E-portfolio – a lifelong learning technology and professional development resource: the context of a teacher’s professional standard

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Народное образование. Педагогика


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O. G. Smolyaninova
The theoretical concept of using an e-portfolio for training and professional development of teachers with a focus on professional standards and the paradigm of lifelong learning is presented in the article. The practical results of training for primary school teachers based on e-portfolio assessment of education results in the execution of the grant of the Russian Minister of Education are described. Reproductive, productive and constructive levels of educational outcomes of students are identified.
Key words: е-portfolio, professional standard, reproductive, productive, constructive level of development.
A major task of modernization of the pedagogical education of Russia is focused on the professional standard of a teacher [1] and forming a high level of competitiveness of graduates on the open labour market related to lifelong personal and professional development. Advanced training of primary school teachers based on intensified practical training and modular organization of the basic professional educational program, networking cooperation and student immersion in activities are the strategic lines of changes of the educational process at the Institute of Pedagogy, Psychology and Sociology (hereinafter the IPPS SFU), and is implemented within the framework of execution of the state contract by the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation [2].
The professional standard is focused on concrete educational outcomes executed in the teacher’s labour functions and labour actions [1]. Educational outcomes presuppose the student’s readiness and ability to demonstrate visible and measurable products of activities in the practical action necessary in the future for performing the certain professional functions of a teacher [3]. We identify three levels of formation of the students' educational outcomes: reproductive, productive and constructive. The reproductive level means that the student understands the principle of the performed pedagogical action in practice from the point of view of its individual components- the productive level means that the student understands the very principle of organization of the pedagogical action in practice as a whole, in the system of all its interrelated components- the constructive level means that the student can transform the integral principle of organization of the pedagogical action known to him into a new (author's) one, and integrate it with other approaches to the organization of the pedagogical action [5].
A new modular basic professional educational program (BPEP) was developed and is implemented within the framework of the project. It is related with intensified practical focus of training of future primary school teachers and transition to activity-based training technologies. The specific feature of the new training program is its modularity and focus on the student’s educational results, and its focus on the professional standard as the frame of identity formation and
building an individual educational route by the student [5]. Improvement of training of future teachers and reorganization of the training process implies changing the content and, most significantly, the methods and technologies of training dictated by the new requirements to the results of training. In the new model of primary school teacher training e-training, interactive digital educational resources become significant. The technology of e-portfolio is actively used both as an innovative means of evaluation [4] and as a tool of reflexion, as a technology of personal and professional development enabling the student «to create his own history of lifelong learning» [6].
The internship diary in the e-portfolio format and competence-related tests in a quest acts as a cultural means of organizing the student’s involved and conscious observation and trial-project action in a situation of immersion in different kinds of learning activities. The e-portfolio is not just a repository for accumulation of methodological materials throughout the student’s training period, not just a method of assessing the education results to produce the performed works at competence-related tests, but a method of producing the best samples of implemented projects and expert appraisals to potential employers. Thus, the e-portfolio becomes a tool of personal and professional lifelong development.
The e-portfolio allows monitoring the effectiveness of the introduction of institutional changes in the new activities-based format and making management decisions based on its results at the level of innovation management. 206 students of three institutes participated in the experiment of the modular BPEP evaluation within the framework of the project [5]. The e-portfolio technology was used to assess the level of the formed competences in accordance with the FSES HPE 3+ standards, their correlation with the labour actions according to the Professional Standard of a Teacher [2], and analysis of forming and developing students' education results.
