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Федеральное Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение
Высшего профессионального образования
«Магнитогорский Государственный Университет»
ФГБОУ ВПО «МаГУ»
По Английскому языку
Table of contents
2. State symbolic
4. Economic districts of country
5. Historical and geographical features of development
7. Features of formation of the Canadian nation
8. External migrations of the population
10. Placement and moving
11. International relations
12. Internal migrations
13. Urbanization and rural locality
14. Structure of economy
16. External economic connections
17. Internal distinctions
18. Customs and traditions of nationalities of Canada
19. National holidays
сanada economic population tradition
Canada -- the state in North America. Is a part of British commonwealth. North America occupies northern part of the continent and numerous islands adjoining it: Vankuver, Queen Charlotte occupies northern part of the continent. Arctic archipelago, Newfoundland, Cape Breton island, Antikosti and prince Edward. Borders on the USA in the South and the northwest, in the north it is washed by waters of the Arctic Ocean, in the West -- waters of the Pacific Ocean and in the East Atlantic Ocean. The area is nine thousand nine hundred seventy six thousand square kilometers. Population thirty and a half million people. The capital -- the city of Ottawa. Canada shares on ten provinces which are subdivided into counties and districts, and two territories. Political system of Canada -- a parliamentary monarchy. The head of state formally is the English king (queen) of Canada -- one of the first dominions of Great Britain. The constitution consists of a large number of laws and the constitutional customs. The basic existing constitutional law -- the Act of the British North America was adopted by English parliament in one thousand eight hundred sixty seventh. In a form of a state system Canada -- federation. Functions of the head of state are carried out by the governor general appointed by the English king on the advice of the prime minister of Canada. The role of the governor general in political life is insignificant though formally he is chief executive, approves the bills adopted parliament. At the governor general there is a Privy Council (hundred thirty people) into which members of royal family, ministers, chairmen of chambers enter parliament and so on. The supreme body of legislature -- parliament, consists from two chambers. The House of Commons is elected by the population for five years. In total in the senate hundred two members. The government of Canada -- an office, consists of the prime minister and ministers -- heads of leaders of the ministries (defense, foreign affairs, finance, trade and the industry). Ministers, as a rule -- deputies of the House of Commons. The prime minister possesses very large powers, is the Supreme Commander armed forces. The royalty in provinces represent the lieutenant-governors, appointed by the governor general on representation of the government of Canada. In provinces there are legislative assemblies, as a rule, unicameral, chosen by the population no more than for 5 years, the governments of provinces are formed. Local self-government institutions -- councils of counties and districts, municipalities are actually subordinated to governing bodies of provinces. The supreme judicial authority -- the Supreme Court which nine members are appointed the governor general. The same way forms the Treasury court considering claims for affairs one of the parties in which is the state treasury. The supreme and local judicial authorities are created and in provinces.
2. State symbolic
And Quebec is widespread on the southern areas of the present Provinces of Ontario the well-known Canadian sugar maple — «acer saccharut «which leaf became a national emblem of Canada. In other territory of the country which gradually extended with accession of new provinces, the sugar maple doesn’t grow, except for small Prince Edward Island. Why the sugar maple growing only in southeast Canada became national a symbol? It is connected in a certain degree with unique properties of this beautiful tree — one of the highest broad-leaved trees in the world. It is widespread just where the present French-Canadian and Anglo-Canadian nations and where, to this day, live the two third Canadians arose. In the fall this edge is as though captured by a flame: leaves of a sugar maple, as well as two other its Canadian types — red and silvery, get the improbably bright is red, purple, crimson color. From here red color of a maple leaf in the coat of arms and on a flag of Canada. However it is much more important than esthetic advantages economic value of a sugar maple, especially at the first stages of development of Canada is represented. It provided to Indians and the first French-Canadian settlers also the house, and I peep. This maple gave the most valuable business wood. The maple syrup made in To Canada, it is unique on the nutritious qualities, it is imported the USA, by Germany, France and other West European countries. In 1956 the modern flag the Canada-red leaf of a sugar maple on the white field bordered on the right and at the left with red strips was officially accepted. Having become an emblem on a national flag of the country. The maple leaf is considered now as a symbol not only originality and independence, but also unity of Canada.
