Effects of saline stress on growth and crop yield of different maize (Zea mays) genotypes

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Вісник Дніпропетровського університету. Біологія. Екологія. — 2009. — Вип. 17, т. 2. — С. 9−14. Visnyk of Dnipropetrovsk University. Biology. Ecology. — 2009. — Vol. 17, N 2. — P. 9−14.
УДК 577. 352. 462:582. 542. 1
E. M. Gurbanov, D. Molazem
Department of Botany, Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan Astara Branch of Islamic Azad University, Astara, Iran
EFFECTS OF SALINE STRESS ON GROWTH AND CROP YIELD OF DIFFERENT MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) GENOTYPES
Effects of saline stress (NaCl) on yield and vegetative characteristics of eight maize cultivars were studied. The cultivars K3615/1, S. C704, B73, S. C302, Waxy, K3546/6, K3653/2, and Zaqatala were cultivated in two plots of the Astara region: one was with normal soil and the other — with salty one. Salinization reduced the plant height, ear length, ear diameter, number of plant leaves, stem diameter, number of rows in an ear, number of grains in a row, and dry plant mass in all cultivars. Maximal ear length was observed in Zaqatala, B73, and S. C704, and the least one was detected in K3653/2. Salinization decreased crop yield of all the cultivars. Certain correlations between studied parameters were found.
Е. М. Гурбанов, Д. Молазем
Бакінський державний університет, Баку, Азербайджан
Ісламський університет Азад, філіал Астари, Астара, Іран
ВПЛИВ СОЛЬОВОГО СТРЕСУ НА РОСТ І ВРОЖАЙНІСТЬ КУКУРУДЗИ (ZEA MAYS) РІЗНИХ ГЕНОТИПІВ
Досліджено вплив сольового стресу (NaCl) на врожайність і вегетативні показники 8 сортів кукурудзи. Сорти K3615/1, S. C704, B73, S. C302, Waxy, K3546/6, K3653/2 та Zaqatala вирощували на двох ділянках району Астара із нормальним і засоленим ґрунтом. Засолення зменшує показники росту рослин, довжину та діаметр початку, кількість листків, діаметр стебла, кількість рядів у початку, кількість зернин у ряду та суху масу рослин усіх сортів. Найбільша довжина початку спостерігалась у сортів Zaqatala, B73 та S. C704, а найменша — у K3653/2. Засолення зменшує врожайність усіх сортів. Визначено кореляцію між вивченими показниками.
Э. М. Гурбанов, Д. Молазем
Бакинский государственный университет, Баку, Азербайджан Исламский университет Азад, филиал Астары, Астара, Иран
ВЛИЯНИЕ СОЛЕВОГО СТРЕССА НА РОСТ И УРОЖАЙНОСТЬ КУКУРУЗЫ (ZEA MAYS) РАЗЛИЧНЫХ ГЕНОТИПОВ
Исследовано влияние солевого стресса (NaCl) на урожайность и вегетативные показатели 8 сортов кукурузы. Сорта K3615/1, S. C704, B73, S. C302, Waxy, K3546/6, K3653/2 и Zaqatala выращивали на двух участках района Астара с нормальной и засоленной почвой. Засоление уменьшает показатели роста растений, длины и диаметра початка, количества листьев, диаметра стебля, количества рядов в початке, количества зерен в ряду и сухой массы растений у всех сортов. Наибольшая длина початка наблюдалась у сортов Zaqatala, B73 и S. C704, а наименьшая — у K3653/2. Засоление уменьшает урожайность всех сортов. Определена корреляция между изученными показателями.
© E. M. Gurbanov, D. Molazem, 2009
Introduction
Saltiness is one of the restrictive environmental factors for producing agricultural crops that highly causes decrease in agricultural products. From among the whole lands of the world about 100 million hectares (5%) have high salinity of soil that influences the plant producing and growth [5- 6]. Producing the agricultural crops in dry and semi-dry regions of the world is quite low. This is due to the accumulation of salt in the soil [1- 11]. Saltiness causes the adverse effects on plant growth that can be provoked by the high osmotic pressure of soil solution (osmotic stress), and especially ionic effects (salt stress), nutritional imbalance or combination of these two factors [2- 10]. All the above mentioned factors cause particular negative effect on plant growth and development of biochemical and physiological processes [1- 12].
