Predicting value of the starting material for breeding red clover directed to enhance seed production

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UDC 338. 27:633. 32:631. 52:631. 524. 84:631. 53. 01
Zaryanova Z.A., Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Leading Researcher Kiryuhin S.V., Research Associate Latyntseva E.V., Research Associate All-Russia Research Institute of Legumes and Groat Crops, Orel City, Russia
E-mail: zaryanova59@mail. ru
New varieties of red clover should possess not only excellent fodder qualities, but also high yielding seeds. In the breeding work with this culture, starting material with the presence of traits that are positively correlated with increased seed productivity must be used. It was established that, under the conditions of the northern part of the Central Black Earth region of Russia, the seed productivity of red clover has a high conjugation with the weight of the dry mass, number of stems, inflorescences, seeds in heads, seeds formation, the number of seeds in inflorescence of plants (r = 0. 55−0. 89). The average correlation coefficient between seed yields and the length of the stem, the full expression of the pattern of leaves, weight of 1000 seeds was found (r = 0. 30−0. 45). Low positive correlation between seed productivity and the number of beans in the head, dispermous bean, number of internodes, the period from the beginning of spring growth before flowering, was determined (r = 0. 09−0. 24). Studies have shown that seed productivity of tetraploids to a greater extent than diploids determined by the number of productive heads on plant (r = 0,76−0,89), amount of formed seeds in the head (r = 0. 84−0. 89), mass of 1000 seeds (r = 0. 39−0. 45). Due to the positive conjugation of red clover'-s seed productivity with the duration of the period from the beginning of spring growth before flowering, under conditions of Orel region, in contrast to the less favorable regions of the country, the cultivation of early maturing, mid maturing and late maturing varieties of culture for seed purposes is possible. Identified correlations can be used in breeding of red clover both for the selection of the starting material and during the breeding rejections. This will reduce the time of the creation of new varieties with the presence of the trait of increased seed productivity.
Red clover, selection, correlation, seed productivity, stems, buds, seeds formation, the number of seeds, dispermous bean, precocity.
Despite the fact that for economic purposes only vegetative mass of red clover is used, new varieties of this crop must have high seed productivity. This is the basis of their fast reproduction and long-term use in production. For breeding red clover, directed to enhance seed productivity, the definition of conjugation of this feature with the economic, biological and morphological features of culture has great importance. This will allow carrying out breeding simultaneously by several indicators that are positively correlated with seed productivity, which will increase the efficiency of breeding work.
The bushiness of plant is the important trait of red clover. V.S. Aleksashova [1] determined that correlation between the number of stems and seed yield of tetraploid red clover varieties is unstable and fluctuated over the years from low to moderate (r = 0,7 870,3239). In the majority varietal populations a strong positive correlation between seed productivity and the amount of stems (r = 0. 32−0. 61) has revealed by R.I. Polyudina [18, 19], which is close to the data of J. Jaranovski, Z. Broda [23] (r = 0. 525). A.S. Novoselov, V.S. Malashenko, T.E. Melnikova [17] defined this relationship as stronger (r = 0. 6795−0. 8798).
Seed productivity of red clover is largely determined by the number of inflorescences on the plant. The correlation coefficient between these traits in tetraploids according V.S. Aleksashova [1] is 0. 4275−0. 5944- Y.A. Bilis [3] - 0. 64 — 0. 67- V.I. Biryukova [4] - 0. 4- A.S.
Novoselov, V.S. Malashenko, T.E. Melnikova [17] - 0. 6−0. 8603- E. '-Halanz, T. Gyor, S. Poezos [22] - 0. 304- J. Jaranowski, Z. Broda [23] - 0. 337- M. Smolikova, I. Kailerova, B. Nedbalkova [24] - 0. 37−0. 90. In relation to diploids, P.I. Lisitsyn [11] pointed out that between the number of inflorescences on the plant and seed productivity there is a direct correlation. According to Y.A. Bilis [3] the correlation coefficient between these traits in diploid numbers equal to 0. 35−0. 62- V.I. Biryukova [4] - 0.7. R.I. Polyudina [18, 19] determined that, in condition of Western Siberia, in the majority varietal populations revealed a positive correlation between seed productivity and the number of inflorescences (r = 0. 34−0. 80). This author also found a positive correlation between seed productivity and petiole length (r = 0. 30−0. 67), as well as the size of rosette (r = 0. 32−0. 53) [18, 19]. Direct correlation between seed productivity and the number of flowers per head of diploids of red clover was observed by P.I. Lisitsyn [11]. For diploids and tetraploids this relationship is defined as weak (r = 0. 091−0. 2) [4, 16, 24].
J. Jaranovski, Z. Broda [23] found that there is a positive correlation (r = 0. 392) between seed productivity and pollen fertility in tetraploid red clover varieties.
P.I. Lisitsyn [11] found a direct correlation between seed productivity and the number of seeds in the heads of red clover. For tetraploids this dependence is defined as moderate (r = 0. 66) by E. Halanz, T. Gyori, S. Poezos [22], by V.I. Biryukova [4] - as strong (r = 0. 9). P.A. Lisitsyn [11] found that the seed productivity of red clover has a direct correlation with the mass of seeds per stalk. V.I. Biryukova [4] identified high correlation of seed yield with seed weight per bush (r = 0. 7).
