Family pages in the abcbook as an assistant for social worker

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История школьного учебника
Е. Ю. Ромашина
Тульский государственный педагогический университет
им. Л. Н. Толстого
Статья посвящена букварю как одному из средств работы с ребенком из неблагополучной семьи. Книги для первоначального обучения грамоте могут быть эффективным помощником социального работника. На их страницах, ребенок может увидеть модели семейных отношений, с которыми он не знаком в реальной жизни. Тексты и иллюстрации способны показать ему, что такое «нормальная» семья, какие социальные функции она выполняет, каковы отношения членов семьи и т. д.
Ключевые слова: букварь, азбука, иллюстрация, образ, семья, социальная
E. Yu. Romashina
Tula State Lev Tolstoy Pedagogical University (Tula, Russia)
The article is devoted to one of the techniques of working with a child from a dysfunctional family. It is the work with the help of books for initial literacy. Primer can be an effective means of intervention in the problem family. On its pages, the child will see a model of family relations, with whom he does not know in real life. Texts and illustrations show him what is a family, what social functions it performs, what is the relationship of family members, etc. Keywords: primer, illustration, image, family, social work.
In today'-s information space textbook for initial literacy there is in any house. Any family knows with its texts and visuals even if it'-s a problem family, and adult family members give the child a little time or quite do not communicate with him. Nevertheless the primer anyway regularly come to the attention of all members of the family. It repeatedly transmits the individual and the family a framework of values, meanings, moral norms and behaviors.
Texts and visuals of primer are not advertising, they are not too aggressive. They do not impose on us one or the other way of thinking, but a certain image is formed in our subconscious gradually. So, a primer can be a powerful tool for work, including the formation of a child'-s ideas about family and family relationship, which may, in real life he does not see.
What is a family? What social functions it performs? What family can be considered as an ideal? Are there the ideal families really? What is the relationship of family members? How do social roles are separated in the family? How resolve the conflicts arising in the family? Are there any «hot spots» in the modern family relations? A child, who lives in a problem family, can not find answers to these questions in real life or his vision of a family is deformed depending on the situation.
In this case, the primer can be an effective assistant. It is possible to search answers to this questions with a child, sitting with him over the pages of his first school books.
Who can carry out this task? It may be a school teacher, social worker and family parents, grandparents, elder children or other relatives.
In the Russian Federation there are several sets of textbooks for elementary school. They have specific procedures for development and approval, the teacher has the right to choose one or another set of textbooks for a work with his class. We reviewed the alphabets and the primers by several authors: L. Klimanova, L. Jurova, V. Goretsky, N. Betenkova etc.
In our opinion, representation of the family in the modern Russian primers, has a lot of problems. We will mention them at the end of this article. But at the beginning, let'-s say about the opportunities that are opening up for social work with the child.
First, the primers represent a portrait of the «ideal family» as a rule, here is a picture with the caption «This is my family». Whom the child sees in this portrait? Normally, the illustration shows three generations of nuclear family: grandparents, parents and children. The child is alone often, sometimes two or three children are shown. We have not found any images of a large family in the Russian primers. The primer authors propose the tasks that can be used for individual work with the child, such as:
Draw your family in the form of stars. Color this stars. Now draw around the family relatives, friends, acquaintances — as the stars. Not enough space? Take a large sheet ofpaper. Tell about your family. [9, p. 9]
As a personal space family appears before us in the primers when its members are united in the some joint activities. More often it is a joint leisure. What types of leisure do the primers show? Games, reading, fun with pets, watching TV, a joint tea party. [5, 10, etc. ]
There is the interesting illustration in the textbook by V. Repkin. We can see the mother that shows and names toys to her son this is a ball, this is a doll, this is a teddy bear etc. They are playing and learning at the same time (fig. 1) [10, p. 5]
Fig.1. V. Repkin, p. 5
In a number of primers, we see parents often mother with the children for a walk in the yard or on the street. The plot of «children playing in the sandbox, and the mother beside» is traditional for many primers. Another recurring theme is similar: Dad with child or children and balloon or balloons flew balloon or recounting of balloons etc. [4, 5, 7, etc. ]
Where else spend a leisure parents and children? In the Zoo. In the textbooks by V. Goretsky there are pictures children at the Zoo with mothers, fathers, grandparents.