Materials and Methods
The effects of salinization on growth and yield characteristics of maize were studied in Iran and Azerbaijan in 2007−2008. Seeds of 8 maize cultivars including K3615/1, S. CDS704, B73, S. C302, Waxy, K3546/6, K3653/2, and Zaqatala were cultivated on two plots in Astara: one plot had normal soil but the other one — salty soil. The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design made by three replications. During the experiment, characteristics of the plant growth, such as plant height, leaf numbers, leaf relative water content (LRWC), stem diameter and dry mass of the single plant as well as yield characteristics such as the ear length, ear diameter, number of rows in the ear, weight of 100 grains and crop yield per hectare, were measured.
Leaf relative water content (LRWC) was calculated on the basis of Yamasaki & amp- Dillen-burg method [15]. Two leaves were randomly chosen from middle part of a plant for each replication. At first, leaves were separated from the stems and their fresh mass (FM) were calculated. In order to measure the turgid mass™, they were placed in the distilled water into closed containers for 24 hours under 22 °C. Being reached the biggest turgid mass the leaves were weighed. Then leaves were placed inside the electrical oven for 48 hours under the 80 °C and the dry mass of the leaves (DM) were calculated. All the weightings were done with the scales of
0. 001 g accuracy. The LRWC was calculated according to the following formula:
LRWC = [M — DM) TM — DM)]x 100, %
In order to measure the plants' dry mass, they were cut as a whole. The grains, ear shanks, stems and leaves were dried at the oven at 60 °C for 72 hours and then their dry mass was recorded. Statistical analysis was done on the basis of randomized complete block design. The Duncan'-s new multiple range test at the 0. 05 significance level was used for statistical analysis.
Results and discussion
Data obtained from the experiment showed significant differences between cultivars regarding the most of studied characteristics. As compared to normal conditions, salinization had caused reduction in characteristics' values. The greatest LRWC was found in cultivar B73 under normal conditions and its least amount was found in S. C302 under the saltiness influence. Lev-ent Tuna et al showed that the salinization stress entails a reduction in the LRWC capacity, plant height, stem diameter, number and weight of ear in maize [9]. There were significant differences among the cultivars in the plants' heights under the normal and salty conditions. For all the cul-tivars the salinization caused a decrease in the plants' height. The greatest height was for S. C704 and Zaqatala under normal conditions. In case of both normal and salty conditions, the least amount of the plants' height was seen in K3545/6 (table 1).
Due to the salinization, leaves numbers in all the cultivars were decreased. Under normal and salty conditions, Waxy had the least leaves numbers among the cultivars and there weren’t any significant differences among other cultivars under normal conditions. Salty conditions caused decrease in stem diameter in all the cultivars. The greatest stem diameter was seen in
S. C704 and its least amount in Waxy under the salty conditions. In an experiment done by Hussain there was shown that saltiness reduces the plant height, leaves number, length of cob, grains number and the total grains number in the ear [8]. As compared to the normal conditions, saltiness reduced the ear length in all the cultivars. The greatest ear length was seen in Zaqatala, B73 and S. C704, and the least amount — in K3653/2. Similar results were reported by Blanco et al. They showed that salinization reduces dry masses of ear, leaves, stems and the whole plants significantly [4].