According to A.S. Novoselova [16], seed productivity of red clover depends on seed formation in the heads (r = 0. 486), as well as on number of seeds in inflorescence (r = 0. 330. 86), which is consistent with V.S. Aleksashova [1], Y.A. Bilis [3], V.I. Biryukova [4]. A.S. Novoselova [16], P.P. Vavilov, V.A. Kabysh, L.I. Putnikov [5], E. Halanz, T. Gyori, S. Poezos [22] found that the relationship between the mass of 1000 seeds and seed productivity ranges from weak to moderate (r = 0. 24−0. 511).
According to the researchers [3, 16, 24], there is a small (r = - 0. 01 — (- 147)) negative relationship between seed yield of red clover and of corolla tube length, and the diameter of the tube of the corolla is positively related to seed productivity — r = 0. 040−0. 232.
Y.A. Bilis [3] revealed a high correlation between seed productivity and weight of inflorescences of red clover, for diploids — r = 0. 64−0. 79- for tetraploids — r = 0. 50−0. 67.
P.P. Vavilov, V.A. Kabysh, L.I. Putnikov [6] found that tetraploids of red clover with the full expression of the pattern on the leaves have the enhanced seed productivity. P.T. Drobets [8] considers that tetraploids of red clover with large cotyledons in three-week age have enhanced seed productivity.
P.I. Lisitsyn [11] indicates a direct correlation of seed productivity with the length and mass of the stem. P.P. Vavilov, V.A. Kabysh, L.I. Putnikov [5] in experiments with tetraploids established a positive correlation between the height of the stem and seed productivity.
There is no consensus about the connection of seed productivity with yields of green mass. Y.A. Bilis [3] indicates a middle correlation between the mass of the plant and seed yield for diploids (r = 0. 53−0. 54) and for tetraploids (r = 0. 44−0. 54). Similar data (r = 0. 3800. 529) obtained by L.I. Lyaschuk [12]. M. Smolikova, I. Kailerova, B. Nedbalkova [24] point out the weak and middle relationship between these traits (r = 0. 29−0. 44), and A.F. Shamrai and Y.S. Behatsky [20] - negative (r = - 0. 322). V.S. Aleksashova [1], L.I. Lyaschuk [12], M. Smolikova, I. Kailerova, B. Nedbalkova [24] establish stronger correlation between seed productivity and weight of dry matter (r = 0. 249−0. 6236).
Y.A. Bilis [3] identified negative correlation between seed productivity and foliage of red clover: for diploids r = - 0. 13 — (- 0. 24), for tetraploids r = - 0. 25- (- 0. 36).
Due to the great diversity of varieties of red clover on precocity dependence of seed productivity of this crop from the duration of the growing season before flowering or seed maturation was studied. For the conditions of the Central Region (Moscow region) found that early-maturing varieties of red clover have higher seed productivity in comparison with late-maturing varieties, as evidenced by a negative correlation (r = - 0. 45 for diploids and r = -0. 55 for tetraploids) between seed yield and duration of the growing season from the
beginning of spring growth before flowering [9]. L.I. Lyaschuk [12] defined a stable negative correlation between seed productivity and the length of growing season for seeds (r = -0. 522). V.I. Antonov and V.A. Shavkunova [2] noted the need for selecting varieties ripening for seeds within the first five days in September to reduce crop losses due to adverse weather conditions during harvest.
According to O. Chloupek [21], plants of red clover with the size of the roots above the average had higher seed productivity.
The aim of our research was to study the conjugation of the seed productivity of the source and perspective breeding material of red clover with its economic, biological and morphological traits in a northern part of the Central Black Earth region of the Russian Federation in connection with need to increase efficiency and speed up the breeding process when creating varieties with high yield of seeds.
Studies carried out in the 1991−2013 years in GNU VNIIZBK. Test sites have dark gray forest soils with medium loamy composition, slightly acidic (pH 5. 5−5. 8). The humus content (according to Tyurin) — 4. 8−5. 1%, potassium (according to Maslova) — 15. 9−17.8 mg, mobile phosphorus (according to Kirsanov) — 15. 7−18.6 mg / 100 g soil. Red clover varieties of domestic and foreign origin, as well as numbers of own selection have been studied during experiments.
Field observations and accounting performed in accordance with generally accepted methodological guidelines [13, 14, 15]. Laying of nurseries was carried out by seedlings, at individual standing of plants on the scheme of 0.7 m x 0.7 m. In nurseries the growth and development of plants were observed. Accounting of productive and morphological data was carried out in the laboratory by the analysis of each plant, which was reaped and packed in a bag during seed maturation. Formation of seeds (%) was determined by analyzing 10 heads of middle tier plant and counting relation among all formed seeds to number of beans. Number of seeds per inflorescence (%) was calculated as the ratio of seeds formed in the same heads to the number of beans in them. Dispermous (%) is found as the ratio of the number of beans with two seeds to the total number of beans in the 20 heads of the plant. Processing of experimental data was carried out using the method of correlation analysis [7]. Agrotechnics in experiments is common for the area.
