Idioms and slangs in M. Twain's work

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Slang is more or less common in nearly all ranks of society and in every walk of life at the present day. Slang words and expressions have crept into our everyday language, and so insidiously, that they have not been detected by the great majority of speakers, and so have become part and parcel of their vocabulary on an equal footing with the legitimate words of speech. They are called upon to do similar service as the ordinary words used in everyday conversation-to express thoughts and desires and convey meaning from one to another. In fact, in some cases, slang has become so useful that it has far outstripped classic speech and made for itself such a position in the vernacular that it would be very hard in some cases to get along without it. Slang words have usurped the place of regular words of language in very many instances and reign supreme in their own strength and influence.

The phenomenon of slang constitutes an open question for lexicography and sociolinguistics. Unfortunately, there is little agreement on the identification and definition of slang, so that the phenomenon is currently controversial. The concept of slang has been inaccurately defined by many lexicographers who tend to restrict it to informal or bad language, and the term `slang' has been improperly used by many sociolinguists who conflated it with such language varieties as cant, jargon, dialect, vernacular or accent. This is mainly due to the sheer pervasiveness of slang, since it is constantly moulding the standard language and also extending across a number of non-standard `lects' with its fresh and innovated vocabulary. [8]

My research paper is an attempt to explore slang and its usage in the fiction. The aim of my research contains in giving some contribution to slang’s identification and interpretation, and to find out the function of slang words in the works by Mark Twain. [17]

The primary aims of my research are to highlight the pervasiveness of English slang across speech, and show its originality of forms and meanings. I shall characterize some forms of English and American present-day slang. Another important aim of my paper is to provide the context to proof the usage of slang in fiction for certain purposes, and to focus on its pragmatic purposes and effects. [4]

Using slang in the fiction work provides the main difficulties in understanding the proper sense of the fiction work. Thus for reaching the main purpose of the research I have obtain the certain objectives:

· to study the main theoretical notes concerning the English stylistics;

· to describe the main features of the English slang; to investigate sociolinguistics relationship of standard and non-standard language varieties;

· to exemplify the usage of slang from the words by Mark Twain;

The topicality (importance of the paper) is determined by growing interest in the subject, in the learning of the English language, understanding the main processes during the translation and the great desire to study foreign literature reading the original texts. Moreover I have to mention that usage of the slang in the human speech is not enough studied that can be explained by the everyday changings of the different words and collocations.

For the completion of my objectives I have studied the main ideas of such scientists as: Arnold E, Galperin I., Homyakov and others. [1]

To achieve the main purpose of the research I used the next scientific methods:

· bibliographical method (for instance I have studied the books concerning the theory of stylistic);

· comparative method (I have compared different ways of forming slangs):

· explanation method (I have given the definitions of the different terms);

· analysis (I have analyzed the usage of the slang in the fiction works).

Considering all the moments mentioned above, I would put an accent on the fact that my research is actual because of:

— the necessity to approve the methods and techniques of creating different types of slang;

— the insufficient elaboration of the problem.

My qualification paper consists of: contents, introduction, two chapters, conclusion, and bibliography.

Contents name the chapters and the sections of the whole research.

Introduction introduces the reader into the field of semantic: poses the aim, objectives of the work, research methods, source used, the structure of research and its practical relevance. It also points to the novelty of the given work.

The Chapter One «Slang and idioms in English language» consist of four paragraphs and deals with the main theoretical problems of investigation, give the definitions of the main types of the slang and idioms and analyses of translation problems.

Chapter Two «Slang and idioms in Mark Twain’s work» is a practical part of my research that contains two paragraphs and deals with the usage of the slang in the works by Mark Twain giving the examples from the text. I have chosen one of the most popular work «The Adventures of Tom Sawyer». [18]

Conclusion summarizes all the practical experience gained in the process of investigation.

Bibliography gives an overview of scientific literature used in the research work.

1. Slang and idioms in English language

1. 1 Definiton and origin ofthe slang

slang twain idiom

Of course slang itself has gone global; there are now local hybrids, often incorporating English lexis alongside the pervasive effects of dominant inner-circle varieties such as the high school argot propagated by Hollywood movies and TV soaps, and the black street codes of rap and hip-hop. Authenticity — not just a concept among analysts but an emblematic term for members of subcultures — is complicated by the development in the media and in literature of pseudo-slangs (a phenomenon that goes back at least as far as Raymond Chandler and P.G. Wodehouse). So-called virtual or electronic literacies developing for the Internet, email or text messaging have generated new slangs and an enormous proliferation of websites designed to celebrate or decode them. [4, p. 254]

Looking at young peoples' small-culture codes, whether these be wide-ranging alternative lexicons or the narrower hobbyist (surfboarding, DJ-ing) or media-influenced (pop music and fashion) or technological (email, text-messaging, internet) vocabularies that shade into jargon, revalues young people as expert linguists and their own experiences as worthwhile and meaningful. In nearly all cultures there are examples of this expertise, sometimes also involving catchphrases, media quotes, one-liners, jokes and puns. Language crossing is also a feature of many slangs, bringing into play the question of linguistic imperialism (I recall lessons looking at Franglais, Chinglish and Spanglish, and, in Slovenia, debating the borrowing of `cool'.) [3, p. 456]