General characteristic of economy. Canada-advanced industrial and agrarian country. Canada takes leading places on production of uranium, zinc ores and asbestos, nickel ores, potash salts. At the same time Canada -- the large buyer of cars, the equipment and other finished goods of industrialized countries. The big role in economy of Canada is played by the foreign capital. Foreign monopolies supervise seventy percent mining and fifty seven manufacturing industries. Eighty percent of foreign investments in Canada belong USA. Canada is included in system of continuously becoming complicated global economy. Its involvement into the world economic activity it is very multidimensional. Canada could participate successfully in global division of labor to a great extent thanks to early start in construction of the economy which was based on manufacturing industry, industrial production and marketing. The economic success is in many respects connected with consumption of a huge number of energy. In this regard Canada-one of world leaders. The Canadian economy is well developed, covering the different parties. From extensive wheat fields in the West to the centers of high technologies in east cities. Canada shows so various structure of economic activity, as well as any other developed country of the world. Canada possesses a wide set of energy resources. Oil and natural gas get in the western provinces, investigation is constantly conducted in northern areas. In a number of areas coal represents an important power source. Wellbeing of Canada as and that it has considerable stocks of the hydroelectric power. The power-consuming industry of aluminum moved from fiftieth years on rather remote, but a coastal site rich with hydroenergy resources in British Columbia. In recent years considerable hydropower construction was carried out in Quebec. Development of the Canadian economy, is originally focused on a mining industry and agriculture, was accompanied by expansion of various manufacturing industry. Canada borders in the South and in the West on the USA. Slowness of borders (including Alaska) — eight thousand eight hundred ninety three kilometers. The frontier is very favorable as between the USA-advanced country which is a part of the Group of Eight and Canada exist close, favorable to Canada, trade relations.
4. Economic districts of country
The Central economic region is the largest industrial region of Canada. Here, passing ports of the Atlantic provinces, on a deep-water way of the river of Sacred Lavrenti there arrive ocean liners from Europe and Asia, here the largest international airports of Canada, including are connected by the regular line with our country — the Montreal airport Mirabelle plums. The central region occupies twenty six percent of the territory of Canada, but here lives sixty two percent of all Canadians, sixty three percent of all gross domestic product of the country, seventy five manufacturing industries are made. More than eighty percent of the population of the area live in the cities. Until recently in this area «all policy» became, more than hundred years it played a mother country role. In the last decades its economic political weight slowly, but considerably decreases, and everything acts division, even split of the central region on two half Quebec and Ontario, with dissimilar economic structure and growing political contradictions more distinctly. In the last decades its economic political weight slowly, but considerably decreases, and everything acts division, even split of the central region on two half — Quebec more distinctly and Ontario, with dissimilar economic structure and growing political contradictions. The distant West covering entirely the province the British Colombia-third on value the economic region of Canada. About ten percent of the territory, eleven percent of the population and twelve percent of industrial production of the country are the share of it. The territory of the Distant West stretches from border with the USA in the south to Alaska and the North-West Territories in the north, and from the coast of the Pacific Ocean on the West to border with steppe provinces in the east. Main richness of the area wood. This area is rich with mineral resources. The steppe area covering the Canadian part of the Great Plains, is the share of the one fifth part of the territory of Canada. Here lives alone the sixth population and it is made the one fifth industrial output of the country. Here are got: oil, gas, nickel, potash salts, polymetals. The steppe area began to be guided by a foreign market less. The leading role in this area is kept by agriculture. The largest city and center of the steppe area Winnipeg. In Canada the inland water transport is very developed. For transportation bigger parts of freights are used waterways. The tonnage of merchant marine fleet is rather insignificant as the majority of transportations is carried out by vessels under «convenient flags». The most part of midland routes passes through a deep-water way down the river Sacred Lavrenti, allowing sea vessels to come on four thousand kilometers into depth of the continent. The main transported goods — grain from port Tander Bey on the Top lake to ports on Sacred Lavrenti’s river, and also iron in steel foundries of Canada and the USA. On the western coast a large number of the wood is transported on barges and tows. Both on western, and on east coasts there is a developed system of transportations. About the island of Newfoundland, there are extensive banks where enormous slip-ups of a cod accumulate. On banks annually catch more five hundred thousand tone of fish, that is half of the Canadian catch. Here come on trade and vessels of the USA, Japan, England, France, Spain. The island of Newfoundland is located at an entrance to one of the most important waterways of North America -- Sacred Lavrenti’s river. On the island it isn’t enough cities. The main part of the population lives in the fishing settlements scattered on the coast. The coast of the Atlantic Ocean is connected to the Great Lakes by Sacred Lavrenti’s river -- an important transport way, but thresholds disturbed pass of sea vessels from the ocean to lakes. Down the river to the Great Lakes there are sea vessels. On this water highway take out freights from Canada and industrial regions of the northeast of the USA. Unlike the majority of the developed countries for which are most characteristic universal ports, in Canada, as in developing countries, Australia and The Republic of South Africa, ports are narrowly specialized on export of oil, ore, coal. Ports of Canada largest on goods turnover: Vancouver, Montreal, Thunder Bay, Halifax, Quebec, Seth-or.
