Expert poll of workers of cultural institutions concerning financial motivation and wage

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Expert poll of workers of cultural institutions concerning financial motivation and wage
Section 8. Labour economics
Lelyuk Julia Vladimirovna, postgraduate student National Academy of Supervisory Frame of Culture and Arts
E-mail: Leluka@ukr. net
Expert poll of workers of cultural institutions concerning financial motivation and wage
Abstract: The article analyzes the current state of financial motivation and wages of cultural workers in rural areas. A thorough analysis of cultural workers related to their wages was conducted with expert social polling. We investigated the views of cultural workers concerning the existing problems and increasing financial motivation and wages. The ways of wage reforming are presented.
Keywords: workers of cultural institutions, rural areas, material motivation, wages, social poll.
Problem. Everyone agrees that the leisure center for the villagers is cultural institutions where youth spends most of free time resting and communicating with friends. Today more than ever it is necessary to work on defining the future related to the spiritual health of the nation, the guarantor ofwhich is cultural workers. Paradoxically, but even in conditions of the scientific and technological revolution, when the level of human intelligence increases, the particularly topical issue regarding the financial motivation and wages of cultural workers that is constantly relegated to the background. Today funding of culture in rural areas is carried out on the residual principle of separation, which leds to:
— low level of remuneration-
— constant threat of the debt payment ofwages-
— under-funding or suspension of privileges and guarantees.
Stable low wages and lack of the clear mechanism of financial motivation significantly reduce social standards and cultural level of workers in rural areas.
Analysis of researches and publications.
A lot of scientific works of local scientists as:
O. A. Grishnova [1], A. M. Kolota [2], G. Y. Levchun [3], I. G. Pakhomova [4], A. M. Polinkevich [5], S. O. Tsimbalyuk [8], O. V. Shlyag [9] are devoted to analysis of the issues related to remuneration, including for cultural workers.
Earlier unsolved parts of the overall problem.
Analysis of the studies revealed a significant attention of scientists to the problems of wages in Ukraine and ways of their solving. However, there is a lack of thorough research of material satisfaction and motivation wages of cultural workers in rural areas.
Research objective is a grounding of expert survey of workers of cultural institutions in rural areas for pecuniary motivation and wages.
In accordance with the objectives the following tasks are set out:
— to analyze the ratio of workers of cultural institutions in rural areas, different regions of Ukraine to the level of wages-
— to test the attitude of workers of cultural institutions to the assessment of their professional creative activity-
— to determine the state of financial stimulation of cultural workers-
— to describe possible ways of reforming wage.
The main results of the study. Making payroll
for workers of culture is based on the Unified Tariff Scale, which today does not meet the market principles of the remuneration and needs immediate reform. Its shortcomings are well known: completely broken wage differentiation, low wage rate of the first category, the ratio between the coefficients corresponding to the extreme discharge of the UTS remains unacceptably low, with the result that there is
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Section 8. Labour economics
a «leveling» in the remuneration of varying complexity and responsibility. Imperfect principles on which a rate schedule of remuneration is organized in budgetary sectors make it incapable to provide a decent size of wages for the workers [3, p. 87].
So we decided to ask whether workers of cultural institutions in rural areas are satisfied with their wages and financial incentives. In order to identify issues of payment and stimulation of work we have carried out an expert poll, which was conducted in March — June 2015. Statistical and sociological information was received by survey of cultural institutions in rural areas, librarians and club workers. 275 workers in rural cultural institutions of different regions of Ukraine are involved to survey.
The subject of the survey «Attitudes of workers of cultural institutions in rural areas to the existing financial motivation and wages» is the number of the most actual issues at present. One of the first indicators that we reviewed — is the level of satisfaction of worker with their wages:
— 90% of workers said they are not satisfied with wage-
— 8% undecided-
— 2% said that they are satisfied with their wages.
Only 2% of workers of cultural institutions are satisfied with their wage are, and it is extremely low, while 90% of the cultural workers complain of financial difficulties when wage expires long before there next one. S. O. Tsimbalyuk notes that in itself the calculation of wage can not be a motivational factor, but «its unsatisfactory level» is a significant demotivator [8, p. 84].
When asked «How often does your wage increase?», the workers of cultural institutions unanimously answered that wage increases are too small and do not keep up with rising costs of living.