«Slang… an attempt of common humanity to escape from bald literalism, and express itself illimitably… the wholesome fermentation or eructation of those processes eternally active in language, by which froth and specks are thrown up, mostly to pass away, though occasionally to settle and permanently crystallise. «

— Walt Whitman, 1885 [4, p. 38] The use of slang usually involves deviation from standard language, and tends to be very popular among adolescents. However, it is used to at least some degree in all sectors of society. Although slang does not necessarily involve neologisms (some slang expressions, such as quid, are very old), it often involves the creation of new linguistic forms or the creative adaptation of old ones. It can even involve the creation of a secret language understood only by those within a particular group (an antilanguage). As such, slang sometimes forms a kind of sociolect aimed at excluding certain people from the conversation. Slang words tend to function initially as a means of obfuion, so that the non-initiate cannot understand the conversation. The use of slang is a means of recognizing members of the same group, and to differentiate that group from society at large. In addition to this, slang can be used and created purely for humorous or expressive effect.

Slang terms are frequently particular to a certain subculture, such as musicians, and members of a minority. All the same, slang expressions can outside their original arena and become commonly understood; recent examples include «cool». While some such words eventually lose their status as slang, others continue to be considered as such by most speakers. The process tends to lead to their replacement by other, less well-recognised, expressions by their original users.

Slang is to be distinguished from jargon, the technical vocabulary of a particular profession, as the association of informality is not present. Moreover, jargon may not be intended to exclude non-group members from the conversation, but rather deals with technical peculiarities of a given field which require a specialized vocabulary. [8, p. 34]

According to Bethany K. Dumas and Jonathan Lighter, an expression should be considered «true slang» if it meets at least two of the following criteria:

It lowers, if temporarily, «the dignity of formal or serious speech or writing»; in other words, it is likely to be seen in such contexts as a «glaring misuse of register.» [1, p. 78] Its use implies that the user is familiar with whatever is referred to, or with a group of people that are familiar with it and use the term. «It is a term in ordinary discourse with people of a higher social status or greater responsibility.» It replaces «a well known conventional synonym». This is especially to avoid «the discomfort caused by the conventional item further elaboration.» [2, p. 564]

Alternatively, slang can grow out of familiarity with the things described. Among Californian connoisseurs, Cabernet Sauvignon might be known as «Cab», Chardonnay as «Chard» and so on; this means that naming the different expends less superfluous effort. It also serves as a shared code among connoisseurs. [3, p. 99]

There is not just one slang, but very many varieties — or dialects — of it. Different social groups in different times have developed their own slang. The importance of encryption and identity, of having a secret code or language, varies between these instances. For slang to maintain its power as a means of encryption, it must constantly renew its process of expression, so that those not part of the group will remain unable to understand it. Many slang words are replaced, as speakers get bored of them, or they are co-opted by those outside the group. For this reason, the existence of slang dictionaries reduces the perceived usefulness of certain slang words to those who use them. [4, p. 189]

Numerous slang terms pass into informal mainstream speech, and sometimes into mainstream formal speech, perhaps changing somewhat in meaning to become more acceptable.

Examples of slang Historical examples of slang are the «thieves' cant» used by beggars and the underworld generally in previous centuries: a number of cant dictionaries were published, many based on that published by Thomas Harman. For example a 'dingbat' means a person. [5, p. 239]

Slang very often involves the creation of novel meanings for existing words. It is very common for such novel meanings to diverge significantly from the standard meaning. Thus, «cool» and «hot» can both mean «very good or impressive.» In fact, one common process is for a slang word to take on exactly the opposite meaning of the standard definition. This process has given rise to the positive meaning of the word «bad,» as in the Michael on song of that title, for example.

Slang — a type of language consisting of words and phrases that are regarded as very informal, are more common in speech than writing, and are typically restricted to a particular context or group of people.

Words and expressions that are informal and not standard for English. Different social groups often use a special vocabulary. Sometimes this is fairly widespread and well understood. In the sentences that follow the slang expressions are in bold type.

Nonstandard vocabulary of extreme informality, usually not limited to any region. It includes newly coined words, shortened forms, and standard words used playfully out of their usual context. Slang is drawn from the vocabularies of limited groups: cant, the words or expressions coined or adopted by an age, ethnic, occupational, or other group (e.g., college students, jazz musicians); jargon, the shoptalk or technical terminology specific to an occupation; and argot, the cant and jargon used as a secret language by thieves or other criminals. Occupying a middle ground between standard and informal words accepted by the general public and the special words or expressions of these subgroups, slang often serves as a testing ground for words in the latter category. Many prove either useful enough to become accepted as standard or informal words or too faddish for standard use. Blizzard and okay have become standard, while conbobberation («disturbance») and tomato («girl») have been discarded. Some words and expressions have a lasting place in slang; for instance, beat it («go away»), first used in the 16th century, has neither become standard English nor vanished. [5, p. 213]

Slang — informal, nonstandard words and phrases, generally shorter lived than the expressions of ordinary colloquial speech, and typically formed by creative, often witty juxtapositions of words or images. Slang can be contrasted with jargon (technical language of occupational or other groups) and with argot or cant (secret vocabulary of underworld groups), but the borderlines separating these categories from slang are greatly blurred, and some writers use the terms cant, argot, and jargon in a general way to include all the foregoing meanings.