Table 1
Vegetative Characteristics of the Maize Cultivars under Normal and Salty Conditions
Condi- tions Cultivars LRWC, % Plant height, cm Leaves number, unit/plant Stem diameter, mm Ear length, cm Ear diameter, mm
1 — Zaqatala 61. 02a 271. 0a 14. 03a 22. 13abc 20. 58a 47. 18a
2 — S. C302 57. 88a 244. 5ab 12. 70ab 22. 16abc 15. 27* 39. 97cde
al 3 — K3653.2 63. 78a 194. 4def 13. 70a 20. 25abcdef 17. 53bc 41 44abcd
4 — B73 67. 15a 241. 5abc 12. 53abc 22. 02abcd 19. 79a 44. 77abc
5 — S. C704 62. 57a 279. 4a 13. 40a 23. 04a 19. 03ab 44. 49abc
6 — Waxy 61. 89a 205. 5bcdef 10. 10de 19 96abcdef 15. 86cde 41. 91abc
7 — K3615.1 61. 07a 203. 5bcdef 12. 60abc 21. 03abcde 14. 24ef 46. 87ab
8 — K3545.6 58. 43a 123. 5″ 12. 17abcd 22. 69ab 16. 80cd 43. 26abc
1 — Zaqatala 61. 47a 197 4cdef 12. 52abc 17 47"^ 17. 74bc 43. 44abc
2 — S. C302 57. 27a 166. 0efgl 11. 05bcd 15. 45® 10. 69g 40. 27cde
I 3 — K3653.2 61. 70a 150. 7gh 10. 93bcd 15. 87efg 10. 64g 35. 02e
4 — B73 61. 68a 206. 9bcde 12. 10abcd 16. 76defg 14. 06ef 39. 59cde
J 5 — S. C704 62. 36a 212. 0″ 11 97abcd 17. 13cdefg 14. 64e 35. 58de
al to 6 — Waxy 61. 60a 161. 3fgh 8. 59e 13. 00g 14. 22ef 39. 50cde
7 — K3615.1 58. 44a 177. 6defg 10. 53cd 15. 43® 9. 86g 41. 60abcd
8 — K3545.6 63. 62a 107. 91 10. 87bcd 19 31abcdef 12. 50f 40. 93bcde
*Within each column, the same letter indicates no significant difference between treatments (p & lt- 0. 05)
The salty condition is known to cause the decrease in water absorption by plants. For example, an experiment done for the purpose of determining the relation between water and tomato plant, showed that irrigating the plant with the salty water caused decrease of both the plant growth and the amount of absorbable water [14]. Ear diameter was also reduced due to the saltiness. Under normal conditions, the least amount of ear diameter was found in S. C302 that significantly differs from the other cultivars. The least amount of the ear diameter was seen in K3653/2 (table 1).
The greatest ear mass was found in S. C704 that didn’t have any significant difference with Zaqatala and B37. Together with the investigation of vegetative growth under salty conditions, some yield parameters are also studied. The most important parameters are plant height, stem diameter, and yield characteristics of the plants [3]. Salinization caused reduction in the number of rows in an ear and the number of grains in a row (table 2). Weight of 100 grains was decreased because of the salinization. The greatest weight of 100 grains was recorded in Zaqatala cultivar and its least amount was seen in K3653.2. Dry mass of the plant was also decreased and the greatest dry mass was found in S. C704 that didn’t have any significant difference with B73, K3653. 2, S. C704, and K3615.1 cultivars.
Yield Characteristics of the Maize Cultivars under Normal and Salty Conditions
Conditions Cultivars Rows/ear Grains/row 100 grains weight, g Dry weight, g/plant Grain yield, ton/ha
1 — Zaqatala 15 79bcdef n © o 5. 3 24. 50a 172. 67bcde 4. 49ab
2 — S. C302 16. 58bcde 23. 31 17. 85bc 170. 74bc* 3. 70abc
al 3 — K3653.2 19. 00a 29. 39c 15. 70bc 284. 29ab 3. 43bcd
4 — B73 15. 15*® 37. 07a 17. 95bc 405. 99a 3. 58bc
? 5 — S. C704 15. 30cdefg 38. 93a 15. 07bc 250. 85abc 5. 87a
6 — Waxy 14. 10fgh 29. 36c 16. 43bc 175. 79bc* 3. 07bcde
7 — K3615.1 15. 86bcdef 23. 70cde 16. 10bc 207. 79abcd 4. 77ab
8 — K3545.6 17. 80ab 30. 08bc 18. 93b 185. 63bcde 4. 34ab
1 — Zaqatala 16. 19bcdef 29. 95bc 18. 43bc 104. 87* 2. 16cdef
2 — S. C302 17. 00abcd 22. 02* 14. 33bc 129. 98bcde 2. 40cdef
. § 3 — K3653.2 15 95bcdef 19. 29de 12. 90c 86. 21* 1. 53f
4 — B73 14. 09fgh 24. 70cd 16. 33bc 94. 11de 1. 73ef
J al 5 — S. C704 13. 39gh 23. 70cde 14. 50bc 175. 35bcde 2. 60cdef
S 6 — Waxy 12. 95h 25. 70cd 15. 13bc 75. 05e 1. 84def
7 — K3615.1 14. 58efgh 17. 21e 15. 75bc 117. 99cde 1. 24f
8 — K3545.6 17. 33abc 21. 61de 13. 70bc 74. 12e 1. 31f
*Within each column, the same letter indicates no significant difference between treatments (p & lt- 0. 05)
Hussain et al showed that increase in saltiness level had caused decrease in maize height, stem diameter, leaves numbers, leaf areas and dry mass of the plant [7]. As compared to the normal environment, under salty conditions yield of cultivar grains was decreased. S. C704 bears the greatest grain yield and under salty conditions and K3615.1 had the least grain yield (table 2).