5. Historical and geographical features of development
Natives of France, lodged in the beginning were the first colonists of Canada the seventeenth century on river banks of Sacred Lavrenti. Canada at that time was called as Nova France. The French trading companies based here trading stations and quickly grew rich, buying up for nothing at Indians of a skin of valuable fur animals. Fur riches of Canada drew attention and British. Between groups of British and French constantly there were armed conflicts. The competing fur and fur companies tried deception and bribery to win round Indian tribes, kindled between them hostility. The indigenous people was pushed aside to deaf areas and died out. Now Indians and Eskimos slightly more than one percent of the population. As soon as the USA gained independence, they began to be lost in contemplation of the English colonies. In one thousand eight hundred forty sixth it was established that the forty ninth parallel becomes border between the USA and Canada. But also after that there were armed conflicts because of the Canadian lands. To protect the colonies in North America, England needed to unite them politically and economically. For this purpose in one thousand eight hundred sixty seventh them transformed to federation -- one of the first dominions of Great Britain. The government of England encouraged emigration from the mother country to Canada. In one thousand eight hundred eighty fifth the Atlantic and Pacific coasts were connected by the transcanadian railroad. In Canada the American methods of development of capitalism gained distribution in agriculture. In fertile steppe provinces the system of the almost free was applied distributions to immigrants of the big land plots. At the beginning of the twentieth century Canada turned into the largest supplier of wheat to the world market. After railway construction and settling of prairies development of mineral and power richness of the country began. At the beginning of the twentieth century the American and English companies constructed here the first mines, hydroelectric power stations, pulp-and-paper and steel works. Canada became one of the largest producers of non-ferrous metals: aluminum, lead, zinc, nickel, copper, wood pulp, newsprint, timber. From one thousand nine hundred third to one thousand nine hundred fourteenth to Canada arrived two and a half million new settlers. Except British among them there were natives of Germany, from the Scandinavian Peninsula, from the former Austro-Hungary, from imperial Russia and other countries. Now English-Canadian -- about the one second the population, French-Canadian -- more the one fourth. Here lives very many Germans, Italians, Ukrainians, Dutches.
The population of Canada totals only thirty million people, and its most part lives on a narrow strip along border with the USA hundred sixty kilometers wide and of six thousand kilometers. To population growth equally immigration and natural increase of the population promotes. Canada represents about zero whole five tenth percent of the population of the globe. According to the experts, in two thousand twenty sixth Canada will total thirty six million inhabitants. The majority of the Canadians, seventy six percent, live in the cities, and twenty three — in rural districts. According to the last population census, thirty one percent of the population of Canada live in three largest cities of the country — Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Life expectancy in Canada — seventy four years for men and eighty one years for women. It is one of the highest rates in the world. Statistically, the average size of a family is equal in Canada three persons in which one child is included. The size of a family remains invariable since one thousand nine hundred ninety first.
7. Features of formation of the Canadian nation
Canada — the country of immigrants therefore problems between various nationalities, old and new immigrants, descendants of Europeans and North American Indians, and also, of course, dissonance between French-and Anglo-are inherent in it speaking Canadians. In the ancient time Canada was populated with Indian and Eskimo tribes, come from Asia through the Bering Strait. In Canada over two honeycomb forty thousand Indians, mohawks, athabascans. The majority of Indians lives in reservations. On the Arctic coast about seventeen thousand Eskimos are settled. At the beginning of the twentieth century the main flow of immigrants arrived from Western Europe, but since recent time the number of immigrants natives from the countries of Asia, the Caribbean Basin and the USA began to increase. About thirty five percent of the population of Canada aren’t descendants of British or French. Among the most numerous ethnic groups there are Germans, Italians, Ukrainians, Danes, Scandinavians, North American Indians, Poles, Chinese, Jews, Africans, Hungarians, Greeks, Yugoslavs, Spaniards and Russians. In the Canadian system of secondary education training of children in culture of other people is provided. In it them train in an unostentatious form of games, discussions, movies and excursions that broadens horizons of children and helps to understand and communicate with representatives of other people better. Languages, except English and French, as a rule are studied in a house situation or in communication with contemporaries of the same nationality. Many ethnocultural groups, seeking to keep culture of the people far from the homeland, conduct various courses and excursions at which people study language and culture of the people. It is undoubted that the Canadian government appreciates as Canadians not in the first generation, so new immigrants as immigrants and constructed this country. Francophones and Anglophones deserve special attention of relationship between English-speaking and French-speaking Canadians who, having lived side by side not one century, didn’t merge in the uniform nation, though managed to remain under a roof of one government. Everyone some years in Quebec are held a referendum on which the question of office of the province from other Canada is brought up, but here already two times didn’t suffice separatists only one percent for a dream embodiment in reality. There are some reasons of mutual hostility of francophones and Anglophones, but the main, for certain, incompatibility of cultures is.
