Preschool education in the system of lifelong education of Russia
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- Народное образование. Педагогика
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PRESCHOOL EDUCATION IN THE SYSTEM OF LIFELONG EDUCATION OF RUSSIA
O. V. Glazyrina
The article considers the problems and prospects of inclusion of preschool education in the system of continuous education.
Key words: continuous education, preschool education, value of preschool childhood, teacher'-s professional standard.
The development of the national education system, aimed at adaptation to the global experience of education systems, educational requirements of the individual, and the state and society, stipulates its essential modifications. One of the trends in modernization of the national education system is creating conditions for the transition from discretely phased education forms to an integral system of lifelong education. A systemic combination of all the levels and forms of education, and development on this basis of a system of lifelong education, is regarded as a prerequisite for economic growth and national security (A. K. Oreshkina, T. J. Lomakina, A. A. Kuznetsova et al.)
According to the Federal Law & quot-On Education& quot-, preschool education is a part of general education, its first step, and thus becomes a part of the lifelong education system of Russia. This & quot-revolutionary"- event means a positive return to preschool childhood related to realization of the importance of educational resources inherent thereto. Moreover, the essential features of preschool education such as implementation of basic education programs, and the importance of the sensitive period in a child'-s development, determine its priority in the system of continuous education of the Russian Federation. It should be noted that the growth of interest in preschool years is one of the global social trends among children. An analysis of research in this subject indicates that in most developed countries, infancy and preschool childhood are regarded as a special national resource that allows one to solve complex problems of social and economic development (V. I. Slobodchikov, V. A. Petrovsky et al.). At present, the federal project of regional system modernization of preschool education is being implemented, which can be divided into three main areas: ensuring the availability of preschool education- updating the content of preschool education- increasing the qualification of the staff of preschool educational organizations.
Let us consider the second area within the subject, i. e., the renovation of the preschool education context. Since preschool education was acknowledged as the first stage of general education, a federal education standard of preschool education became necessary, which came into force on January 1st, 2014. The standard is a document establishing the requirements to the structure of a basic curriculum, conditions of its realization, and the results of implementation. Concurrently, this document takes into account the following psychological development patterns and age peculiarities of preschool children: the integral image of a preschool child- the integral image of the child’s vital activity- understanding the individual’s development patterns and peculiarities of preschool children’s behaviour (G. G. Kravtsov, E. E. Kravtsova). The standard is based on the modern scientific psychological understanding of the preschool childhood as a
sequence of integral necessary stages (cycles) of a person’s development. According to E. E. Kravtsova, based on the cultural and historical concept of L. S. Vygotsky, development takes place in a comprehensive cultural and historical form of education, and the completeness of realization of a person’s inclinations is determined by the conformity of the educational form to the psychological content of certain development stage . The standard defines the specificity of preschool childhood, namely, its uniqueness and self-worth. In addition, the permissible means of preschool child development, their fundamental difference from the content and means for the development of the child’s development in the primary school are determined. The key line of preschool childhood is familiarization with cultural values, and socialization of the child in society, rather than teaching him writing, arithmetic and reading. The preschool age is a sensitive period for development through game forms of a series of abilities (imagination, communication, arbitrariness), which set the foundation for the formation of skills required for subsequent study at school (G. G. Kravtsov, E. E. Kravtsova, V. I. Slobodchikov, V. A. Petrovsky et al.). In this regard, a necessity arises to increase the qualification level of preschool teaching staff, i.e., inclusion of preschool teachers in the lifelong education system. The current research and analysis of pedagogical practice suggest that training at preschool departments of pedagogical colleges and universities at present does not meet the requirements of renovation of the vocational education system . It should also be noted that over half of preschool teachers do not have special (preschool) education. The & quot-Teacher"- Professional standard (approved by order of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection of the Russian Federation) establishes uniform requirements for the education, content and quality of vocational teaching. This document also introduces significant modifications to the objectives and content of their professional training, and requires a different approach to the organization of the educational process in the system of continuous pedagogical education. In these conditions, the system of training and retraining of educators must be optimized.
Thus, an analysis of the incorporation of preschool education in the system of continuous education allows the following conclusions: (a) in Russia, a system of preschool education as the first stage of continuous education is emerging- (b) equal starting opportunities for preschool children are created, which subsequently will improve the quality of education in the following stages- © the cultural image of the preschool age and understanding of its place in the age stratification structure of our society is being formed- (d) the system of training and retraining of educators is being updated and optimized.
Translated from Russian by Znanije Central Translastions Bureas