Correlations between the characteristics under both normal and salty conditions are presented in tables 3 and 4. Under normal conditions there was a significant and positive correlation between the plant height and ear length, and the number of grains in a row. A positive and significant correlation was seen among the stem diameter and ear diameter, and the number of grains in a row.
Table 3
Simple Correlation between Crop Yield and Some Growth Characteristics under Normal Conditions
Plant height Leaves number Stem diameter th ngt Ear diameter Rows/ear Grains/row 100 grains weight Dry weight Grain yield ton/ha
LRWC -0. 011 0. 155 -0. 004 -0. 096 -0. 169 -0. 085 0. 015 -0. 080 -0. 163 -0. 115
Plant height 1 0. 359 0. 355 0. 503* 0. 396 -0. 347 0. 50* 0. 224 0. 101 0. 290
Leaf number — 1 0. 074 0. 328 0. 166 0. 293 0. 184 0. 226 -0. 023 0. 311
Stem diameter — - 1 0. 245 0. 458* 0. 146 0. 427* 0. 169 0. 228 0. 396
Ear length — - - 1 0. 442* -0. 690 0. 887** 0. 398 0. 413* 0. 275
Ear diameter — - - - 1 -0. 039 0. 520** 0. 391 0. 320 0. 624**
No. of rows/ear — - - - - 1 -0. 206 0. 004 0. 059 -0. 047
No. of grains/row — - - - - - 1 0. 265 0. 370 0. 438*
100-grains weight — - - - - - - 1 -0. 121 0. 176
Dry weight — - - - - - - - 1 0. 283
Grain yield ton/ha — - - - - - - - - 1
* Significant difference at the 0. 05 significance level- ** significant difference at the 0. 01 significance level.
Simple Correlation between Crop Yield and Some Growth Characteristics under Salty Conditions
Plant height Leaves number Stem diameter Ear length Ear diameter ar /ea 1 Row Grains/row 100 grains weight ight a* Grain yield ton/ha
LRWC -0. 154 0. 053 0. 539** 0. 404 0. 121 0. 006 0. 232 -0. 089 0. 127 0. 266
Plant height 1 0. 359 -0. 058 0. 445* -0. 018 -0. 269 0. 348 0. 192 0. 377 0. 202
Leaf number — 1 0. 312 0. 312 0. 214 0. 318 0. 173 0. 087 0. 151 0. 179
Stem diameter — - 1 0. 310 0. 077 0. 345 0. 216 0. 096 0. 155 -0. 038
Ear length — - - 1 0. 335 -0. 067 0. 889** 0. 167 0. 121 0. 404*
Ear diameter — - - - 1 0. 440* 0. 439* 0. 396 -0. 121 0. 232
No. of rows/ear — - - - - 1 0. 102 -0. 085 0. 002 0. 130
No. of grains/row — - - - - - 1 0. 189 0. 008 0. 465*
100-grainWeight — - - - - - - 1 0. 154 0. 199
Dry weight — - - - - - - - 1 0. 383
Grain yield ton/ha — - - - - - - - - 1
* Significant difference at the 0. 05 significance level- ** significant difference at the 0. 01 significance level.
There was a significant and positive correlation among the ear length and ear diameter, the number of grains in a row and dry mass of the plant. A positive correlation was recorded among the ear diameter and the number of grains in a row and grain yield. A positive and significant correlation was also obtained among the number of grains in a row with the grain yield. Under salty conditions there was also a significant and positive correlation between the plant height and ear length. A significant difference was found between the number of grains in a row with grain yield and ear diameter with the number of rows in an ear and the number of grains in a row.
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