8. External migrations of the population
Favorable use of population shifts — a traditional way to increase the population, use of population shift allows to increase quantity of the qualified manpower and to expand the domestic market. In the twentieth century one thousand nine hundred thirteenth was immigration peak to Canada. Immigration fell down in the period of the Great Depression one thousand nine hundred thirtieth, but after World War II tens of thousands of homeless people from Europe were passed to the country, and in one thousand nine hundred seventieth to numerous refugees from Europe, Asia and Latin America were very glad in Canada. The Canadian immigration services didn’t conduct a discrimination concerning ethnoses, however especially talented and having the capital for investments into the Canadian economy was preferred. Within the twentieth century the natural increase, instead of immigration, played crucial role in growth of the Canadian population. By one thousand nine hundred sixtieth the number of the been born inhabitants in a year increased by twenty people, and the number of the dead fell from ten person. According to experts of the UN, Canada wins first place in the world on «quality of life», developing of material well-being, comfort of environment, availability of education, medical care. Not without reason here seek to move not only inhabitants of the poor countries, but it is frequent also elderly rich Americans.
Can be the reasons of it are:
1. Canada has open border with the USA that provides additional opportunities for work, life and rest.
2. Unemployment in Canada doesn’t exceed ten percent, inflation — two percent.
3. For maintenance of a high standard of living Canada seeks to provide itself with highly skilled workers. It is considered that by two thousand fifth forty percent of new workplaces of such personnel which has not less than sixteen years of education and training.
4. Canada has one of the highest standards of living. Canada makes a set in army only on a voluntary basis.
Religion: Catholics — forty six percent, Protestants — forty one percent, orthodox — two percent, Muslims — one percent, Jews — one percent. The combination of the facts of environment considerably defines types of moving of the person. No wonder that at high-altitude position of Canada and continentality of its climate the most part of the population concentrates in the most southern regions of the country.
10. Placement and moving
Areas of moving in Canada precisely coincide with the climatic zones lying to the South from extensive subarctic area and the tundra. Population of provinces of Albert. In Albert’s province lives two million Canadians, whose roots it isn’t so easy to track. About one one thousand eight hundred eightieth the province was occupied generally by aboriginals of North America, but after them settlers from the West European countries outnumbered. In one thousand eight hundred eighty first in the territory which became later Alberta, one thousand natives of Europe lived hardly. Ten years later their number exceeded seventeen thousand. During a wave immigration in one thousand nine hundred twentieth which was encouraged actively by the government of Canada, to the province there arrived immigrants from the European countries therefore in one thousand nine hundred twentieth in it lived nearly five hundred eighty five thousand people. After World War II the situation changed radically. Since the beginning of the sixtieth years of the twentieth century natives of the majority of the countries of the world settled in Albert, including Asia and the Caribbean islands. Today only forty four percent of inhabitants of Alberta -descendants of the British settlers, other large ethnic groups are Germans, Ukrainians, French, Scandinavians and Danes. According to census the population in one thousand nine hundred ninety first, about hundred fifty thousand inhabitants of the province were representatives of the northern people or metises. Not numerous ethnic groups make the remained twenty four percent of the population. In Albert speak in English. About two thirds of the population of the province are younger than forty years that does to Albert by one of the youngest provinces in the developed countries. To it, in particular, high level of immigration of young professionals from other countries of the world promotes. About eighty percent of all inhabitants of Alberta live in the cities and suburbs, and more than a half lives in two largest cities of the province- Edmonton and Calgary.
British Columbia. The majority of inhabitants of British Columbia — descendants the first settlers from the British Isles, however the population of the province are made by immigrants practically all nationalities. More than hundred thousand inhabitants of the province — descendants of thousands Chinese who took part in railroad construction in the territory of British Columbia at the end of the nineteenth century. In addition to it, more than sixty thousand inhabitants of the province a sort from India, and about sixteen thousand — from Japan. The number of representatives of indigenous people of the continent began to grow considerably in recent years and in one thousand nine hundred ninety first passed for hundred sixty five thousand people. British Columbia continues to attract immigrants: more than forty thousand people settle in the province every year therefore its population totals more than four million people — twelve percent of all population of Canada. Nearly sixty percent of all inhabitants live in Victoria and Vancouver, and also their suburbs. In Vancouver nearly two million inhabitants are is a third largest city of Canada.