Slang is nonstandard vocabulary composed of words or senses characterized primarily by connotations of extreme informality and usually by a currency not limited to a particular region. It is composed typically of coinages or arbitrarily changed words, clipped or shortened forms, extravagant, forced, or facetious figures of speech, or verbal novelties.

Slang consists of the words and expressions that have escaped from the cant, jargon and argot (and to a lesser extent from dialectal, nonstandard, and taboo speech) of specific subgroups of society so that they are known and used by an appreciable percentage of the general population, even though the words and expressions often retain some associations with the subgroups that originally used and popularized them. Thus, slang is a middle ground for words and expressions that have become too popular to be any longer considered as part of the more restricted categories, but that are not yet (and may never become) acceptable or popular enough to be considered informal or standard. (Compare the slang «hooker» and the standard «prostitute. «) [3, p. 234]

Under the terms of such a definition, «cant» comprises the restricted, non-technical words and expressions of any particular group, as an occupational, age, ethnic, hobby, or special-interest group. (Cool, uptight, do your thing were youth cant of the late 1960s before they became slang.) «Jargon» is defined as the restricted, technical, or shoptalk words and expressions of any particular group, as an occupational, trade, scientific, artistic, criminal, or other group. (Finals used by printers and by students, Fannie May by money men, preemie by obstetricians were jargon before they became slang.) «Argot» is merely the combined cant and jargon of thieves, criminals, or any other underworld group. (Hit used by armed robbers; scam by corporate confidence men.) [5, p. 239] Slang fills a necessary niche in all languages, occupying a middle ground between the standard and informal words accepted by the general public and the special words and expressions known only to comparatively small social subgroups. It can serve as a bridge or a barrier, either helping both old and new words that have been used as «insiders'» terms by a specific group of people to enter the language of the general public or, on the other hand, preventing them from doing so. Thus, for many words, slang is a testing ground that finally proves them to be generally useful, appealing, and acceptable enough to become standard or informal. For many other words, slang is a testing ground that shows them to be too restricted in use, not as appealing as standard synonyms, or unnecessary, frivolous, faddish, or unacceptable for standard or informal speech. For still a third group of words and expressions, slang becomes not a final testing ground that either accepts or rejects them for general use but becomes a vast limbo, a permanent holding ground, an area of speech that a word never leaves. [4, p. 84] Thus, during various times in history, American slang has provided cowboy, blizzard, okay, racketeer, phone, gas, and movie for standard or informal speech. It has tried and finally rejected conbobberation (disturbance), krib (room or apartment), lucifer (match), tomato (girl), and fab (fabulous) from standard or informal speech. It has held other words such as bones (dice), used since the 14th century, and beat it (go away), used since the 16th century, in a permanent grasp, neither passing them on to standard or informal speech nor rejecting them from popular, long-term use.

Slang words cannot be distinguished from other words by sound or meaning. Indeed, all slang words were once cant, jargon, argot, dialect, nonstandard, or taboo. For example, the American slang to neck (to kiss and caress) was originally student cant; flattop (an aircraft carrier) was originally navy jargon; and pineapple (a bomb or hand grenade) was originally criminal argot. Such words did not, of course, change their sound or meaning when they became slang. Many slang words, such as blizzard, mob, movie, phone, gas, and others, have become informal or standard and, of course, did not change in sound or meaning when they did so. In fact, most slang words are homonyms of standard words, spelled and pronounced just like their standard counterparts, as for example (American slang), cabbage (money), cool (relaxed), and pot (marijuana). Of course, the words cabbage, cool, and pot sound alike in their ordinary standard use and in their slang use. Each word sounds just as appealing or unappealing, dull or colourful in its standard as in its slang use. Also, the meanings of cabbage and money, cool and relaxed, pot and marijuana are the same, so it cannot be said that the connotations of slang words are any more colourful or racy than the meanings of standard words. [3, p. 210]

All languages, countries, and periods of history have slang. This is true because they all have had words with varying degrees of social acceptance and popularity.

All segments of society use some slang, including the most educated, cultivated speakers and writers. In fact, this is part of the definition of slang. For example, George Washington used redcoat (British soldier); Winston Churchill used booze (liquor); and Lyndon B. Johnson used cool it (calm down, shut up). [2]

The same linguistic processes are used to create and popularize slang as are used to create and popularize all other words. That is, all words are created and popularized in the same general ways; they are labeled slang only according to their current social acceptance, long after creation and popularization.

Slang is not the language of the underworld, nor does most of it necessarily come from the underworld. The main sources of slang change from period to period. Thus, in one period of American slang, frontiersmen, cowboys, hunters, and trappers may have been the main source; during some parts of the 1920s and '30s the speech of baseball players and criminals may have been the main source; at ther times, the vocabulary of jazz musicians, soldiers, or college students may have been the main source. [4, p. 67]

To fully understand slang, one must remember that a word’s use, popularity, and acceptability can change. Words can change in social level, moving in any direction. Thus, some standard words of William Shakespeare’s day are found only in certain modern-day British dialects or in the dialect of the southern United States. Words that are taboo in one era (e.g., stomach, thigh) can become accepted, standard words in a later era. Language is dynamic, and at any given time hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of words and expressions are in the process of changing from one level to another, of becoming more acceptable or less acceptable, of becoming more popular or less popular.

