Lifelong inclusive education of people with disabilities
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- Народное образование. Педагогика
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LIFELONG INCLUSIVE EDUCATION OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES
А. V. Gluzman Y. V. Boginskaya
The article analyzes the current state of lifelong inclusive education of people with disabilities. The authors highlight the conditions of developing a lifelong education system for children and youth with disabilities.
Key words: people with disabilities, lifelong education, inclusive education, social and pedagogical conditions.
Today’s system of education becomes increasingly focused on the function of socialization of individuals, including persons with disabilities. Nowadays, more and more often we feel the need to help people with disabilities to be fully engaged in societal life, which means implementing the right to accessible and lifelong education, improving and developing specialized educational structures, and learning technologies. The lifelong education system plays a special role in the socialization of persons with disabilities. For example, in the State program of the Russian Federation «Development of Education» for 2013−2020, the third system priority is determined to be developing lifelong education, which includes flexibly organized different forms of education and socialization throughout a person'-s life.  According to the Federal Law «On Education in the Russian Federation», lifelong education enables fulfilling the right to education throughout one’s life .
At present, all developed countries of the world are implementing programs for developing a system of continuous education (lifelong learning), paying special attention to such categories as elderly people and persons with disabilities . Foreign researchers (M. Adams, G. Biesta, L. Conlon, D. Haines, A. Lillywhite, D. Livingstone, M. Nind, R. Roth, P. Sawchuk, M. Terepocki, S. Vanstone) pay great attention in their works to the creation of a regulatory framework to ensure continuity of education of persons with disabilities, to technologies of continuous inclusive education, as well as development and implementation of the individual educational route for each student with disabilities. According to Russian researchers (S.V. Alekhina, D.Z. Akhmetova, L.F. Gainullina, A. S. Gosporyan,
V.M. Grebennikova, A.V. Moskvina, Z.G. Nigmatov, N.I. Nikitina, E.M. Starobina,
T.A. Chelnokova, G.V. Yusupova, E.L. Yakovleva), it is necessary to change the scope and meanings of modern continuing education of people with disabilities based on the realities of the modern Russian educational system [2- 4- 5- 6].
In the Russian Federation, the system of lifelong inclusive education is just at the beginning of its development. As stated in the Federal Law «On Education in the Russian Federation», inclusive education means equal access to education for all students, given the diversity of special educational needs and individual capabilities . In inclusive education the model of continuous education is based on construction of an education route of a child with a disability, taking into account the continuity, accessibility and quality of teaching and rehabilitation services: (a) pre-school educational institutions- (b) general educational institutions- © institutions for orphans and children left without parental care- (d) centers
of social and psychological rehabilitation- (e) secondary vocational training institutions- (f) higher educational institutions- (g) additional education institutions- (h) other interested institutions (public organizations, hospitals, institutions of social protection, etc.). In turn, the system of lifelong inclusive education is: firstly, a set of successive professional training programs in secondary, higher and postgraduate pedagogical education- secondly, a network of interacting educational institutions and institutions of secondary, higher and postgraduate pedagogical education- thirdly, a federal and regional system of pedagogical education management.
Lifelong inclusive education for children and youth with disabilities and their families is extremely important, as it allows forming a predictable educational strategy, a succession of forms and methods, technologies of adaptation and integration, as well as the opportunity to choose the best variant of training and education of a child with a disability.
In turn, the creation of an affordable and high-quality lifelong education system for persons with disabilities is possible with the implementation of the three groups of conditions: structural and functional, adaptive and integration, and psychological and pedagogical .
Structural and functional conditions are characterized by the modernization of the social and educational environment, as well as the structuring of the integrated educational and rehabilitation process. This group of conditions includes: (a) the introduction of each educational organization of an integrated system of social and educational support for children and youth with disabilities, taking into account the logistics, personnel, educational, medical and rehabilitation and recourse support of the organization- (b) ensuring the effective functioning of an educational and rehabilitation structural unit (service center, department, sector) to support people with disabilities, which changes the traditional system of working with children and young people in this category © the implementation of the mechanism of social partnership of educational institutions with the local authorities, territorial community and the public, aimed at the creation and implementation of a regional program to support the inclusive education of children and youth with disabilities. Implementation of this group of conditions determines the content and structural changes in the concept and model of lifelong inclusive education of persons with disabilities, and involves regional and state support of educational and rehabilitation centers of inclusive education for persons with disabilities.
Adaptive and integration conditions are focused on extending the rights and capabilities of children and youth with disabilities in the field of lifelong inclusive education, as well as the inclusion of this category into the social and cultural and educational environment. This group of conditions includes: (a) improvement of the architectural and environmental infrastructure of educational institutions, dormitories, and institutions that are the sites of practical activities, leisure activities that promote equal rights and opportunities in the process of adaptation of persons with disabilities to the conditions of education- (b) development of social relations of children and youth with disabilities, aimed at their integration into the community of pupils, and their active participation in different activities- © modernization and adaptation of training programs and individual plans in accordance with the needs and abilities of persons with disabilities, and introduction of individual training and rehabilitation programs to improve the preparation of the adapted training and methodological support of disciplines. The implementation of these conditions will make it possible to
create the appropriate architectural and environmental infrastructure in educational institutions corresponding to the typical building standards, and to determine the content, forms, methods, technology of adaptation and integration, and social and educational support for children and youth with disabilities.
The content of psychological and pedagogical conditions covers the specific features of socialization and organization of the process of lifelong education of children and youth with disabilities, as well as the methodical readiness of the teaching staff to work with such people. This group of conditions includes: (a) correspondence of the volume of the training load to the capabilities and capacities, and psychophysical condition of children and youth with disabilities, that contribute to the increase of the effectiveness of social and educational support of training in the integrated environment- (b) ensuring the implementation of technologies and methodologies of social and educational support for pupils and students with disabilities, making it possible to optimize the educational process in inclusive classes and integrated academic groups- © increase the professionalism of teachers and support staff aimed at optimizing the organization of lifelong inclusive education of children and youth with disabilities.
Thus, in order to develop the integrated system of lifelong inclusive education of persons with disabilities, it is necessary to create certain conditions in accordance with national priorities and strategies of education development in the Russian Federation, as well as taking into account the needs, opportunities, psychological and physiological indicators of this category of persons.
Интеграция детей с ограниченными возможностями в процессе непрерывного (детский сад — школа — техникум — вуз) инклюзивного образования в городе Петрозаводске и районах Республики Карелия. Материалы исследования по проекту и практический опыт. — Петрозаводск, 2007. — 138 с.
Педагогика и психология инклюзивного образования: учеб. пособие /
Федеральный закон от 29 декабря 2012 г. № 273-ФЗ «Об образовании в Российской Федерации» http: //минобрнауки. рф/документы/2974
Decision No 1720/2006/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 November 2006 Establishing an Action Programme in the Field of Lifelong Learning // Official Journal of European Union. — 2006. — L327. — November 24.
Translated from Russian by Znanije Central Translastions Bureas