MANITOBA. For many years the population of Manitoba consisted generally of natives from the British Isles, however the new immigration policy changed a ratio of nationalities and now it is possible to find representatives of the majority of people of the world in the province. In Manitoba also lives a large number of French-speaking Canadians. Though Manitoba — one of the most sparsely populated provinces of Canada, it is the important center of several ethnic groups. For example, in Manitoba there lives the most large number of Ukrainians outside Ukraine. More than hundred fifteen thousand inhabitants of the province — Indians or metises. About sixty percent of all population of Manitoba live in the capital — Winnipeg. The second-large city, Brandon, is located in the southwest of the province.
NEW — BRANSVIK. The population of New Bransvika exceeds seven hundred fifty thousand people. In it lives about thirty five percent of French-speaking Canadians, and it is the only officially bilingual province of Canada. The first settlers of New Bransvika arrived from France, England, Scotland and Ireland, and after and from Germany, the Scandinavian countries and Asia. The municipal district New Denmark brags of the most numerous Danish colony in North America. Indians in the province total only twelve thousand people. The coast and valleys of the rivers of the province are especially occupied. Sacred John — the largest city of the province which Moncton and Fredericton, the capital of New Bransvika follow.
NOVAYA ZEMLYA. Inhabitants of Novaya Zemlya — ancestors of natives of southwest England and the southern Ireland who immigrated to the province at the end of the eighteenth — the beginning of the nineteenth centuries. Land development generally depended on fishery places, and this order remains and to this day: the peninsula of Avalon and northwest part of Novaya Zemlya remain the most occupied territories provinces. Sacred John, the island capital — the largest city of the province with the population exceeding hundred seventy two thousand people.
NOVA SCOTIA. More than eighty percent of the population of Nova Scotia rank themselves as descendants of inhabitants of the British Isles. On the second place there are French — about eighteen percent of inhabitants, and the remained two percent fall to the share of ethnic Germans, Danes, Poles, Italians and Jews. At the expense of immigration the number of Chinese, natives of Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe grows. About twenty two thousand inhabitants of Nova Scotia — Indians. In Halifax and its suburbs there live about three honeycomb twenty thousand all inhabitants of the province, and in Sydney — about hundred sixteen thousand. Severo — the Western Territories. Today in the North-West Territories lives about forty thousand people from which only forty eight percent belong to the northern people. The majority of inhabitants of the territory live in small communities. Ellounayf, the territory capital, totals only fifteen thousand inhabitants.
ONTARIO. Since one thousand seven hundred seventy ninth of a wave of settlers from England, to Scotland and Ireland followed one after another, mastering new territories in a valley of the river of Sacred Lavrenti and occupying the country. To this day, immigration plays an important role in growth of the population and welfare of Ontario where now live big groups of the Italian, German, Chinese, Danish, Portuguese, Indian and Polish origin. In one thousand nine hundred ninetieth in the province nearly two hundred fifty thousand Indians and metises were. Ontario is the most occupied province in Canada — in it there live about eleven million people. In spite of the fact that English — the most widespread language in Ontario, francophones play an important role in cultural life of the province and are the most numerous language minority.
ISLAND PRINCE-EDWARD. In one thousand nine hundred ninety sixth the Island population the Prince-Edward made a little more than hundred thirty six thousand people. From this counting sixty two percent live in rural areas. Charlottetown, with the population in thirty three thousand people — the only city. About eighty percent of the population — descendants of Irish and Scots. About fifteen percent — French on nationalities, but only five percent of the population of the province are considered by French as the native language. The population of the island quite young — thirty eight percent of all inhabitants didn’t reach twenty five years.
QUEBEC. From seven million inhabitants, five — the French, only three hundred fifty thousand — natives from the British Isles and about hundred thirty seven thousand — Indians and metises. Italians and natives of Eastern Europe make the largest ethnic minorities in Quebec, however from sixtieth years of the twentieth century inflow of immigrants from Portugal, Haiti, the countries of Latin America and South East Asia considerably increased. Since World War II end to Quebec, especially to the largest city of the province Montreal, more than six hundred fifty thousand immigrants from eighty countries of the world moved. In French eighty three percent of inhabitants of Quebec, in English — near talk seventeen percent.
SASKATCHEVAN. Metises, descendants of Europeans and Indians, were among the first settlers in the province, many of which got over to Saskatchevan from Manitoba. Thanks to the cheap earth the agriculture gradually forced out trade in bellows. The considerable wave of immigration to the province began in the one thousand eight hundred ninety ninth to year also ended in one thousand nine hundred twenty ninth. Today the population of the province makes more than one million people. Saskatchevan — the only province of Canada where the majority of inhabitants aren’t descendants of British or Canadians. The largest ethnic groups are Germans, Ukrainians, Scandinavians, Danes, Poles and Russians. Redzhina and Saskatoon — two largest cities of the province in which lives nearly a third of all population of Saskatchevan.