In V. Goretsky «Primer» we can see the mother with her children in the autumn forest. In the «Primer» by L. Zhurova a mother, a father and children go hiking carry gear, put the tent- collect firewood and cook over a campfire. They all have the same gender role in the case of camping. They help each other and do the same thing. [6, p. 8]
Note that in the primers under analysis we have considered benefits virtually no image, where kids and parents to play together the children amuse themselves, the parents just nearby, looked after.
Among the few the image in the «Primer» by D. Elkonin. For example, a mother and daughter play the ball. [11, p. 91] It should be noted here that the mother is not distracted at the game time by adult issues, it is only busy playing with her daughter even dressed in jeans and has sneakers. From the text, we learn that it is Marina'-s birthday- the mother and Marina are playing the ball. Another option father and son playing in the words, father tells children about the sky, the stars, long-livers and geniuses.
Note that the illustrations have roughly equal plots where spend leisure time with your child both or one parent, but the mother, as a rule, play with children, and the father engaged in their intellectual development. [7, p. 124, 134]
Analysis of illustrative series in Russian textbooks allows us to conclude that the position of the parents during the holidays with children can be labeled more as mentoring. This is not a personal contact loved ones, not emotional «space itself», but always a social space in which the task of parents to ensure the safety of children, provide them with necessary information, instill useful skills. It is necessary to take into account the social worker.
For our context the stories and illustrations are important, in which parents and children are engaged in some joint useful.
Sometimes we see children alone do housework clean, wash dishes, feed the animals, working in the garden. [11, p. 230- 5, p. 39,95] Not with their parents, as it were for them. This demonstrates a real but sad model of family behavior «not together».
Topics of joint work of children and parents are represented in textbooks by L. Zhurova (father and son make the shelf), by T. Andrianova (daughter helps your dad saw wood) by V. Goretsky (father and three children harvest of apples, mother and son lay on the table- father and two sons cleans the room, Dad with children make birdhouse, etc.) Interestingly, characters and social roles are changing and alternating: a boy setting the table, a girl holding nails, etc. However, this alternation is characteristic just for children adults clearly adhere to the traditional division into male and female chores. The authors of manuals ask pupils to make up a story on the picture.
There is a plot, where children and parents and make purchases. In the Goretsky primer the father buys children stationery. It is the «one-way», «adult» process this text tells us about:
Dad bought Pete pencil. Vera has a folder and clay. The doll was bought for Lena. [5, p. 58] (fig. 2)
Fig.2. V. Goretskij, p. 58
In N. Nechayev primer the shopping scene is quite different here the child is included in the dialogue, she was allowed to speak with adults and have her own opinion:
Mom: Be kind enough to show us the blouse for the 6 years girls.
Seller: Here you are.
Girl: And if you have any pants size smaller? [9, p. 29]
Quest to the image also pushes for independence:
Choose a name for this shop: a versatile, fancy goods, perfumes, clothing, household. Prove your choice. What stores do you even know?
We emphasize that in this image the child accurately and clearly «belong» to its time the girl are in trousers and shirt with a backpack, roller skating (in the store!), in the knee and a helmet. This girl belongs to the «new time» she would not wait passively for «favors» from the adult world, she is safe to enter this world of interaction and ready to defend her positions. (fig. 3)
Fig.3. N. Nechaeva, p. 29
The most friendly family for a common cause, we have found in the manual by N. Agarkova. [1, p. 88] (fig. 4) Quite lengthy text is accompanied by detailed illustrations: mother hanging wash clothes, grandmother bakes pancakes, daughter wipes the window, grandfather washes a wooden tub, father whittle, son raking fallen leaves. The story is on behalf of a boy and it ends so: I have no times to play with my friends because my whole family works. Figure givs situation, rather typical for the rural way of life (although in this text it does not directly), and «sends» the spectator to the times of the patriarchal family, which almost does not occur today. Authors and illustrators of primers wittingly or unwittingly is transferred to a textbooks their own representations about family and childhood. And sometimes they late in the entire era. [2, p. 58−134] Anyone who works with the child over the primer, it should be borne in mind and adjust.
