Methods of studying concepts in lingvoculturology

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УДК: 81 373
Васильева Анна Алексеевна
магистрант КнАГТУ, г. Комсомольск-на-Амуре, РФ E-mail: anna_the_first@mail. ru
Studying concepts is one of the most important issues of linguistics now days. Most scientists agree on the definition where the concept is perceived as a mental unit that reflects phenomena of reality depending on a particular native speaker. There are several points of view on a problem of studying concepts. In this article the most important ways of making a research of a concept are observed.
Language, concepts, methods, culture, lingvoculture
Due to active development of the international relationships, learning foreign languages has become a common thing. But it is a well-known fact, that learning languages is closely connected with studying culture through studying concepts.
Although the scientists still argue about the nature and definition of the term & quot-concept"-, most of them agree that the concept is a mental unit that reflects and interprets phenomena of reality according to the educational level, professional and social, as well as personal experiences of a native speaker.
The two basic principles of studying concepts have been formed by the present time. They are cognitive and lingvocultural. The purpose of using both of these methods is defining the gist of linguistic consciousness and defining the basis of the differences between cultures. The cognitive and lingvocultural approaches to understanding a concept do not contradict each other- on the contrary, they complement each other, since they are two sides of the same phenomenon which reflect two steps of one mental process: amalgamation of a word and its meanings, and introduction of the word into a cultural context [1].
The basic delineation of a concept within the framework of the lingvocultural approach can be defined during its consideration through the paradigm of the following models: 1) the model of association links between linguistic units and their meanings- 2) the model of ways of cognition interaction- 3) the model of language usage on different levels. Studying concepts within the framework of the model of association links between linguistic units and their meanings finds its expression in analysis of the interaction of a concept as a system and other concepts. Studying phraseological meanings, figurative meanings, proverbs, and associations related to them is connected to this analysis.
The basic methods of studying concepts were taken from structural semantics which makes use of componential analysis and field theory, when the notions found during analysis are located from the & quot-nexus"- to the & quot-edges"- in accordance with their importance. But the subject of a lingvocultural analysis is much broader and includes semantics of text and discourse units like aphorisms, proverbs and others.
Considering these points of view we may come to a conclusion that the most commonly used methods of studying concepts are the analysis of lexical paradigms that verbalize the concept, and the analysis of proverbs and aphorisms. For further information about the practical application of these methods you can see the work of Chibisova and Tovbaz [2].
The analysis of lexical paradigms that verbalize the concept requires studying basic language units that can be found in different explanatory dictionaries. Some scientists also use diachronic analysis which requires studying etymological data, facts about the process of the development and establishing of the basic lexical item'-s meaning.
It is considered that aphorisms contain moral values and norms of behavior, so scientists, who use analysis of proverbs and aphorisms in their works, usually mention ethnic singularity of the concepts. At the present time there
№ 10/2015
ISSN 2410−700Х
is an opinion that it is the idiomatic layer of a language that represents the system of ideas of a certain ethnic group, and it should be a subject of lingvocultural studies. But it should be checked if the phenomena described in fixed phrases are still relevant for the native speakers.
Having researched and analyzed the existing methods of studying concepts, Maksimchuk [1] offers the following succession of steps: 1) to define the basic lexical units related to a concept through turning to lexicographical sources- 2) to define and verify the definitions of the dictionary of the basic lexical units using the analysis of collocations- 3) to define the units of the lexical, morphological, syntactical, grammatical and other levels of verbalizing a concept in a modern stage of development of a language- 4) to define the ways of using a concept in the speech- 5) to unite lexical units in one functional semantic field- 6) to define the contexts in which a semantic field functions.
In spite of the maturity and completeness of these methods lots of scientists agree that the most accurate results can be reached through combining of several of them. Список использованной литературы
1. Максимчик, О. А. Методология исследования лингвокультурных концептов. / О. А. Максимчик. -Самара: Известия Самарского научного центра Российской академии наук. Т. 16. № 2−2, 2014. — С. 424−427.
2. Чибисова О. В., Товбаз А. А. Концепт «Удача» в русской и китайской культурах // Общественные науки. 2012. № 1. С. 56−65.
3. Шунейко А. А., Матюшко А. В. Характеристика научного знания: часть 1 — отправные точки // Ученые записки Комсомольского-на-Амуре государственного технического университета. 2015. Т. 2. № 1 (21). С. 121−123.
© А. А. Васильева, 2015
УДК 81
Yakubenko K.S., graduate student Gogoleva M.A., Associate Professor The Institute of Service and Business (branch) of Don State Technical University in Shakhty
E-mail: ksenia. yakubenko@yandex. ru
In this article, we discuss the aspects of cross-cultural communication connected with the differences in communicative behavior types. We explore what happens when the message is sent be the representative of a different cultural background than the intended receiver, and what influence this process may have.
Communicative behavior, culture, cross-cultural interaction, verbal communication, nonverbal communication,
contrastive approach.
Modern world has become more globalised and trade-oriented therefore communication in all spheres engages more and more cross-cultural interaction. This clash of different cultures can create various barriers which prevent people from efficient communication, it also can be connected with misunderstandings and sometimes miscommunication can make reaching a mutual agreement impossible.
Representatives of different cultures have distinct style of communication and different understandings of the interaction process as well. So we can say that communication and culture are closely related and if you want to avoid cross-cultural communication problems you need deeper understanding of cross-cultural differences.

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