YUKON. The extensive woods of Yukon were long since occupied by Atapaskanami, whose cultural and language traditions exist at least one thousand years. Today only six tribes of atapaskansky Indians survived: khan, helmet. On Yukon live about thirty one thousand people. Twenty three percent of inhabitants of the territory — Indians. Nearly sixty percent of all population live to Whitehorse, the territory capital.
11. International relations
In Canada, as well as in other former colonial countries of the world, there are problems with aboriginals of the continent. Only little bit of Indians lives in reservations, the others defend the right to the earth and property, living in provinces among immigrants and descendants of immigrants. The Canadian government, however, tries to satisfy requirements of Indians reasonably, instead of to suppress their protests force or to ignore them. For example, it agrees to one of the last governmental decrees, it is authorized to Indians to be engaged in collecting, hunting and fishery for providing and the family livelihood, but not to trade in hunting or fishing for sale. However, public organizations of Indians declared at once the right to collect all gifts of the nature with taken away to them lands that is to cut down the woods, to extract oil, gas and other natural minerals. The government agreed to consider this statement, but it is improbable that it will satisfy it. Despite a large number of national communities, in each occupied city of Canada, representatives of all people of the world manage to coexist rather peacefully. However, in aspiration to keep national «I», these communities don’t merge with each other and don’t join other Anglo-and French-speaking population. Thus, in Canada there is no general, uniform culture which would unite all inhabitants of the country and defined sense of the concept «Canadian».
12. Internal migrations
Within the two first decades of the twentieth century, movement from the southern Canada in the territory of prairies was a distinctive feature of internal migration. Besides British Columbia continued to receive benefit from migration after one thousand nine hundred thirty first. Albert’s province accepted people from all Canada during oil boom of the seventieth. In Saskatchevan since one thousand nine hundred forty first emigration, than immigration more prevailed. The Province of Ontario accepted more people, than other provinces, but the most part of this gain depended on immigration more, than on migrations between provinces. After World War II Priatlantichesky provinces lost more, than three hundred thousand people.
13. Urbanization and rural locality
Canada is included into the leading seven industrially — the developed countries of the world. On the absolute volume of a gross national product takes the seventh place in the world. In the world market Canada looks rather well, is allocated with production various ore raw materials. Canada wins first place in the Western world on production of nickel — seventy percent, zinc — thirty percent, uranium — twenty five percent, silver — twenty percent. The second place on production of lead, the titan, gold, platinum. The third place on production of iron ore, cobalt, tungsten. Very much its strong positions and on production not ore raw materials. The first place on production of potash salts — forty percent. The second place on production of sulfur. In production of fuel minerals Canada, despite the territories isn’t so high though in the mining industry oil and gas take the first places.
14. Economy structure
1. Primary sphere of economic activity of the person the rural economy, mining industry. Structure and placement of the major productions. The agriculture is developed in the southern regions of the country whereas reindeer breeding, hunting and fishery is widespread on extensive northern territories only. The most important agricultural areas are the central Canada and Steppe provinces, and they have various specialization. The central Canada is allocated with the branches providing requirements of urban population: vegetable growing, gardening, dairy animal husbandry and poultry farming. Steppe provinces owing to features of the local natural conditions at the end of the last century began transformation into one of leading areas of grain specialization. For agriculture less than ten percent of the land area of Canada are suitable. The country is the leading exporter of food products. In supply grain of the world market Canada and the USA play a predominating role. Any other area can’t be compared on production volume to the grain area in the west of the continent. Over seventy percent of farmlands are in this area. The second largest agricultural area is located on the peninsula of Ontario where the agriculture coexists with the industry and other types of economic activity in the Canadian sector of the North American industrial belt. Further to the East to Sacred Lavrenti’s lengthways rivers, in Quebec, the agricultural sector practises the system borrowed from France in the first years of settling. The mixed type of economy in a number of areas in the Atlantic provinces. It is the area mostly hilly and dismembered, except for Prince Edward Island where the flat relief allows to grow up various field cultures. Mining industry. Canada one of the richest countries on minerals. Subsoil of Canada conceals in themselves the inexhaustible riches submitting almost all table of Mendeleyev: non-ferrous, rare and precious metals, iron ore, uranium, oil, natural gas, coal, asbestos, potash salts. Such variety is explained first of all by features of a geological structure. Regions of the Canadian Shield differ richness of metal ores, West and North plains — power raw materials. The Canadian Shield call the country storeroom where huge fields of iron, nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum and uranium, gold and silver lie. In the Appalachians fields of asbestos, coal, non-ferrous and precious metals are located. The Cordilleras are famous for fields of non-ferrous and precious metals. The mining industry plays huge role in export, provides with raw materials, manufacturing industry and country power, promotes economic development of all areas. Most of the large factory is located in the South of the Centre — Sudbury, Sullivan, Noranda, Flin Flon, although the important role played and the Northern mines. Coal deposits are located mainly in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, in the provinces of Alberta and in the Appalachian mountains, in the maritime provinces. Iron ores are deposited in the Lake Superior area, Labrador peninsula and the Cordilleras. Rich deposits of asbestos are found in the provinces of Quebec and British Colombia.