1. 2 Types of slang

Slang users tend to invent many more synonyms or near-synonyms than might be thought strictly necessary: for example, criminals may have a dozen different nicknames (gat, crone, iron, chrome) for their guns, or for informers (canary, grass, snout, stoolie); drinkers can choose from hundreds of competing descriptions of a state of intoxication (hammered, hamstered, langered, mullered)

It is convenient to group slang words according to their place in the vocabulary system and more precisely in the semantic system of the vocabulary. If they denote a new and necessary notion they may prove an enrichment of the vocabulary and be accepted into Standard English. If on the other hand they make just another addition to a cluster of synonyms and have nothing but novelty to back them, they die out very quickly, constituting the most changeable part of the vocabulary.

Another type of classification suggests subdivision according to the sphere of usage, into general slang and special slang. General slang includes words that are not specific for any social or professional group, whereas special slang is peculiar for some such group: teenager slang, university slang, public school slang, Air Force slang, football slang, sea slang and so on.

General slang is language that speakers deliberately use to break with the standard language and to change the level of discourse in the direction of formality. It signals the speakers` intention to refuse conventions and their need to be fresh and startling in their expression, to ease social exchanges and induce friendliness, to reduce excessive seriousness and avoid clichйs, in brief, to enrich the language. General slang words have a wide circulation as they are neither group — nor subject — restricted.

You’ll hear Brits refer to their currency as quid, much in the same way American dollars are «bucks» and Canadian money is called «loonies.» [4, p. 167]

If someone asks to borrow a fag off you, give them a cigarette.

In Britain, a kiss is called a snog. If someone is knackered, that means they are exhausted. If someone is referred to as «a minger», that means that they’re unattractive. If someone tells you to «Bugger off!» well, it is suggested that you go away.

Instead of «Hi, how are you?» go with the quick and easy British «Alright?» No answer is expected.

Emphasize greatness. These include «barry,» «ace» and «kewl.» The latter kind of sounds like «cool» but you’ll know the difference in your heart.

Insult others. Calling someone an «arseface» or a «pilchard» will be even more the merrier if they have no clue you are insulting them to their face.

Special slang tends to originate in subcultures within a society. Occupational groups (for example, loggers, police, medical professionals, and computer specialists) are prominent originators of both jargon and slang; other groups creating slang include the armed forces, teenagers, racial minorities, citizens-band radiobroadcasters, sports groups, drug addicts, criminals, and even religious denominations. Slang expressions often embody attitudes and values of group members. They may thus contribute to a sense of group identity and may convey to the listener information about the speaker’s background. [3, p. 314]

While some slang words and phrases are used throughout all of Britain (e.g. knackered, meaning «exhausted»), others are restricted to smaller regions.

a) Cockney rhyming slang

Cockney Rhyming Slang originated in the East End of London.

Rhyming slang is a form of slang in which a word is replaced by a rhyming word, typically the second word of a two-word phrase (so stairs becomes «apples and pears»). The second word is then often dropped entirely («I'm going up the apples»), meaning that the association of the original word to the rhyming phrase is not obvious to the uninitiated. Rhyming Slang phrases are derived from taking an expression which rhymes with a word and then using that expression instead of the word. For example the word «look» rhymes with «butcher's hook». In many cases the rhyming word is omitted — so you won’t find too many Londoners having a «bucher's hook», but you might find a few having a «butcher's». [1, p. 195]

The rhyming word is not always omitted so Cockney expressions can vary in their construction, and it is simply a matter of convention which version is used.

In this list of example Cockney slang for parts of the body, you’ll notice that some expressions omit the rhyming word but others do not.

English Rhymes with Cockney

Feet Plates of meat Plates

Teeth Hampstead Heath Hampsteads

Legs Scotch eggs Scotches

The proliferation of rhyming slang allowed many of its traditional expressions to pass into common usage. Some substitutions have become relatively widespread in Britain, for example «scarper», meaning to run away is derived from «Scapa Flow» meaning «to go». «To have a butcher’s», which means to have a look, from «butcher's hook. For example «use your loaf» is an everyday phrase for the British, but not too many people realize it is Cockney Rhyming Slang («loaf of bread: head»). There are many more examples of this unwitting use of Cockney Rhyming Slang. [2, p. 144]

Television has raised awareness of Cockney Rhyming Slang to far greater heights. Classic TV shows such as «Steptoe and Son», «Minder», «Porridge» and «Only Fools and Horses» have done much to spread the slang throughout Britain and to the rest of the world. Modern Cockney slang that is being developed today tends to only rhyme words with the names of celebrities or famous people. There are very few new Cockney slang expressions that do not follow this trend. The only one that has gained much ground recently that bucks this trend is «Wind and Kite» meaning «Web site».

