Conceptual analysis of forming processes project team

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В статті проведено концептуальний аналіз етапів формування проектної команди і процеси управління її проектної діяльності з метою досягнення успішного завершення поставлених цілей в проекті
Ключові слова: концептуальний аналіз, проектна команда, цілі, задачі, формування, етапи
В статье проведен концептуальный анализ этапов формирования проектной команды и процессы управление ее проектной деятельностью с целью достижения успешного завершения поставленных целей в проекте Ключевые слова: концептуальный анализ, проектная команда, цели, задачи, формирование, этапы
In the article the conceptual analysis of the stages of forming of project team and processes is conducted management its project activity with the purpose of achievement of successful completion of the put aims in a project
Key word: conceptual analysis, project team, aims, tasks, forming, stages
УДК 629.5. 01
E.A. Celovalnikova
Аспирант Кафедра менеджменту Международний гуманітарний університет Фонтанська дорога, 33, м. Одесса, Україна
It is known that a team of project is motive force of project. [1] And from that as far as a team will be engaged in realization of project, success of project depends straight. Another factor, influencing on efficiency of work of team of project, is communication between the members of team, and also communications with other interested parties of project.
It is impossible to mix up a «project team» with a «group», because a «group» is an association of people on aims or interests. Team is not simply group of people. It is a group, operating together with the purpose of achievement of results to which everybody aspires from a group. Team potential is much higher than potential of group or individual efforts. Due to this potential the most ordinary project, being on verge of crash, can give brilliant results.
Analysis of researches and publications
Work in a team allows to utillize efforts, skills, capabilities and creative possibilities all, who participates in a project. A team enables to work together, operating here flexibly and effectively. For this reason for achievement of success it is
necessary to understand during realization of project, how to pick up a good team and as effectively by it to lead. [1,2] The purpose of the article is a leadthrough of conceptual analysis of the stages of forming of project team and processes of management of its project activity with the purpose of successful completion of the put aims in a project.
Raising of task
For providing of effective management a project researchers select the row of important moments which must be realized as early as motion of preparation of project[3−5]:
• understanding at all levels of guidance of organizational essence of project management-
• personal interest and support of project the top management of organization-
• ability of subdivisions and services organization to adapt oneself to work in the conditions of project management-
• accordance of leader of project to the criteria of selection: clear orientation on the receipt of concrete results to the certain term, complete understanding of corporate aims, aspiration to bring in the personal contribution to their achievement, skills of work with people-
• presence for the leader of leader qualities: authoritativeness, responsibility, ability to insist and support business contacts.
I. Principles of forming of project teams
1. Signs of project team
For an any project management on the period of his realization a specific temporal organizational structure, headed the leader of project, is created.
In a due form the project team reflects the existent organizational structure of project management, division of functions, duties and responsibility for made a decision in the process of his realization. It is known that there is a manager of project at top level of structure, and on lower levels are performers, departments and specialists, responsible for separate functional spheres.
Among the great number of factors, determining team efficiency, it is possible to select team parameters, external environment of functioning and motivation of team (fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Factors, determining team efficiency
Thus, leader, forming a team must without fail take into account:
• aims, standings before a team-
• necessary knowledges, abilities, skills and experience of the attracted personnel-
• psychological requirements to the future members of team-
• time which a team will function during.
All of parameters of team can be divided into two groups (fig. 2).
Fig. 2. Team parameters
On maintenance a team of project is a group of specialists of high qualification, possessing knowledges and skills, necessary for effective achievement of aims of project.
A basic strategic factor of creation and activity of project team is realization of project — protracted enterprise,
possessing the enhanceable stake of risk and subject to the permanent changes. Therefore the special description of project team is enterprise character of its activity, directed on the decision of the semistructured tasks and rapid reacting on the requirements of external environment and changing terms of realization of project.
2. Composition of project team
It is accepted to examine the process of formation of project team as formation of single, integral collective of managers, capable effectively to arrive at the purpose of project.
The project team is created the leader of project — legal entity-customer. The task of leader of project at forming of team is a selection of members teams which would provide:
• accordance of quantitative and high-quality composition of team to the aims and requirements of project-
• effective group work on a project management-
• psychological compatibility of team members and creation of active stimulant «into a project» culture-
• unfolded into a group intercourse and making of optimum group decisions of problems, arising up during realization of project.