2. secondary sector manufacturing industry of human economic activity. The structure and placement of the manufacturing industry. The manufacturing industry is characterized by high concentration of production and capital, labour productivity, however, in line with other developed countries, particularly the United States. In the structure of manufacturing industry play a major role, directly related to the highly developed mining industries as well as agriculture and forestry.
Nearly a third of gross domestic product, over a quarter is the share of the industry occupied in economy and a third of cost of export of Canada. This sphere of economy is characterized by a high technological level, diversified structure at an important role of raw productions. In the country are very developed power and the mining industry, nonferrous metallurgy and a number of the power-intensive branches processing raw materials for export. Manufacturing industry lags behind the mining a little. Among manufacturing industry branches except mechanical engineering the role of the timber and paper and food industry is especially great. Canada has the high rate of industrialization estimated as the relation of a share of the country in industrial production to its share in a world’s population.
Power. Fuel and energy complex of Canada — one of the most developed in the world. In consumption of primary power sources about the two third it is the share of liquid and gaseous fuel, the one tenth of coal and the one fourth of hydraulic power. On electricity generation Canada takes the fifth place in the world, and on its development per capita it is on the second place after Norway. Hydroelectric power stations give the most part of the electric power. Among them such powerful hydrostations, as the cascade on the rivers La Grand, Cherchill Fallz. Large thermal power plants are constructed near Toronto and Vancouver. Eighteen percent of the electric power make the nuclear power plants located in the Provinces of Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick. Less than thirty percent of production and the number are the share of mechanical engineering, taken in manufacturing industry that below, than in other developed countries. The main branch — transport mechanical engineering in which the American capital dominates, takes place in the southern part of the Province of Ontario. Also agricultural mechanical engineering, production of the power power equipment, the equipment for the mining and forest industry is developed. The machine-tool construction has a poor development. The main centers of mechanical engineering — Toronto, Montreal, Windsor, Hamilton, Ottawa, Halifax, Vancouver. Production in the ferrous metallurgy being in hands of the national capital was stabilized. The leading metallurgical centers are in Priozerye — Hamilton, Welland, Sault Sainte Marie, and as on the Atlantic coasts of the city of Sydnee. In nonferrous metallurgy positions of the American and English capitals are strong. Smelting of non-ferrous metals — especially copper, nickel and aluminum — reached large volumes. Into number of the largest world centers entered: Sudbury, Thompson, Sullivan, Kitimat and Port-Kolborn. The majority of the enterprises works at local raw materials. On import raw materials large aluminum production is created. Canada has the developed oil-processing industry. The major centers are in Montreal, Sarnia, Vancouver and Edmonton. The chemical industry is presented by plants on production of products of the main chemistry, high-polymeric connections, chemical fertilizers, synthetic rubber. On production of mineral fertilizers the country takes the fourth place in the world. Timber and paper industry. The timber and paper industry uses the richest forest resources. On wood preparation Canada takes the fifth place, on production of timber and papers — the third place in the world. Even more considerably a country role in export on export of timber and papers Canada — the world leader. The two third bumazhno — cellulose production are in the east, near hydroelectric power station on Sacred Lavrenti’s river. Large timber and paper combines settle down as in a taiga zone in the north of Steppe provinces and, especially in British Columbia where it is concentrated the two third sawing industry.