This style of rhyming has spread through many English-speaking countries, where the original phrases are supplemented by rhymes created to fit local needs. Creation of rhyming slang has become a word game for people of many classes and regions. The term 'Cockney' rhyming slang is generally applied to these expansions to indicate the rhyming style; though arguably the term only applies to phrases used in the East End of London. Similar formations do exist in other parts of the United Kingdom; for example, in the East Midlands, the local accent has formed «Derby Road», which rhymes with «cold»: a conjunction that would not be possible in any other dialect of the UK.

b) Polari

Polari (or alternatively Parlare, Parlary, Palare, Palarie, Palari, Parlyaree, from Italian parlare, «to talk») was a form of cant slang used in Britain by actors, circus or fairground showmen, criminals, prostitutes etc., and latterly by the gay subculture. It was revived in the 1950s and 1960s by its use by camp characters Julian and Sandy in the popular BBC radio shows Beyond our Ken and Round the Horne, but its origins can be traced back to at least the 19th century (or, according to at least one source, to the 16th century). There is some debate about how it originated. There is a longstanding connection with Punch and Judy street puppet performers who traditionally used Polari to talk with each other. [6]

Polari is a mixture of Romance (Italian or Mediterranean Lingua Franca), Romany, London slang, backslang, rhyming slang, sailor slang, and thieves' cant. Later it expanded to contain words from the Yiddish language of the Jewish subculture which settled in the East End of London, the US forces (present in the UK during World War II) and 1960s drug users. It was a constantly developing form of language, with a small core lexicon of about 20 words (including bona, ajax, eek, cod, naff, lattie, nanti, omi, palone, riah, zhoosh (tjuz), TBH, trade, vada), with over 500 other lesser-known items.

In 2002, two books on Polari were published, Polari: The Lost Language of Gay Men, and Fantabulosa: A Dictionary of Polari and Gay Slang (both by Paul Baker). Also in 2002, hip hop artist Juha released an album called Polari, with the chorus of the title song written entirely in the slang. [37]

Word Definition

aunt nell listen, hear

aunt nells ears

aunt nelly fakes earrings

aunt nell danglers earrings

c) Internet slang

Internet slang (Internet language, Internet Short-hand, leet, netspeak or chatspeak) is a type of slang that Internet users have popularized, and in many cases, have coined. Such terms often originate with the purpose of saving keystrokes. Many people use the same abbreviations in texting and instant messaging, and social networking websites. Acronyms, keyboard symbols and shortened words are often used as methods of abbreviation in Internet slang. [6]

In such cases, new dialects of slang, such as leet or Lolspeak, develop as ingroup memes rather than time savers. In leet speak, letters may be replaced by characters of similar appearance. For this reason, leet is often written as l33t or 1337.

The Internet has transformed the way we manipulate our systems of signs and the relationships between producers and consumers of information. Its effect on slang has two aspects. Firstly, online communication has generated its own vocabulary of technical terminology, essentially jargon (spam, blogging, phishing) and informal, abbreviated or humorous terms (addy, noob, barking moonbat etc.) which qualify as slang. The amount of new cyberslang is fairly small, but the Internet has also allowed the collecting, classifying and promoting of slang from other sources in. [7]

Another technical development — text messaging — has triggered changes in the culture of communication, especially among young people, and brought with it, like telegrams, CB-radio or Internet chatrooms, a new form of abbreviated code. It has excited some academic linguists but it hasn’t, however, contributed anything meaningful to the evolution of slang.

Word or phrase Abbreviation (s)

Account acc, acct or acnt

Address addy or add

And n, an, nd, or &

Anticipate ntcp8

Because cuz, bcuz, bcz, bcos, bc, cos, coz, cz or bcoz

Best friend or Boyfriend bf or b/f

Between btwn or b/w

d) Slang of army, police.

Military slang is an array of colloquial terminology used commonly by military personnel, including slang which is unique to or originates with the armed forces.

· The Andrew/Grey Funnel Ferries — The Royal Navy, named for some important bloke or a Saint or something. ·Blighty — The UK, the name was taken from a province in India…

· Brag Rags — Medals.

· Cant-be-arrsed-itis — suffered mainly by those on exercise

· «Chin-strapped» — «chin-strap» — tired knackered

· Combat Suit — Jacket, trousers, and possibly hood, cap, etc., made from DPM material.

· Doss-bag — Army Issue Barnes-Wallace, Gonk-bag and Green Maggot.

· Dust — Washing powder.

· Gat — rifle (also Bunduk, or Bang-Stick) (mainly used by «Hats»).

· Green/Bleeds green — a keen soldier, probably should watched suspiciously… from a long way away. [38]

· NAAFI — «Navy, Army and Air Force Institutes». Quasi-civilian non-profit retaining such as tea, pies, cakes and sandwiches to the troops within garrisons worldwide. Pronounced 'NAFF-ee', it was created in 1921 to run recreational establishments for the Armed forces to sell goods to servicemen and their families. It runs clubs, bars, (EFI), which provides NAAFI facilities in war zones.

· Puttees — long strips of flannel cloth in shades of khaki, rifle green or black, wrapped tightly at the top of ankle-boots to provide support over rough ground (now CVHQ RA) [6]

· Sangar — possibly derived from the Indian; usually a low wall with side wings built to give cover from fire in areas where digging is difficult or impossible. [34]

· Sky Pilot — The Padre — he’s got his head in the clouds talking to his boss.

