Management of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund under socio-ecological economic convergence

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Management of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund under socio-ecological economic convergence
Bogoslavska Alina Viktorivna, candidate of economic sciences, associate professor of the International Economics department, Mykolaiv V. O., Sukhomlynskiy National University
Semenchuk Iryna Mykolaivna, candidate of economic sciences, associate professor of the Enterprise Economics and Land Management department, Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University E-mail: Alina_sichko@mail. ru
Management of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund under socio-ecological economic convergence
Abstract: The article analyzes the problems of the current state of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund. The author substantiates the way of development process improvement of the sustainable development of the NRF through the development of economics and «green& quot- economic growth management, which integrates a model of sustainable development in the long-term strategy.
Keywords: nature reserve fund, «green» economic growth management, green economy, natural capital, ecologization.
Statement of the problem. Nature Reserve Fund (NRF) is a national property which is characterized by a special regime of protection, reproduction and use of natural resources. Despite the uniqueness and environmental, ecological, scientific, aesthetic, recreational value of the NRF, in recent years there have been transformational negative trends in its development and formation. Summary overview of problems shows that many of them are common to most of the protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund. The main among them are: misuse, appropriation of natural reserve fund land due to the absence of land management projects on territories and boundaries established in objects of natural reserve fund. Most of the borders of the territories and objects of natural reserve fund are not madein kind (in the area). It is important to note that the definition of boundaries of objects of natural reserve fund in areas important for their safety, the delay in the establishment is one of the prerequisites for the illegal and spontaneous seizure or threat of loss of the item. Analysis of statistical data on the total number of discovered offenses in 2013 indicates that more than 31 thousand hectares of land, including more than 1.7 hectares of health-improving, recreational, environmental, historical and cultural significance and forestry fund and 11.3 hectares related to unauthorized occupation are the subject of illegal encroachments.
There is no land inventory documentation on the vast majority of objects of natural reserve fund. In the state statistical recording of land quantitative assessment (Form 6-zem), the land granted the status of objects of
natural reserve fund without seizuring them from land users is not separately recorded. A significant amount of land on which there are areas and objects of natural reserve fund is not classified as nature reserves and that of any nature protection purpose.
It is important to state that nature reserve fund institutions do not have the status of the victim in case of inflicted losses in the NRF area and in the case of recovery of damages caused by offenders- funds do not fall within protected areas, even to eliminate the consequences of such violations. The distribution of assets from the state and regional funds of environmental protection is not transparent, some NRF institutions haven’t been able to get financing for years. Funds recovered from offenders through the courts, are forwarded to the state budget, instead of NRF institutions.
The system of NRF has become a distorted vestige of an extremely inefficient system of governance. Instead, we can confidently assume that the strategic factor of NRF operation and development is a public mood for change, aimed at modernizing the entire complex of NRF.
In this regard, there is need for continued comprehensive research on the methodology of the operation and development of protected areas and natural reserves and identification of factors that contribute to the formation of an effective system of incentives for its development.
Analysis of recent researches and publications. Scientific and theoretical basis of this study is made up by the workson the formation and development of natural reserves of such scholars as M. Bilyashivsky,
Section 14. Economics and management
G. N. Vysotsky, V. Gorlachuk P. A. Tutkovskiy, L. Porten-ko, N. Sharleman, I. Faleyev, A. Balatskiy and others, whose theoretical and practical works have made significant contributions to the development of NRF in Ukraine. Thanks to their hard work, the advantages and disadvantages of NRF and sites of natural conservation, objective and subjective reasons for their occurrence have been studied. It is proved that many issues in protected areas arose in connection with the land reform, namely, on the private ownership of NRF and sites. As a result of the land reform the deregulation and privatization of reserve lands and lands of the former collective farms are taking place. But a significant portion of protected areas established for these lands is in danger of sharing for conducting production activities regardless of their status and conservation value nowadays. In most NRF there are not information security and boundary marks.
Almost every scientist says that the current state of the NRF forces to change the view to further its development and justify the need to guide it on the basis of environmental priorities, availability of environmental risks and ecological security. It is also stated that there is a need to fundamentally replace management system of territories and objects of natural reserve fund.
The above mentioned has resulted in the choice of the research direction and determined the objective of the article.
The aim of the article is to research and prove theoretically and methodologically the development of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund management based on the principle of socio-ecological-economic convergence (from Lat. converge — «pull together& quot-).
Theoretical principles of economics, national scientists' works on the problems of protected areas development and operation have formed the methodological basis of the research.
