Problems of professional preparation of humanities college students

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Народное образование. Педагогика

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А. N. Mun
This article deals with the psychological-pedagogical description of a modern student of a humanities college. The results of research into the professional orientation of humanities college students, in the structure of the adaptation process.
Key words: professional field, students, adaptation.
A student’s development is largely determined by their activities, the main types of which are determined by a specific social situation [3]. For students of a humanities college, this is a learning situation, i.e. «an organized system of variables in the educational process, the psychological core of which is interaction, the relationship and communication of a teacher with students, and students with each other» [4]. On the basis of the above, we determined the directions of a comprehensive study of the specific features of today'-s students, their motivation, values, priorities, professional and ethical attitudes, competence, and characteristics from the first to final year. The resulting empirical data is necessary to design an adequate educational environment for the development and correction of professional and personal qualities of a future teacher, and to predict the content and technology of professional training. The task of the whole educational process of a college is to create the appropriate conditions for the development of a personality in the process of the formation of the professional orientation of future teachers.
When designing a program for the integrated study of college students, it is important to proceed from the assumption that education should develop an integral personality, and not just the cognitive aspect of personality. We have identified the purpose of our study as follows: to identify the psychological and pedagogical characteristic of today’s humanities college students, and to assess the level of impact of the content and technology of a teacher’s education on the personal and professional development of a future teacher. It was important to investigate the degree of influence of the content of professional and pedagogical preparation in a college upon the dynamics of the development of students, on the process of development of their subjectivity, and their readiness for a teacher'-s work in modern conditions, and to find out the attitude of a future teacher towards the content and technology of training for professional work. We have hypothesized that the students'- progress in their studies and the effective formation of their professional and pedagogical competencies, are related to how a set of social, physiological, psychological and pedagogical parameters of today'-s students are taken into account when designing an educational space.
Karaganda Humanities College was the basis of our study. The sample consisted of 75 first-year students. Professional orientation in the structure of the adaptation process was the subject of the study. The survey was the main research method, and some auxiliary methods were also used, such as a conversation and an observation.
Analysis of «The Questionnaire of Study of Students'- Adaptation to the Conditions in the College» has shown that 43. 5% of students named different reasons for entering the college, whereas 56. 5% of students want to be teachers. 18. 1% of the respondents did not give an answer to the question, «What is the most interesting subject?» In the educational process, 33% of students do not know what they like. To the question «What are the additional items you would include in the program?», 37. 6% of the respondents could not give a particular answer. 22. 4% of students do not use additional materials in preparation for lessons. 15. 3% of the respondents could not answer the question, «What difficulties do you have in learning?» 34. 1% of students could not give an answer to the question, & quot-What could help you to overcome these difficulties?" 60% of the respondents did not know how to answer the question, «How could your class teacher help you?» 29. 5% of students could not answer the question, «Do the extracurricular activities help you?» 32. 5% of the respondents did not give an answer to question, «In which aspects can extracurricular activities help you?» More than 50% of the respondents could not answer the question, «What exactly do you expect from your future career?» and «How does it satisfy your interests?»
As can be seen from the results of the survey, the highest percentage of the respondents chose their future profession deliberately. However, the majority of students are attracted not by the pedagogical side of their profession, but by its specific subject content (to be a translator, a musician), although it should be noted that college, first of all, prepares teachers. The same trend can be seen in the choice of the most interesting subject. The greatest preference is given to subjects of general education and special education cycles, «ignoring» such important subjects, as pedagogy and psychology. If we focus on the most attractive moments in the educational process, we will immediately note that the highest percentage of respondents did not think about this question, or chose insignificant sides as attractive ones (concerts, for example). Only 23. 5% of the students concentrate on the important aspects (library, lessons). In the analysis of items that students would exclude, we found that those were mostly general education subjects. The fact that there were no subjects of psychological and humanitarian cycle among them gives cause for optimism, and suggests some degree of awareness of their necessity. Among those subjects in which the students feel the need, again, we can see general education subjects, but also more importantly, psychology, which confirms the previous conclusion. Among the most preferred forms of learning, again we can see the game form, which is adequate for the period of adaptation. However, it is quite insufficient for the development of a specialist. However, if we analyze the list of subjects which take most of the students' time, we will notice a lack of disciplines in the psychological and humanities cycle. In the analysis of difficulties in the learning process, we noted that the majority of the respondents did not think about this problem and, as a consequence, about finding a solution to it. Further, we note that extracurricular activities are of the greatest interest, but students do not distinguish what exactly is interesting and helpful. When we analyze the expectations re: their future profession, we see that only a small percentage of students commit themselves to their future profession. Most of them do not think about this question.
We also found that the process of adaptation to college life is accompanied by negative feelings related to leaving the school community, unpreparedness for independent study in college, the inability to exercise self-control in behavior and activity, and the search for the optimal mode of work and rest in the new environment. The process of professional self-determination does not lose its relevance after entering the educational institution. On the contrary, it goes through some crisis, which is associated with a gap between expectations and the real educational process. In this situation, one must direct all their efforts towards overcoming this crisis. One of the types of work focused on this is practical activities (awareness-rising, in particular). Practical tasks can be used (plans, notes, the development of their own curriculum). Also, many creative works can be offered. In answering the question as to whether it was difficult to get used to college life, we found that 15% of students had a positive attitude to college, thought that the demands were adequate, studied the educational material easily and profoundly, solved complicated problems, were diligent, carefully listened to the instructions and explanations of teachers, performed assignments without the external control, showed great interest to independent study, prepared for all classes, performed public duties willingly and in good faith, and had a good status in the group.
Answers to the question «Was it difficult to get used to college life?»
Values Number %
Yes, the process of adaptation was long and difficult 10 25
No, the process of adaptation was neither long nor difficult 20 50
No adaptation was needed at all, felt like a student at once 6 15
Difficult to answer 4 10
It is important that the college students, as future professionals, could acquire first of all, the values and norms related to the general social knowledge of skilled professionals. These norms and values will adjust their behavior and actions in general, and will develop the needs of individuals in the creative process. Special knowledge is given, as a rule, in the special disciplines. Therefore, priority in work is given to the development of the foundations of the formation of the systems of special training courses, and to solving problems: what to teach and how to teach within state educational standards. Professional and creative personality traits do not occur separately from other components, but are subjected to the laws of the formation of a person as a whole at the learning and self-learning stages, activities and communication. The teacher is now the sole creator of the educational process, a technician with the highest qualification, who implements their individually developed operations in the educational process. Based on this, considerable attention within work is paid to development of the technological components of the educational process.
Professionalization of the educational process in a college, a combination of academic forms, types of activity and communication activities with the proper work in the profession, should be implemented in the learning process as early as possible, since entry into a profession and gaining knowledge of its creative needs
are a continuous and lengthy process. This conclusion was laid as a basis for research into the problem of the development of the inclusiveness of a person into the educational, scientific and training processes.
The scientific knowledge introduced into the academic subjects, must meet not only informational, but also development goals. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish the broad connections and generalizations in the studied material, and transfer the received knowledge and means of its operation onto the new material. Inclusion into special educational disciplines of materials reflecting the nature and dynamics of the scientific and technological progress and the development of socio-economic processes is an efficient direction, as well as combination of professionally focused fundamental knowledge with new intensive research technologies.
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Translated from Russian by Znanije Central Translastions Bureas

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