· Stripey — Sergeant.

· Teeny-weeny Airways — The Army Air Corps.

· Warry (or War-y) — aggressive, militaristic; can be an insult. [38]

· Webbing — cotton for belt as worn by the type of ladies I never get to meet, and several dodgy RM types down Union St. [37]

There are more than a hundred words for «police» in different glossaries. And this is by no means a unique case.

Names taken from the coloring of police clothes or the coloring of police cars: blue boy, blue jeans, man-in-the-blue, salt and pepper, black and white, blue and white;

A female police officer: girlie bear, honey bear, lady bear, mama bear, sugar bear, smokey beaver; [36]

A city policeman or rural police: citty kitty, country Joe, country mounty, little bear, local yokel;

state police: boogey man, boy scouts, state bears, whatevers; barnies, bear, bearded bubby, big brother, bull, Dudley, do-right, Peter Rabbit;

An unmarked or hidden police car: brown-paper bag, night crawler, pink panther, slick top, sneaky snake;

A radar unit: shotgun, electric teeth, gunrunner, Kojak with a Kodak, smoke screen [6]

A police helicopter: bear in the air, eye in the sky, spy in the sky, tattle tale There have found new expressions for an already established concept; such expressions that make them appear to be saying one thing while they are really communicating something very different to insiders. [7]

Offences and description:

· ABH: Actual bodily harm

· D& D: Drunk And Disorderly

· DIP: Drunk In Public

· GBH: Grievous Bodily Harm

· TDA: Taking and Driving Away

· TWOC: Taken Without Owner’s Consent [6]

Initialisms describing situations:

· ASNT: Area Searched No Trace

· FATAC: Fatal Road Traffic Accident

· MFH: Missing From Home

· NAI: Non-Accidental Injury

· RTA: Road-Traffic Accident [6]

e) Money slang

While the origins of these slang terms are many and various, certainly a lot of English money slang is rooted in various London communities, which for different reasons liked to use language only known in their own circles, notably wholesale markets, street traders, crime and the underworld, the docks, taxi-cab driving, and the immigrant communities. London has for centuries been extremely cosmopolitan, both as a travel hub and a place for foreign people to live and work and start their own businesses. This contributed to the development of some 'lingua franca' expressions, i.e., mixtures of Italian, Greek, Arabic, Yiddish (Jewish European/Hebrew dialect), Spanish and English which developed to enable understanding between people of different nationalities, rather like a pidgin or hybrid English. Certain lingua franca blended with 'parlyaree' or 'polari', which is basically underworld slang. [38]

Backslang also contributes several slang money words. Backslang reverses the phonetic (sound of the) word, not the spelling, which can produce some strange interpretations, and was popular among market traders, butchers and greengrocers.

Here are the most common and/or interesting British slang money words and expressions, with meanings, and origins where known. Many are now obsolete; typically words which relate to pre-decimalisation coins, although some have re-emerged and continue to do so.

Some non-slang words are included where their origins are particularly interesting, as are some interesting slang money expressions which originated in other parts of the world, and which are now entering the English language.

Here are some examples of money slang words:

archer = two thousand pounds (Ј2,000), late 20th century, from the Jeffrey Archer court case in which he was alleged to have bribed call-girl Monica Coughlan with this amount. [6]

ayrton senna/ayrton = tenner (ten pounds, Ј10) — cockney rhyming slang created in the 1980s or early 90s, from the name of the peerless Brazilian world champion Formula One racing driver, Ayrton Senna (1960−94), who won world titles in 1988, 90 and 91, before his tragic death at San Marino in 1994. [35]

bag/bag of sand = grand = one thousand pounds (Ј1,000), seemingly recent cockney rhyming slang, in use from around the mid-1990s in Greater London; perhaps more widely too. [38]

bar = a pound, from the late 1800s, and earlier a sovereign, probably from Romany gypsy 'bauro' meaning heavy or big, and also influenced by allusion to the iron bars use as trading currency used with Africans, plus a possible reference to the custom of casting of precious metal in bars. [38]

carpet = three pounds (Ј3) or three hundred pounds (Ј300), or sometimes thirty pounds (Ј30). This has confusing and convoluted origins, from as early as the late 1800s: It seems originally to have been a slang term for a three month prison sentence, based on the following: that 'carpet bag' was cockney rhyming slang for a 'drag', which was generally used to describe a three month sentence; also that in the prison workshops it supposedly took ninety days to produce a certain regulation-size piece of carpet; and there is also a belief that prisoners used to be awarded the luxury of a piece of carpet for their cell after three year’s incarceration. The term has since the early 1900s been used by bookmakers and horse-racing, where carpet refers to odds of three-to-one, and in car dealing, where it refers to an amount of Ј300. [6]

chip = a shilling (1/-) and earlier, mid-late 1800s a pound or a sovereign. According to Cassells chip meaning a shilling is from horse-racing and betting. The association with a gambling chip is logical. Chip and chipping also have more general associations with money and particularly money-related crime, where the derivations become blurred with other underworld meanings of chip relating to sex and women (perhaps from the French 'chipie' meaning a vivacious woman) and narcotics (in which chip refers to diluting or skimming from a consignment, as in chipping off a small piece — of the drug or the profit). [6]