The main material. «Agenda 21» adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, 3−14 June 1992 [1] states that sustainable development will be strengthened by increasing the productivity of natural ecosystems and conservation of natural resources. These processes can be realized by increasing the efficiency of facility management (territories) of nature reserve fund.
It is very important to define responsible governance institutions in the field of protected areas in order to evaluate its effectiveness. It should be noted that the current system of nature reserve fund has a single central body of executive power, to which all protected
objects in Ukraine were subordinate. In addition to the Department of Conservation under the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, which is the governmental body of the state administration in the area of nature reserve management, environmental objects are subordinated to a number of other government organizations. As a result we have an inconsistency and duplication of administrative functions of agencies- imperfect control mechanisms of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund which are necessary for control levers formation- dispersion of resources and low efficiency of their use [2]. Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine' s Resolution «On the main directions of the state policy of Ukraine on Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Environmental Security» in Chapter 33 — «Institutional arrangements for environmental protection and rational use of natural resources of Ukraine «-defines the functions of three levels of government (national, regional, local). Unfortunately, scheduled tasks and partition functions haven’t been achieved yet- they are currently in a state of «dispersion» in all sorts of legal acts. It is this ambiguity that leads to improper behavior of the subject in relation to the particular land and natural reserve fund in general. Determining the extent of possible and appropriate behavior of the subjects will contribute to the optimal use, conservation and restoration of Nature Reserve Fund of Ukraine lands.
Analysis of the effectiveness of management activities in the protected areas shows that the existing organizational and management system has significant flaws, in particular, there is a mismatch between the gravity of the environmental violations and measures of legal liability, which leads to increased social tension in the society, reducing confidence of the environmental community and citizens to actions of public authorities. Most significant in this regard is the Ministry of Interior Affairs report for 2013 which states that 1,4 thousand officers were lawfully charged in this sphere. The amount of damages from prosecuted criminal cases is 675 million hryvnias. 127.1 million hryvnias have been recovered and 4.7 hectares of land have been returned after the completion of proceedings in criminal cases. 216 violations committed in time of the ownership or use of forest areas, nature preserves and recreational areas have been revealed. In addition, we note that most of the problems that contribute to the abuse of authority officials, administration and local government officials lie in the plane of land ownership and redistribution of state land resources change.
To sum it up, we can infer that the current system of territories and objects of nature reserves in Ukraine
Management of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund under socio-ecological economic convergence
has not been established. Almost all its shortcomings are due to the lack of a single integrally responsible central agency which could constantly interact with civil societies in the implementation of the National Programme of Reserves Development until 2020 and other programs of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, taking into account the specific provisions of the Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU, following the principles of eco-balanced development.
An important step in the formation of this system is through lustration and formation of personnel-attestation and lustration commissions that evaluate professional competence of employees on the basis of standardized eligibility criteria and qualification according to the NRF institutions employees' work and the system of competitive selection of experts according to the profile of their work. It is necessary to ensure transparency and democratic appointment system in protected areas through extensive discussions of candidates for the post with public environmental organizations.
It is also necessary to introduce a system of centralized training to improve the skills of NRF institutions employees. All qualification requirements will depend on ever-increasing levels of environmental and scientific understanding, aimed at creating the necessary skills in NTIM3 or STEM [3]: science, technology, engineering and mathematics, contraction of skills in human and natural capital.
It is possible due to a new type of management in the natural reserve fund — management of «green» economic growth, which is aimed at the implementation of «Agenda 21». Management of «green» economic growth promotes research and development in the field of «green» innovation and sustainable development model integrates protected areas into long-term strategy, establishing mutually functioning socio-ecological-economic convergence in land and protected areas of Ukraine use. To our mind convergence should be viewed as convergence of economic, environmental and social changes that are designed to ensure the search for solutions to reproduce the balance of metabolic processes between the public and protected territories and objects of natural reserve fund.
Management of «green» economic growth of natural reserve fund is crucial in terms of resources and ensuring social justice, which are necessary for the development of capacity and funding actions aimed at transition to a green economy. It should be noted that the «green economy» is an economy in which economic growth and responsibility for the environment operate together, reinforcing each
other and at the same time supporting progress on social and economic development [4]. Green economy will contribute to the economic, social and environmental benefits increase, achievement of sustainability of protected areas and sites of natural areas, bringing negative effects of economic activity and social development for the environment beyond the equation of danger.