The next factor that negatively affects the financial well-being of workers — the detention of wages. Almost a half (54%) of workers complains that they do not receive their wages in time. It should be noted that the question «Do you believe the payroll system is fair?» cultural workers gave the following answer: «yes» — 17% «no» — 45% «hard to say» — 38%. The data show that the majority ofworkers are not satisfied with a criterion of payroll, which eventually leads to
a lack of initiative. Our analysis assures that nearly a half — 47% (which is remarkably high) of workers can not realize themselves fully in their creative activity because of ignoring of the implementation of paragraph 2 ofArticle 29 of the Law of Ukraine «On culture» in the provision of cultural workers with work on full tariff rates [7].
As a result of survey, we found that an important role in stimulating labor should be premiums. Most workers (56%) consider that the premiums should reward for the advanced training, as workers improve their professionalism, acquire new professional knowledge, which leads to more productive work. Up to 23% of all respondents believe that the level of expenditures of psycho-emotional, intellectual and physical work is necessary to be included (script writing, rehearsals, for the librarians — exploring new literature), which should be an important component in calculating premiums. Up to 21% of cultural workers believe it is necessary to award the prize for work in non-standard working conditions, such as in bad weather, in the evening and night, holidays and more.
Analyzing answers of the workers to the question «Can the existing payroll system stimulate you to work more and better?», we have concluded that the current method of calculation does not motivate workers of culture in general. Interesting facts were obtained in the analysis of answers to the question «Do you fully realize your professional physical and intellectual abilities during the day?». As a result, 45% of workers of cultural institutions said — «no», 48% - «yes» and 7% - «hard to say». The opinions on the work load were divided in equal parts, so these facts indicate that the burden on workers of culture is quite different and depends on active or passive positions of the cultural institution.
Most polled culture workers for benefits and other social benefits, the answer was clear, because of the level of these payments too low. However, the legislation of Ukraine provides for guarantees for cultural workers in rural areas to provide free use dwelling with heating and lighting (part 5 ofArticle 29 of the Law of Ukraine «On Culture») [7].
While sociological research we have found an opinion on the need to reform the pay system: 86% of cultural workers believe that the remuneration of the system should be changed, 12% - said «Difficult
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Expert poll of workers of cultural institutions concerning financial motivation and wage
to answer» and only 2% hold passive position and find that the wage system does not require changes.
To question «If wages of workers of cultural institutions in rural areas are risen, whether it will affect the performance and quality of their work?», The workers said,
— So affected — 91%
— Difficult to answer — 6%
— No, not affected — 3%.
So in general, the survey showed that wages are not satisfied with 90% ofworkers of cultural institutions in rural areas. Due to the above mention facts, it is necessary to note the need to find new, evidence-based approaches to the reforming of payment system and stimulation of labor. The absence of any systematic improvement in terms of remuneration of workers ofcultural institutions negatively characterizes the activities in the field of culture, does not enhance worker motivation (creates an atmosphere of apathy and lack of initiative), makes it impossible to attract and consolidate rural high qualified workers.
Agreeing with the opinion of workers of the cultural institutions to reform payroll wage system, we should note that one of the ways of solving of the problems of remuneration is measures for gradual steps to increase wages. It is necessary to note that the trade unions, trying to steer the situation of improving wages, according to the international and European norms (defined by the European Social Charter and ILO Conventions) and Ukrainian legislation, calculated that as of 01. 01. 2016 the minimum wage (including family component, spending on education, health, housing, taxes and mandatory contributions) should be 4498 UAH.
Understanding that the achievement of this magnitude requires a certain phasing, the trade
unions propose to establish a minimum wage:
— From January 1, 2016 — at the actual living wage based tax on personal income, single contribution, military tax and inflation in the amount of 1986 UAH-
— From December 1, 2016 — at the actual living wage, in which the cost of food as part of is 45%, subject to income tax for natural persons, single contribution, military tax and inflation in the amount of 2518 UAH-
— From January 1, 2017 — considering the main needs of families of workers, such as food, clothing, medical care and education (4350 UAH) —
— From January 1,2018 — considering the accumulation to implement housing rights (5207 UAH) [9].
Stable growth of wages will help transform wages of cultural workers in rural areas to reliable financial source that provides a decent standard of living level for a worker and his family.
Conclusions and recommendations for further research. Sociological research has revealed a number of problems concerning wages of culture. Currently, all attempts to radically change the system of payroll unfortunately remain as a political slogan. We believe that the state should take effective steps to reform and enforce the system of remuneration and motivation of cultural workers in order to ensure the effectiveness of financial incentives and interest in the outcome of labor.
The main prospects for further research is the practical application of the reform of financial motivation and wages of workers of cultural institutions in rural areas, which will focus on the formation of a qualitatively new civilized system of financial motivation and wages.
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