cock and hen = ten pounds. The ten pound meaning of cock and hen is 20th century rhyming slang. Cock and hen — also cockerel and hen — has carried the rhyming slang meaning for the number ten for longer. Its transfer to ten pounds logically grew more popular through the inflationary 1900s as the ten pound amount and banknote became more common currency in people’s wages and wallets, and therefore language. Cock and hen also gave raise to the variations cockeren, cockeren and hen, hen, and the natural rhyming slang short version, cock — all meaning ten pounds. [40]

commodore = fifteen pounds (Ј15). The origin is almost certainly London, and the clever and amusing derivation reflects the wit of Londoners: Cockney rhyming slang for five pounds is a 'lady', (from Lady Godiva = fiver); fifteen pounds is three-times five pounds (3xЈ5=Ј15); 'Three Times a Lady' is a song recorded by the group The Commodores; and there you have it: Three Times a Lady = fifteen pounds = a commodore. (Thanks Simon Ladd, Jun 2007) [37] cows = a pound, 1930s, from the rhyming slang 'cow's licker' = nicker (nicker means a pound). The word cows means a single pound since technically the word is cow’s, from cow’s licker. [35]

deep sea diver = fiver (Ј5), heard in use Oxfordshire late 1990s, this is rhyming slang dating from the 1940s. [6]

french/french loaf = four pounds, most likely from the second half of the 1900s, cockney rhyming slang for rofe (french loaf = rofe), which is backslang for four, also meaning four pounds. Easy when you know how. [27]

garden/garden gate = eight pounds (Ј8), cockney rhyming slang for eight, naturally extended to eight pounds. In spoken use 'a garden' is eight pounds. Incidentally garden gate is also rhyming slang for magistrate, and the plural garden gates is rhyming slang for rates. The word garden features strongly in London, in famous place names such as Hatton Garden, the diamond quarter in the central City of London, and Covent Garden, the site of the old vegetable market in West London, and also the term appears in sexual euphemisms, such as 'sitting in the garden with the gate unlocked', which refers to a careless pregnancy. [31]

generalise/generalize = a shilling (1/-), from the mid 1800s, thought to be backslang. Also meant to lend a shilling, apparently used by the middle classes, presumably to avoid embarrassment. Given that backslang is based on phonetic word sound not spelling, the conversion of shilling to generalize is just about understandable, if somewhat tenuous, and in the absence of other explanation is the only known possible derivation of this odd slang. [37]

grand = a thousand pounds (Ј1,000 or $ 1,000) Not pluralised in full form. Shortened to 'G' (usually plural form also) or less commonly 'G's'. Originated in the USA in the 1920s, logically an association with the literal meaning — full or large. greens = money, usually old-style green coloured pound notes, but actully applying to all money or cash-earnings since the slang derives from the cockney rhyming slang: 'greengages' (= wages). [6]

1. 3 The definiton and classification of idioms

The ultimate root of the term is a Greek lexeme «idios», meaning own, private, peculiar. The same underlying form can be found in the prefix idio — as well as an idiot and its derivatives.

An English idiom is a group of words with a special meaning different from the meanings of its constituent words. Strictly speaking, idioms are expressions that are not readily understandable from their literal meaning of individual elements. In a broad sense, idiom may include colloquialisms, Catchphrases, slang expressions, proverbs, etc. They form an important part of the English vocabulary.

Sources of English idioms

Sources of English idioms: everyday life of English people, agricultural life, nautical and military life, business life, student life, food and cooking, sports and card-playing, the Bible, Shakespeare’s plays, fables, myths, legends etc.

In the classification proposed by acad. Vinogradov phraseological units are classified according to the semantic principle, and namely to the degree of motivation of meaning, i.e. the relationship between the meaning of the whole unit and the meaning of its components. Three groups are distinguished: phraseological fusions (сращения), phraseological unities (единства), phraseological combinations (сочетания). [22, p. 178]

1. Phraseological fusions are non-motivated. The meaning of the whole is not deduced from the meanings of the components: to kiss the hare’s foot (опаздывать), to kick the bucket (сыграть в ящик), the king’s picture (фальшивая монета)

2. Phraseological unities are motivated through the image expressed in the whole construction, the metaphores on which they are based are transparent: to turn over a new leaf, to dance on a tight rope.

3. Phraseological combinations are motivated; one of their components is used in its direct meaning while the other can be used figuratively: bosom friend, to get in touch with.

Prof. Smirnitsky classifies phraseological units according to the functional principle. Two groups are distinguished: phraseological units and idioms. [24, p. 319]

Phraseological units are neutral, non-metaphorical when compared to idioms: get up, fall asleep, to take to drinking. Idioms are metaphoric, stylistically coloured: to take the bull by the horns, to beat about the bush, to bark up the wrong tree.