The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) [5] initiated the concept of a «green» economic growth in 2008 as a Global Green New Deal (GGND). According to the content it offers to direct the efforts on the transmission after the crisis to the sustainable development, not for the costs of ecology, but on the investing in the «green» economy providing at the same time the promotion of the economic development, job creation and a more economical use of natural resources. It should be added that the Concept proposed ten key sectors required for the «green» economic growth. They are agriculture, housing and communal services, power engineering, fishery, forestry, industry, tourism, transport, utilization and recycling of waste, natural resource management [5].
The world experience shows that using the tools of a «green economy» in their national development strategies, the investment in the environmental protection has increased. The largest amount of «green» investments (22,300 million euro) is in China, (12,300 million euro) in Japan, (5 700 million euro) in France [6]. As a result, it has become a spur of economic activity at a low risk of economic, environmental and social crises. It is important to note that the reports of the three leading international organizations: FAO (UN World Food and Agriculture Organization), WHO (UN World Health Organization) and the World Bank [7] mention the expediency of transition to a «green economy» in the whole world.
From this point of view it is important that the green economy of the natural reserve fund will cover business that aims at profit, expansion of markets for environmental goods and services, possibility of introducing and reducing the cost of the latest eco-efficient technologies, self-funding on a regional basis in terms of benefits. In promoting these processes the implementing of the relevant standards and regulations, the expansion of financial resources for research, the development and demonstration of the benefits of new technologies play an important role.
Accordingly, in the short term period the creation of the added value will always have higher priority compared to the priorities of reducing the impact on protected areas and objects of the natural reserve fund and
Section 14. Economics and management
the optimization of the use of natural resources, other conditions being equal. However, the feature of the green economy is long-term proj ects that take into account the prospects of Ukraine’s international obligations in the field of the natural reserve fund development, such as «Vision 2050» of the World Business Council for Sustainable Business [8] which predicts to expand capabilities of business activity in various business segments to $ 3−10 trillion in 2050 [9] by implementing resource-efficient projects.
So, the sustainable development of the NRF requires the management «in advance», based on the investment and innovation policy focused not only on technique and technology — that will ensure the development of more «catch-up», but on a high level of coordination between the various ministries and other subjects of management, and community stakeholders outside the public administration to identify a set of policy measures on the adaptation of protected areas and objects of natural reserve fund for the new «green» UN course. The development of an appropriate institutional capacity will be essential for integrating the green growth in the key economic strategies and other measures of environmental policy. The transition to the management of the «green» growth in the field of the natural reserve fund will lead to the formation of the innovative «green» directions based on the three pillars of the sustainable development [10]: ecological efficiency, ecological justice, and ecological effectiveness. Among them the following directions play an important role: eco-tax (a real assessment of natural capital) — eco-infrastructure- eco-monitoring- eco-logistics- eco- innovations- eco- services. These trends will change the monofunctional management paradigm by the system of areas and objects of the natural reserve fund, which is primarily aimed at the conservation of biological and landscape diversity onto the multifunctional
paradigm that takes into account the maximum increase of productivity in the use of the natural capital. Today the involvement of the natural capital of Ukraine into the economic circulation is going without taking into account environmental constraints of terrestrial ecosystems. The determination of the acceptable level of load on the landscape natural capital and environmental and economic efficiency of using its assimilative potential will contribute to the conservation of natural capital of Ukraine, to the improvement of the quality of the environment.
Conclusion. The formation and the current state of the natural reserve fund actualize the need to find specific tools in the implementation of sustainable development strategies in this area into the way of implementing management by the «green» economic growth of the natural reserve fund. It provides not only the reduction of the use of natural resources and the minimization of the impact on the natural environment, but also contributes to the flow of investment in natural capital (the increase in the share of the protected areas, the strengthening in the protection of forests, etc.), the optimal allocation of scarce natural resources, etc. At present, the modern system of areas and objects of natural reserve fund management provides for an institutional reform. Primarily, this involves making appropriate fundamental changes in the formation of personnel with clear division of functions at all levels of governance and the strengthening of the role of industrial and public administration in the field of the usage of the areas and objects of the natural reserve fund. The purpose of the new staff in the field of the NRF is to create a model of partnership between local residents, users of natural resources and administrations of protected areas and the promotion of income generation for all partners in the protection and rational use of areas and objects of the natural reserve fund.
1. Agenda 21. United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit), — Rio de Janeiro, — 1992.
2. Zmiznennya upravlinnya ta finansovoyi stiykosti nazional’noyi systemy pryrodoohoronnyih teryitoriy v Ukraini: Proektnyiy document/Uryad Ukrainy, Global’nyiy ekologichnyiy fond, Programma Rozvitky OON. — Kyiv: «BAITE». — 2012. — 176 p.