Our studies revealed a correlation between seed productivity and economic, biological, morphological characteristics of red clover in a northern part of the Central Black Earth region of Russia, particularly in the Orel region, where this crop occupies the first place (3537%) among cultivated perennial grasses.
It is established that seed productivity of red clover at individual standing of plants is largely determined by the power of their development — there is a high correlation between the collection of seeds per plant with the weight of its dry weight (r = 0. 72). High yield of seeds was observed in plants having the highest number of stems, which was inherent both diploid and tetraploid varietal samples (r = 0. 61−0. 79 and r = 0. 55−0. 83, respectively). Seed productivity is largely depended on the number of productive heads per plant (r = 0. 57−0. 78 for diploids and r = 0. 76−0. 89 for tetraploids) and its weight (r = 0. 84) (Table. 1).
The existence of a correlation between seed productivity and the number of beans in the head, although in a slight degree (r = 0. 12−0. 18 for diploids and r = 0. 04−0. 16 for tetraploids), is noted. In significantly greater extent, seed productivity was determined by the number of seeds in the heads (r = 0. 79−0. 81 for diploids and r = 0. 63−0. 86 for tetraploids). For the productivity of seeds of tetraploids significance was not only the total amount of seeds in the heads, but the number of formed seeds (r = 0. 84−0. 89), because part of formed seeds dies and is removed in the form of a puny fraction during sorting.
Seed productivity of red clover is largely determined by seed formation, calculated as the ratio of the executed and puny seeds to the number of beans in the head (r = 0. 66−0. 77 for diploids and r = 0. 49−0. 76 for tetraploids). Seed productivity correlated more higher with number of seeds per inflorescence, defined as the ratio of the number of formed seeds to the number of pods per head (r = 0. 71−0. 80 for diploids and r = 0. 70−0. 75 for tetraploids).
Table 1 — Conjugation of the seed productivity of red clover with its economic, biological and
morphological features
The correlation coefficient with seed
Features productivity
diploids (2x) tetraploids (4x)
Number of stems, pcs/plant r = 0,61−0,79 r = 0,55−0,83
Number of productive heads, pcs/plant r = 0,57−0,78 r = 0,76−0,89
The number of beans in the head, pcs. r = 0,12−0,18 r = 0,04−0,16
Total number of seeds per head, pcs. r = 0,79−0,81 r = 0,63−0,86
Number of formed seeds in the head, pcs. r = 0,72−0,76 r = 0,84−0,89
Formation of seeds, % r = 0,66−0,77 r = 0,49−0,76
Number of seeds per inflorescence, % r = 0,71−0,80 r =0,70−0,75
Weight of 1000 seeds, g r = 0,24−0,32 r = 0,39−0,45
Dispermous of bean, % r = 0,09−0,18
Stem length, cm r = 0,46
Number of internodes, pcs. r = 0,14
Plant dry weight, g r = 0,72
Weight of heads, g/plant r = 0,84
Full expression of leaf spot, points r = 0,30
The period from the beginning of spring growth before flowering, days r = 0,09−0,24
Seed productivity of red clover has conjugation with a mass of 1000 seeds. For diploid varietal samples this relationship is basically weak (r = 0. 24−0. 32), for tetraploids — medium due to the larger seeds (r = 0. 39−0. 45). For diploid varietal samples a positive correlation of seed productivity with dispermous bean (r = 0. 09−0. 18), the number of internodes of the stem (r = 0. 14) have been determined. Presence of the medium correlation of seed productivity with the presence of full expression leaf pattern (r = 0. 30) were observed.
Found that in the northern part of the Central Black Earth region, in particular in the Orel region, there is a positive correlation between seed productivity with the duration of period from the beginning of spring growth before flowering (r = 0. 09−0. 24), in contrast to the negative ratio correlations between these traits in terms of the Moscow region. This suggests the possibility of cultivation for seed purposes in the Orel region, not only early maturing, but also of mid and late ripening varieties of red clover, which is confirmed by the obtained yield data [10].
Thus, in the northern part of the Central Black Earth region of Russian Federation at creation of new varieties of red clover with high yield of seeds must be used starting material, characterized by powerful plants with a high dry matter weight, large number of stems, plenty heads and seeds in them, high formation of seeds and number of seeds per inflorescence, due to conjugate of these symptoms to a great extent with seed productivity (r = 0. 55−0. 89). You must also pay attention to the length of the stems, the weight of 1000 seeds, the full expression of pattern on the leaves having moderate correlation with seed productivity (r = 0. 30−0. 45). It is desirable that starting material was characterized by a large number of beans in the heads, dispermous bean, mid or late-ripening, as these signs in a study area also have a positive conjugation with seed productivity, although in a slight degree (r = 0. 09−0. 24). The established correlations can be used as for the selection of starting material and for the breeding rejections that will accelerate the process of creating new varieties of red clover with high seed productivity.
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