16. External economic connections
Canada is among the leading trade states of the world. On a turn of foreign trade it takes the sixth place in the world, and on a turn per capita advances all other large capitalist countries. It testifies to high extent of its integration in system of the world capitalist economy, and also about its narrower specialization economy in comparison with the leading capitalist countries. There is enough to tell that in products of Canada it is exported, and in the such branches, as pulp and paper industry, sawmilling and the allyuminevy industry, volume of export exceeds a volume half productions. The structure of foreign trade reflects specifics of economy. On the one hand large volume of a trade turnover is observed, wide nomenclature of export and import. And on the other hand the very high for the developed capitalist country a share of raw materials and semi-finished products in export. On traditional classification, in group of raw materials usually joins all food, together with semi-finished products it is the share of this groupapproximately two third costs of export. At the same time in export a low share annual products, especially production with high degree of an obrabotannost -cars, industrial equipment. Thus it must be kept in mind that export of some type of cars and the equipment is impossible with good reason to consider as export of finished goods, as considerable part of trade in to this commodity group it is connected with mutual deliveries of details and knots cars and agricultural cars on special and «integration» to agreements in these branches. Prisoners between the USA and Canada. As a whole export from Canada of raw materials and semi-finished products much more exceeds import of the ready production that sharply distinguishes it from the majority of the developed capitalist countries. Features of a geographical position and historical developments of Canada predetermined orientation of its foreign trade to two countries: USA, as next capacious sales market of raw materials and semi-finished products, and Great Britain, as former mother country and main consumer agricultural products, and also some types of the industrial raw materials. However within the last decades a ratio of these the foreign trade partners of Canada sharply changed. Despite the traditional communications of Canada with the former mother country, on its membership in the British Commonwealth and existence of a mode of preferences, the country it was «fastened» to economy of the USA, and in earlier unprecedented degree. So, if to the II the world wars the share of the USA in foreign trade of Canada made fifty percent and was comparable with share of Great Britain, nowadays it reaches seventy percent. On scales of external economic relations from the USA, Canada doesn’t know to itself equal in the world. It wins first place in import of the USA. As reflection of position of Canada in trade of the USA can serve and that import of many Canadian goods is carried out under special bilateral agreements about duty-free trade. And some types of raw materials and fuel take out from Canada to the USA on limited quotas, besides the USA, Canada develops trade with other partners, especially with the countries of «Common market» and Japan. The share of the last steadily increases. Canada has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation. For the last fifteen years Canada expanded the foreign economic relations with Russia and other countries of Europe.
Main trade partners:
2. Great Britain,
17. Internal distinctions
Selective colonization of extensive territories of Canada in the past, and also variety of climatic conditions of this country caused «focal» nature of territorial development of its productive forces. Therefore in it are accurately allocated:
1) advanced areas of old development;
2) areas of new development;
3) territories low-mastered.
Areas of old development are located in the south of the country, being stretched from coast of Atlantic through Priozerye and steppe provinces to the Pacific Ocean. Thus political and economic «weather» becomes in two central provinces — Ontario and Quebec. Ontario — the most Canadian province of Canada, «stronghold» of English-Canadian. Here positions of the Canadian national bourgeoisie conducting competitive fight against the capital of the USA are especially strong. The Province of Quebec — only in the country where the vast majority of inhabitants is made by French-Canadian. Within this industrial kernel the largest industrial centers — Montreal and Toronto are located. The majority of French-Canadian here each other relatives, though very distant, but remembering the relationship Development of areas of new development first of all is connected with development of the richest natural resources. At last, in Canada there are many territories which practically yet haven’t been involved in economic circulation. It first of all the North-West Territories of the Arctic — the most remote and severe parts on climate countries.
18. Customs and traditions of nationalities of Canada
1. Charles Roberts — the Anglo-Canadian poet and the writer-naturalist, the native of New Brunswick. Together with well-known Ernest Seton-Thompson based a literary genre which in Canada consider as a national contribution of the country in the world literature, a genre «stories about animals». Action of many books of Roberts happens in the woods of New Brunswick.
2. Voyazhera. In the USA — cowboys, at us are Cossacks, in Canada — voyazher. These are specific characters of the Canadian history which has played an important role in research and initial development of the country. Voyazhera — Canadians, natives of the French Quebec, fearless adventurers. As a rule, they were in the peace and friendly relations with Indians. Now the image of a voyazher became a romantic symbol of early history of Canada, fearlessness, thirst for adventures, indefatigability associate with it in work. Voyazher are played even by the French-Canadian children.
3. Royal geographer. The oldest city of Canada, Quebec based in one thousand six hundred eighth Samyuel de Shamplen — the French traveler and the statesman who has received in one thousand six hundred first a title «the royal geographer». It the first of Europeans passed up down the river Sacred Lavrenti to the Great Lakes, investigated their coast and Guronov concluded the alliance with an Indian tribe. Since one thousand six hundred sixty ninth — the governor general Nova Frantsii.
19. National holidays
New Year — the first of January.
Thanksgiving Day — the second Monday in October.
Easter — the Good Friday and the first Monday after Easter.
Christmas — the eleventh of November.
Day of Canada — the first of July.
Day of Christmas gifts — the twenty sixth of December.
1. Big Soviet Encyclopedia, volume No. 11, edition 3
2. N. G. Kuznetsov, G. G. Nesterov «Economic geography».
3. Encyclopedia «Avanta +», volume «Countries. People. Civilizations».
4. Yu.N. Gladky. S.B. Lavrov «Economic and social geography of the world».
5. Kirill and Mefodiy’s big encyclopedia.
6. Tcherkasov A. I. «Many-sided Canada»Показать Свернуть