Fig.4. N. Agarkova, p. 88
Now let us turn to the practice of representation a popular plot «children and profession of their parents» in the Russian primers. These texts and illustrations have a rather informative nature profession are here such… Emotional involvement of children is not expected. Of course, for the interaction with the child is not enough just listing the father is a carpenters, or a tractor drivers, a construction worker, a cooker, the mothers is a teacher, a doctors, a seamstress, etc. It is necessary to talk with the child about the features and complexities of parents occupations what they are busy at work, why they get tired, how to help them, etc.
Next, consider a large block of the illustrations, which refers to the relationship within the family. Here are a few aspects. The first of them the parents care for the children. Plots show us as parents usually the mother wash, feed, clothe, lull the children. There are paintings of care older brothers and sisters for the baby and for the elderly. [5, 9, 11, etc. ]
An interesting and revealing plot is placed in the primer by L. Klimanova a series of paintings under the title «One day the mother has gone …» [8, p. 7] (fig. 5) The older sister is trying to soothe a crying baby, consistently offering him a rattle, a bottle of milk, a toy-Pinocchio. But the child stops crying and starts smiling only when she takes him in her arms. Question from the author of «What should have been the kid?», of course, pushes to the answer human warmth, kindness, attention. The same manual posted stories, more complex in content, addresses the difficult situation of moral choice. We see how the older brother secretly pours collected mushrooms into the basket of his little sister, the next picture she proudly giving the full basket to her mother, while all the heroes of the story are smiling happily.
Fig.5. L. Klimanova, p. 7
Childcare for the older generation grandparents in the primer and alphabets are often presented through parables by L. Tolstoy. [4, p. 77] It is a role reversal between the generations, and that is not good to laugh at the infirmities of old men.
What other types of family relationships does a primer show? Of course, love and understanding. Usually such images accompanied texts about parental love and / or love of children to their parents. «Love» is represented, above all, the image of the mother. We founded only one image of the father in this context. [11, p. 33] For the Russian primers love between adult family members is a taboo topic. It is not found in the text of the first school books, but sometimes «breaks» in graphics, which shows couples. [9, p. 7, 63]
Another aspect of family relationships is the emerging conflict situations. Note that authors often take out this theme to another historical era and a different social environment. In many textbooks this topik is given through stories by L. Tolstoy and K. Ushinsky. [5, 7, etc.] (fig. 6)
Fig.6. V. Goretskij, p. 160
It seems telling that only one type of conflict is presented a dispute over the possession of general things. The model resolution of the situation is proposed also the same to delete the object of strife. Only two analyzed benefits demonstrate another variant behavior, and suggested another way to resolve the conflict compromise. [5, p. 118−119- 11, p. 204]
We emphasize that any arise conflicts «higher power» permits parents or other adults. Their authority is indisputable.
However, the analyzed alphabets and primers show the children that the family conflicts occur only between brothers and sisters. Quarrels between parents and children, moms and dads with each other or with other relatives are not bear on the pages of the textbooks. And indeed heroes of textbooks for primary school, it seems, have no life troubles and serious problems. But in real life, complex situations await the child at every turn, and here, unfortunately, primer is not an assistant. Of course, this tradition of the presentation absolutely cloudless «happy childhood» is a legacy of the Soviet era textbooks, and it still has not been overcome. Of course, we see the characters in any adverse circumstances an unexpected rain, high nettles, broken toys, a pain, fight, etc. but this is not a serious problem. The existential problems of modern Russian primer does not discuss with the children. Suffering person is not displayed. We know that the European practice is another, and in this aspect a primer can be used too.
Note that in the Russian primers the texts and illustrations connected with the Orthodox spiritual culture return gradually. But in our country as long as this theme is unusual and not directly linked with the theme of «family».
Ideally, the visual language of the first school books adult world is trying to tell the child, about «the universe of his existence», and just the way it wants to, «…the child perceived it, live into it and interacted with it» [3, p. 4]. If we are talking about «part of the universe», which is called «the family», in the book the child must
see and accept the socially acceptable norms of behavior and the relationship between the native people- build for themselves a hierarchy of status, processes and phenomena- work out in the field of their own value systems- create relevant and realistic expectations- acquire the culture of family relations.