The leader of project appoints the manager of project, carrying out the general managing a project, supervisory his basic parameters and co-ordinating activity of taem members. The manager of project from approval of leader determines the necessary number of specialists — team members, their qualification, selects and renting of workers.
3. Stages of life cycle of project team
The team of project has the life cycle in which it is possible to select five basic stages: forming, «work», functioning, reorganization, disbandment.
At forming of team the collected specialists at times are unknown with each other, before did not work together. For their effective joint activity a certain period is needed, when they will define relations, will adapt oneself to the terms of work in a team, realize itself single whole. On the stage of forming there is an acquaintance of team members with each other and with a project on the whole, general aims and values are formed.
A period of work is a period of beginning of joint work, development of solidarity of group, decision a collective task. Usually he is characterized the enhanceable level of conflict, caused distinction in characters of specialists, approaches, styles and methods of decision of problems. On this stage the process of selection of leaders goes into a team, the roles of workers and their place are determined in a team.
The most long is consider the working stage, when the normal productive process of work goes on the basis of the formed team sense. This stage is characterized the maximal opening of individual creative capabilities, team members study to understand and take into account interests of each other.
At the change of project, change of structure of project management, completion of the separate stages of project, to replacement of workers in connection with professional disparity invitation of temporal specialists and experts and the stage of reorganization comes in other cases. The task of manager on this stage consists in organization of adaptation of new members of team to style and methods of mutual relations in a team, in becoming of their professional role, determination of duties etc.
At completion of the separate stages or all of project separate subdivisions or all of team are broken up accordingly. Two variants of further actions of specialists of company are
thus possible. In first case upon termination of project workers go back into the functional subdivisions of organization. In second case, if the team of project was formed not from the employees of this organization, the manager of project runs into the problem of further employment of workers which are not in a position to try back work. It is recommended a team leader to show attention to further employment of specialists in a professional sphere, to give objective recommendations the members of project group with pointing their qualification, knowledges, skills and experience.
4. Determination of functional duties of team participants
The feature of distributing of duties between the members of team of project is team responsibility for implementation of separate functions, for the separate spheres of activity, that distributing of duties is made between subdivisions of team, and into subdivisions there is the collective taking of decisions and solidarnaya responsibility for the results of activity.
5. Selection of project team
The manager of project is engaged in the selection of project team. On a selection and reception on work of functional managers made a decision jointly with the direct leader of appropriate department. Specialists in subdivisions of team are taken away by the manager of functional subdivision.
Usually education, experience, medical information, come forward the criteria of selection (because for implementation of some types of works on a project certain physical qualities which must be confirmed the proper medical documents can be required).
At the selection of team of project besides professional requirements it is necessary to take into account the followings qualities: ability to work in a group- independence, enterprise- desire to take responsibility for made a decision- ability to accept risky decisions, work in the conditions of vagueness- communicability, stability to stresses- low level of conflict- accordance of the valued options aims and values of project.
For work in a project team age of personnel is preferable from 25 to 45 years, which is characterized high activity, high professionalism and capacity for the innovative type of thought.
ІІ. Structure and maintenance of management a project team
1. Planning of work of project team
Planning of activity of team of project must begin yet to the receipt of investments.
After determination of structure of team and manager of project his task is the careful planning of work of all of functional subdivisions of team for the effective use and allocation of resources, selected on a project.
The first step in planning of team is determination of necessary quantitative and high-quality composition of team and personnel of project. The further process of planning requires active voice of all of members of project team.
2. Organization of work of team
Distributing of duties and responsibility comes forward one of principles of team work for achievement of the put aims, but not hard fixing of executable functions.
For effective organization of work of team needed:
• clear distributing of roles and duties-
• awareness of team of aims and active tasks of project all of members-
• account and personality, and professional qualities of specialists at an association them in a team-
• attention of managers and to achievement of aims of project, and to establishment of friendly working atmosphere.
Control after implementation of the put aims and coordination of activity of separate functional subdivisions is a major function of manager of project.
All of organizational — debenture activity which you will prepare will help you: to watch after realization of project and written into the calendar graph- to distribute the spheres of responsibility and provide with employees duties- to carry your vision of project team to the members- to explain to them, what you expect from them, when a project must be completed and as him successfully to complete.
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3. Ансофф И. Стратегическое управление. — М.: Экономи-ка, 1999.
4. Виханский О. С. Стратегическое управление. — М.: Гар-дарики, 2003.
5. Гусев Ю. В. Стратегия развития предприятий. — СПб.: Изд-во СПбУЭФ, 2002.
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