According to the Professional Standard of a Teacher to form the element of the Learning labour action (D.1.8. Forming skills related to information-communicational technologies) in training of future teachers, the following competences are to be formed: the ability to solve standards tasks of professional activities on the basis of information culture using information-communicational technologies, and with account of the key requirements of information security (OPK-13). In the system of training-professional actions the student must perform a trial action during seminars, and in practice to fix his personal education results which were made with the help of the e-portfolio technology. The students participating in the experiment planned the building of their individual educational route and modeling of the trial pedagogical action, and described them in their personal portfolio. The educators, guidance counselors and teachers who supported the students' training practice assessed the results given in the e-portfolio. The objects of students' study were: elements of the information environment of the educational institution, regulatory documents and educational programs of the primary school, digital educational resources, and practices using ICT and digital educational resources in primary school classes. The objects assessed by educators, guidance counselors of the PES, and school teachers were: the electronic scenario (draft) of the subject-related event, the electronic
scenario (draft) of the extracurricular event, and study of the elements of the information environment in the information-educational space of the school.
The competence of «ability for self-organization and self-education (OK-5)» which, in our opinion, correlates with the labour function of «Development» of the Professional Standard of a Teacher (D.3. 10. Forming and implementation of programs of development of universal learning actions, patterns and values of social behavior, skills of behavior in the world of virtual reality and social networks) cannot be formed within one learning module (subject) only. We suppose, however, that formation of this competence must be initiated at the begging of training of future teachers. Besides, it is necessary to record the level of every student with the possibility of further incremental development in the process of learning and accumulation of practical experience (transition from the reproductive level to the productive, constructive levels). The e-portfolio technology will allow us to determine and «visualize» the «delta» of the student’s development. The e-portfolio allows fixation of the difficulties in performance of the trial instrumentally organized action under the new conditions (of a university, school), and the student’s learning of the actions to overcome difficulties: problematization, consulting, and independent design. Using the e-portfolio students fix (and realize) the deficits of the organizational, instrumental, ICT resources/competences within the frames of the subject, practice, and module events (OAG — organizational activity-based game, quest). The objects of fixation in the portfolio reflexive section for the students participating in the experiment are: publication of materials in the reflexive section of the personal portfolio (essay on Expectations from the OAG), diagrams of Significant Professional Qualities of a Teacher (during the OAG, after practical training at the school), analysis of the subject-based event carried out during practical training at the school, (self-analysis, mutual analysis, analysis of the teacher), analysis of the out-of-school event, self-analysis of the personal communicative skills in the real (virtual) space, execution of an electronic diary of practical training, placement of results (photo report/ video report in the personal e-portfolio, references to the VKontakte network, IPPS Instagram).
The student’s conscious, subjective position in work with difficulties unfolds in the reflexive analysis, self-analysis, participation in discussions at subject-related seminars, and network (group) interaction at solving learning-professional tasks. Students can acquire the ability to work in a team productively using modern ICT means by performing tasks with the help of modern WEB-2 means, creating a group report and group presentation on the practical training (including analysis of educational programs, personnel and technical conditions, and developing school space). The report is supposed to include textual fragments of every group member and general conclusions, and mutual assessment of the team members. The group report must be placed in the e-portfolio of every student. The students must be subscribed in one virtual group in the portfolio space. Thus, performing the appraisal function, the e-portfolio can develop educational potential.
Forming the personal e-portfolio and filling it with reflexive educational and professional artifacts from the first day of studies, the first year students get involved in the process of goal-setting and designing life strategies, unfolding their own individual educational route, and creating and designing life strategies. Publication of the individual educational route and logical and reasoned grounds
for the choice enables the future teacher to design his/her future education and professional career throughout life.
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2. Государственный контракт на выполнение работ (оказание услуг) по конкурсу № 2014−04. 03−05−043-Ф-132. 054 на выполнение работ (оказание услуг) по проекту «Усиление практической направленности подготовки будущих педагогов в программах бакалавриата в рамках укрупненной группы специальностей «Образование и педагогика» по направлению подготовки «Психолого-педагогическое образование» (Учитель начальных классов) на основе организации сетевого взаимодействия образовательных организаций, реализующих программы высшего образования и среднего профессионального образования».
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Translated from Russian by Znanije Central Translastions Bureas

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