitoring of an athlete’s readiness for competitive activity- © search for ways of interaction between different specialists with different professional qualifications (teacher, doctor, psychologist, manager, etc.), working together for the purpose of successful sports training. This will allow — in the light of experience gained in pedagogy and psychology, not declaratively but in fact — to organize the joint
activities of a coach, an athlete and a psychologist, thus implementing the developmental technology. We understand a technology as a set of techniques, methods, and their sequences to achieve a certain goal. It is realized based on the principle of educational training in the subject-subject interaction of a teacher and students, thus having a complex influence upon the motivational-need, emotional-volitional, and cognitive aspects of a person. Technology is a micro system in the „teacher-student“ system, because all five of its components, i.e. target, informative, organizational, operational, and diagnostic, are interdependent and interrelated- the goal acts as a system-building factor, whereas achievement of a goal — a predictable and diagnosed result of the application — a feedback mechanism. Such an interpretation became the basis of development for „Involuntary education technology“ (L.V. Marishchuk, 1992) [8- 9], where the „repetition without repetition“ of A.N. Bernstein was also used for the purpose of formation of motor skills. Under our guidance (L.V. Marishchuk) a number of technologies, named by analogy with the „Psychopedagogy“ of E. Stones  as psychodidactic, were developed and put into practical work with students of the sports high school and athletes. Among them are: „The technology of intellectual education by means of humanities,“ dedicated to implementation of the principle of educational training for students of the sports high school named after A.O. Fialko-Vagranov (1998) — „Technology for purposeful formation of volitional and physical qualities“ in the process of fulfillment of special exercises of professionally-applied physical training for employees of a security agency, for which a creative barrier zone of S.A. Hayduk (2005) was developed- „Technology of ideomotor training“ of athletes — basketball players in the course of shooting a ball into the basket, by Alireza Bahrami (2007) — „Technology for activation of mnemonic activity“ for students of the sports high school, including the development of muscle memory, implemented by S.G. Ivashko (2011) — „Technology for development of the penalty shot skill in basketball“ of A.A. Bykova (2012), in which the title speaks for itself: the use of different fitness devices and ideomotor training- „Technology for development of competitive reliability“ of V.M. Zaika (2014), which determined development of the skill for regulation of the optimal mental state for athletes in competitive activities.
Upon the instructions of the State Program for Development of Physical Culture and Sports in the Republic of Belarus for 2011−2015, the following projects were implemented in the Laboratory of Sports Psychology of the Institute of Physical Culture and Sports under our supervision: & quot-Development of the program for formation of sensor-motor functions and specialized perceptions of athletes, and their introduction into the system of preparation of the sports reserve» and «Development and implementation of the methodology for development of the important personal qualities of athletes in the pedagogical process for preparation of the sports reserve.» The programs are built based on the principles of developmental (psycho-pedagogical) technology and are aimed to provide development direction for the sports teaching process and enhancing the development of the desired functions and perceptions of athletes, improving their psychomotor abilities. The diagnostic component — the result of application -defines the understanding of the value of human development, construction of the sports-pedagogical process on the basis of development (organization of
systematic psychological preparation), development of basic psychomotor and other qualities important for athletes, and targeted personal development and selfdevelopment of an athlete. The implementation of content-based and organizational components (methods) of the developmental technology requires external resources of the educational sports environment: staff, information, logistics, and time.
In summary, we should note that harmonization of the methodological and humanistic potential of human and natural science knowledge makes it possible to create a developmental methodology for psychological training of an athlete at the stage of sportsmanship formation. Use of the developmental technology requires continuing professional education, which is a factor of success in life and the competitiveness of subjects of professional sports activity.
URL: http: //www. uis. kiev. ua/discussion/impact. html. — Дата обр.: 20. 09. 2014
Стоунс, Э. Психопедагогика. Психологическая теория и практика обучения. / Э. Стоунс / под ред.
Translated from Russian by Znanije Central Translastions Bureas