3. United Nations Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, «Future We Want — Outcome document». -[Elektronnyi resurs]. — Rezhim dostupu: http: //sustainabledevelopment. un. org/futurewewant. html
4. Dopovid' pro zelenu ekonomiku UNEP, — 2011. — [Elektronnyi resurs]. — Rezhim dostupu: http: //www. un. org. /ru/development/sustainable/ger/
5. UNEP (2010). The Green Economy Initiative//[Elektronnyi resurs]. — Rezhim dostupu: http: //www. unep. org/greeneconomy/, accessed 2010−07−06.
6. Dopovid' pro zelenu ekonomiku UNEP, — 2011. — [Elektronnyi resurs]. — Rezhim dostupu: http: //www. un. org. /ru/de-velopment/sustainable/ger/
Basic factors of origin of bank crises
7. Stan i perspektyvy rozvytkku zelenoyi ekonomiky ta zelenogo biznesu v Ukraini. Analitychna dopovid'//[Elek-tronnyi resurs]. — Rezhim dostupu: www. eep. org. ua
8. Videniye — 2050. Novaya povestka dnya dlya biznesa. 2010//[Elektronnyi resurs]. — Rezhim dostupu: www. wbcsd. org/web/vision2050. htm.
9. Burkyns’kyi B. V. «Zelena» ekonomika kriz' pryzmu transformatziynyih zrushen v Ukraini/B. V. Burkyns’kyi, T. P. Galushkina, V E. Reutov. — Odesa: IPREED NAN Ukrainy — Saky: PP «Psdpryemstvo Feniks», — 2011. — 348 p.
10. Chen A. J. W. Information systems and ecological sustainability/A. J. W. Chen, M. -C. Boudrean, R. T. Wat-son//Journal Of Systems and Information Technology. — v. 10. — #3. — 2008. — p. 186−201.
11. Kal’na-Dubinyuk T. P. Suchasni informatziyno-konsul'tatuvni tehnologiyi: Zbirnyk naukovyh pratz'/Materialy Mizhnarodnoyi konferentziyi «Forum vyishchoyi osvity», KPI. — K., — 2008. — p. 54−57.
Buryak Oleg Petrovich, Lviv Academy of Commerce, Researcher, Department of Economic Theory E-mail: ks770@inbox. ru
Basic factors of origin of bank crises
Abstract: The basic factors of origin of bank crises are probed. It is marked that importance of analysis of crisis of the banking system follows from the features of functioning of the banking system, and also from its meaningfulness both for an economy and financial system of the state on the whole, and directly for every its subject.
Keywords: national economy, banking system, factors of origin of bank crises, crisis of the banking system, financial system, bank credit.
Буряк Олег Петрович, Львовская коммерческая академия, соискатель кафедры экономической теории E-mail: ks770@inbox. ru
Основные факторы возникновения банковских кризисов
Аннотация: Исследуются основные факторы возникновения банковских кризисов. Отмечено, что важность анализа кризиса банковской системы вытекает из особенностей функционирования банковской системы, а также из ее значимости как для экономики и финансовой системы государства в целом, так и непосредственно для каждого ее субъекта.
Ключевые слова: национальная экономика, банковская система, факторы возникновения банковских кризисов, кризиса банковской системы, финансовая система, банковский кредит.
На современном этапе существует потребность в исследовании причин возникновения банковских кризисов. И как утверждает А. И. Барановский, «несовершенство методологии и инструментария прогнозирования банковских кризисов не позволяет в полной мере описать все многообразие и сложность причин, способствующих накоплению кризисного потенциала в банковских системах, что в свою очередь, вызывает выбор неэффективных стратегий антикризисного регулирования банковской деятельности» [2]. Поэтому мы подробнее остановимся на исследовании основных факторов возникновения банковских кризисов.
Отметим, что по объему охвата можно выделить системные и локальные банковские кризисы. Локальный банковский кризис охватывает небольшое количество банков, для которых характерны общие недостатки, а именно: низкая ликвидность, ограниченность ресурсной базы, несбалансированная структура кредитного портфеля и т. д. В свою очередь системный банковский кризис — это кризис, при которой возникают значительные нарушения в работе банков, осуществляющих наибольшие объемы основных банковских операций, то есть возникает угроза существованию всей банковской системы. Также подобные кризисы нередко сопровождаются

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