In the mentioned primers, family is represented positively, and can serve as a model and material for working with children from problem families. But note that in the primers the image of the family is significantly mythologizing and archaic. A number of important aspects are not reflected in modern Russian textbooks for primary schools. What is evident crisis of the family as a social institution- is there an alternative to it- what is it in the Christian understanding of the family- how to relate to children'-s rights and the rights of parents to children- whether «defensive right» family in relation to the requirements of the hypertrophied state these and many other questions are particularly acute when dealing with children, but these moments adult working with the child can and must be supplemented by himself.
In conclusion, let us say that a monograph «Die Familie im Schulbuch» by N. B. Streithofen contains very informative and interesting list of «criteria for defining the notion of family in school textbooks» (Kriterien fur die Beurteilung der Familie in Schulbuchern). [12, p. 139−141] It touched an extremely relevant and the most problematic topics of family relationships in the modern primers. This list can serve as a basis for social work in this direction.
1. Agarkova, N. G. Uchebnik po obucheniju gramote i chteniju [Text]: Azbuka: 1 klass [Textbook literacy and reading: ABC 1 year] / N. G. Agarkova. Moscow: Akademkniga / Uchebnik publ, 2011. 128 p.
2. Barannikova, N. B. et al. Nasledie sovetskoj kul'-tury v uchebnike po chteniju 1990-h gg. [The legacy of Soviet culture in the textbook reading 1990s] in «I sprosila kroha…» Obraz rebenka i sem'-i v pedagogike postsovetskoj Rossii: uchebniki po slovesnosti dlja nachal'-noj shkoly 1985−2006 gg [Text] / N. B. Barannikova. Moscow-Tver: ITIP RAO publ, 2010. P. 58−143.
3. Bezrogov, V. G. «Naiprostaja knizhica dlja nachalki» — mesto vstrechi obrazovanija i kul'-tury [The simple book for primary schools] in «I sprosila kroha.» Obraz rebenka i sem'-i v pedagogike postsovetskoj Rossii: uchebniki po slovesnosti dlja nachal'-noj shkoly 1985−2006 gg. [Text] / V. G. Bezrogov. Moscow-Tver: ITIP RAO publ, 2010. P. 4−6.
4. Beten'-kova, N. M. Azbuka: Dlja 1-go kl. chetyrjohlet. nach. shk. [ABC for the 1st year of primary school] [Text] / N. M. Beten'-kova. Smolensk: Associacija XXI vek publ. ch.1., 2004. 112 p.
5. Goreckij, V. A. Bukvar'- [Text]: uchebnik dlja 1 klassa trehletnej nach. shkoly [Primer for for the 1st year of primary school] / V. A. Goreckij. Moscow: Prosveshhenie publ, 1998. 127 p.
6. Zhurova, L. E. Bukvar'- [Text]: 1 klass [Primer: 1st year], uchebnik dlja uchashhihsja obshheobrazovatel'-nyh uchrezhdenij: v 2 ch. / L. E. Zhurova. Moscow: Ventana-Graf publ, 2009. 128 p.
7. Klimanova, L. F. ABVGDejka: Azbuka pervoklassnika [ABC for the firstformer] [Text] / L. F. Klimanova. Moscow: Prosveshhenie publ, 1999. 271 p.
8. Klimanova, L. F. Azbuka. 1 klass. [ABC. 1st year] [Text] / L. F. Klimanova. Moscow: Ros. akad. nauk, Ros. akad. obrazovanija, izd-vo «Prosveshhenie» publ, 2010. 111 p.
9. Nechaeva, N. V. Azbuka. [ABC] [Text] / N. V. Nechaeva, K. S. Belorusec. Samara: Korporacija «Fedorov», Izdatel'-stvo «Uchebnaja literatura» publ, 2011. 112 p.
10. Repkin, V. V. et al. Bukvar'- [Text] (Programma razvivajushhego obuchenija) [Primer (Developmental Learning Program)] / V. V. Repkin. Tomsk: «Peleng» publ, 1999. 224 p.
11. Jel'-konin, D. B. Bukvar'- [Primer] [Text] / D. B. Jel'-konin. Moscow: Prosveshhenie publ., 1992. 256 p.
12. Streithofen, N. B. Die Familie im Schulbuch [Text] / N. B. Streithofen. Walberberg, 1980. 187 p.

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