Structurally prof. Smirnitsky distinguishes one-summit (one-member) and many-summit (two-member, three-member, etc.) phraseological units, depending on the number of notional words: against the grain (не по душе), to carry the day (выйти победителем), to have all one’s eggs in one basket. [24, p. 329]

Prof. Amosova classifies phraseological units according to the type of context. Phraseological units are marked by fixed (permanent) context, which can’t be changed: French leave (but not Spanish or Russian). Two groups are singled out: phrasemes and idioms. [22, p. 160]

1. Prasemes consist of two components one of which is praseologically bound, the second serves as the determining context: green eye (ревнивый взгляд), green hand (неопытный работник), green years (юные годы), green wound (незажившая рана), etc.

2. Idioms are characterized by idiomaticity: their meaning is created by the whole group and is not a mere combination of the meanings of its components: red tape (бюрократическая волокита), mare’s nest (нонсенс), to pin one’s heart on one’s sleeve (не скрывать своих чувств). Prof. Koonin’s classification is based on the function of the phraseological unit in communication. Phraseological units are classified into: nominative, nominative-communicative, interjectional, communicative. [24, p. 100] 1. Nominative phraseological units are units denoting objects, phenomena, actions, states, qualities. They can be:

a) substantive — a snake in the grass (змея подколодная), a bitter pill to swallow;

b) adjectival — long in the tooth (старый);

c) adverbial — out of a blue sky, as quick as a flash;

d) prepositional — with an eye to (с намерением), at the head of.

2. Nominative-communicative units contain a verb: to dance on a volcano, to set the Thames on fire (сделать что-то необычное), to know which side one’s bread is buttered, to make (someone) turn (over) in his grave, to put the hat on smb’s misery (в довершение всех его бед).

3. Interjectional phraseological units express the speaker’s emotions and attitude to things: ^ A pretty kettle of fish! (хорошенькое дельце), Good God! God damn it! Like hell!

4. Communicative phraseological units are represented by provebs (An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening; Never say «never») and sayings. Sayings, unlike provebs, are not evaluative and didactic: ^ That’s another pair of shoes! It’s a small world.

Some linguists (N.N. Amosova, J. Casares) don’t include proverbs and sayings into their classifications. Others (I.V. Arnold, A.V. Koonin, V.V. Vinogradov) do, on the grounds that 1) like in phraseological units their components are never changed 2) phraseological units are often formed on the basis of proverbs and sayings (A drowning man will clutch at a straw > to clutch at a straw). [22, p. 173] 1. Phrase idioms All phrase idioms have a noun, verb, adjective, preposition or an adverb as the central word; they correspond to the familiar parts of speech, and capable of a given syntactic function in sentences.

1) Verb phrase idiomЃF Verb phrase idioms are combinations of a verb and an adverb — look up, or a verb and a preposition — make for, or a verb with both adverb and preposition — come round to. The featuresЃF1ЃjOften nearly synonymous with loan words of Roman origin, e.g. work outЃithe salariesЃjcan be respectively replaced by a single synonymous Roman loan word — calculate. 2ЃjCan form noun compounds. e.g. A gang of thieves di a break-in last night. 3ЃjUsually more lively and expressive than single verbs. e.g. The firecracker went off and scared my little sister. Ѓimore lively than exploded) [22, p. 120]

2) Syntactic, structural and stylistic analysis of idiom

a) Syntactic function: The syntactic function of a phrase idiom usually corresponds with its central word/or components, for example, a verb phrase idiom always functions as a predicate in a sentence, an adjective phrase idiom usually operates as a complement. e.g. the last straw, the salt of the earth usually appear as complement.

b) Transformational restrictions:

Transformation is a matter of structural change, and the change may be of various kinds. Transformation may involve simply a change word order in a sentence, but only little idioms do so. e.g. The electricity went off. — Off went the electricity.

c) Collocative restrictions: Words which combine with other words, or with idioms, in particular grammatical constructions, are said to collocate with those words or idioms. e.g. phrase idiom all set are limited to be, feel, get, look, seem, as in «She was all set to buy a new house. '' [34]

d) Structural variability

Structural variability: Idioms are structurally fixed, an as a rule one is not supposed to change any element in an idiomatic expression. But sometimes make slight changes for rhetorical effect. e.g.

A horse of the same colour — Shakespeare Ѓifrom '' a horse of another colour'' [31] In dictionaries of idioms the traditional and oldest principle for classifying phraseological units — the thematic principle — is used.

The etymological classification of phraseological units

According to their origin phraseological units are divided into native and borrowed.

Native phraseological units are connected with British realia, traditions, history:

By bell book and candle (jocular) — бесповоротно. This unit originates from the text of the form of excommunication (отлучение от церкви) which ends with the following words: ^ Doe to the book, quench the candle, ring the book!

To carry coal to Newcastle (parallells: Ехать в Тулу со своим самоваром, везти сов в Афины, везти пряности в Иран)

According to Cocker — по всем правилам, точно. E. Cocker is the author of a well-known book on arithmetic.

To native phraseological units also belong familiar quotations came from works of English literature. A lot of them were borrowed from works by Shakespeare: a fool’s paradise («Romeo and Juliet»), the green-eyed monster («Othello»), murder will out — шила в мешке не утаишь («Macbeth»), etc. [27, p. 154]

A great number of native phraseological units originate from professional terminologies or jargons: one’s last card, the game is up/over lay one’s cards on the table hold all the aces (terms of gambling).

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