Maintenance and repair of the car is on the LLC "Otabeksupertrans" (LLC "Zhizzahavtotransservis")

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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

I. ORGANIZATIONAL PART

1.1 Feasibility study

1.2 Analysis of rolling stock LLC «Otabeksupertrans» (LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis»)

1.3 Organization of maintenance and repair of rolling stock

1.4 Feature routes LLC «Jizzakhautotransservice» and technical and operational performance

II. TECHNOLOGICAL PART

2.1 Selection and justification of the initial data

2.2 Calculation of the production program of maintenance

2.3 Determination of daily programs by type TO

2.4 Rationale and choice of MOT and car diagnostics

2.5 Calculation of annual volume of work of the enterprise

2.6 Calculation of the number of production workers

2.7 Calculating the number of posts and lines maintenance and repair

2.8 Calculation of the area

2.9 Settlement areas of warehouse

2. 10 Calculation of the storage area rolling stock

2. 11 Definition of areas of support facilities

III. RESEARCH PART

3.1 Optimal technology Body Repair

3.2 Scheme selection process Body Repair

3.3 Tooling bodywork section

3.3 Flow chart for bus body repair ISUZU SAZ NP-37

IV ECONOMIC PART

4.1 Calculation of capital cost

4.2 Payment of current expenses

4.3 Calculation of economic efficiency

V. HEALTH AND SAFETY

5.1 security master plan and production building in body section

5.2 Heating Safety in the workplace when the body work

5.3 Analysis of harmful and dangerous production factors in body section

VI. PROTECTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT

6.1 Reduction of toxic emissions car emissions by rationing

6.2 Environmental protection in the MOT and diagnostics

VII. CIVIL PROTECTION

7.1 Fire safety

7.2 Fire safety in the zone TO

CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

Within any socio-economic system of transportation and communication are essential. For independent Uzbekistan with its huge concentration of raw materials and production resources, transport and communication complex creates prerequisites for economic development.

Over 55% of the volume of domestic passenger traffic in recent years, the country performs road transport. This mode of transport is no adequate substitute for the carriage of passengers on short and medium distances, the transport providing retail, manufacturing logistics, construction industry, agro, as well as small businesses.

Technical basis for policy maintenance and repair of rolling stock of road transport is scheduled preventive maintenance system and method for aggregate maintenance.

Maintenance is intended to maintain the car in good working condition and in a proper appearance, reduce the intensity of wear parts, prevention of failures and faults, and to identify them in order to timely removal.

Maintenance is prevention activities forcibly routinely runs at specific time or work vehicles.

Car with defective units, nodes, links and details, which involve a threat to safety, should not continue to work or transport to be released on the line. Other faults affecting traffic safety and non-intensive wear or premature failure of parts can be removed after the completion of the transport operation within a removable or daily tasks.

Maintenance requirements of existing vehicles set Rules of technical operation of rolling stock and road transport Traffic Regulations.

Maintenance includes monitoring (diagnostic), fasteners, lubricants, filling, leveling, electrical and other work to be performed, as a rule, without disassembling the units removed from the vehicle and the individual nodes.

By periodicity, and the complexity of the list of works Car maintenance is divided into the following types:

Daily maintenance (DM);

The first maintenance (M-1);

The second maintenance (M-2);

Seasonal maintenance (SM).

DM includes oversight aimed at ensuring safety, as well as work to maintain proper appearance, refueling, oil and coolant, and for some types of rolling stock — sanitization body. DM is performed after the work on the motor company (MC) rolling line.

M-1 and M-2 include control (diagnostic), fixing, adjusting, lubricating and other activities aimed at the prevention and detection of faults, reducing the intensity of derating technical state of rolling stock, fuel economy and other operating materials, reducing the negative impact of cars on the environment.

Maintenance must ensure trouble-free operation units, components and systems for cars within the prescribed periodicities on the effects included in the mandatory list of operations.

Good technical condition and durability of the car depends on the rules of operation (running a new car, his driving techniques, load and maintenance). The main reason for the deteriorating condition of the car is the wear of individual parts, assemblies, mechanisms, devices and assemblies. Depreciation can be divided into two groups: natural and premature.

Natural wear appear even with all the rules of operation, regulated by the manufacturer as a result of frictional forces (abrasion), exposure to high temperatures, metal fatigue and chemical effects of various gases, acids and alkalis.

Failure to comply with regulations governing causes premature wear of the main reasons for which are: non-compliance running car, untimely and poor maintenance, fast driving on bad roads, failure to comply and start the engine warms up, the use of unsuitable varieties of oils and lubricants.

Great influence on the wear parts have driving mode, road and weather conditions, fuel quality, lubrication, maintenance and driving skills.

When justifying the optimum mode the car is a list of operations is determined by the coefficient of repeatability, the frequency is set by statistical data path of a vehicle to an acceptable parameter value node unit. Since the mileage limit to the node status is random, the large scatter in the data, and therefore to reduce costs to the receiving frequency is more than the minimum, taking into account the confidence level of probability. At the same time a certain portion of vehicles needed at the specified intervals before, and the overwhelming majority — later. To reduce cost and increase reliability maintenance necessary to carry out work, when the parameter reaches the allowable value. And this is only possible with timely and accurate determination of the technical condition of the car without disassembling. Technical control, which is mainly produced the motor company visually insufficiently effective, evaluation of technical condition depends on the skill of the controller. For objective monitoring devices are necessary, that can be used to identify vehicles that pose a risk at the same time avoiding removing serviceable unit. Instrumental determination of the technical state of the node, without disassembling the unit called diagnosing.

Technical condition of the car is characterized by structural parameters (clearance, center-distance, deflection, displacement, linear dimensions, surface state of mating parts, etc.). Interaction of car with the environment and mechanical loading lead to a change of its technical condition. Changes in structural parameters of aggregates car has certain regularities.

Higher these problems peculiar and Jizzakh region

Based on the foregoing, the subject of my final qualifying work find relevant and useful.

The aim of this work is the final qualifying justification optimal mode the car is on the LLC «Otabeksupertrans» (LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis»)

To increase the efficiency of activity of «Otabeksupertrans» (LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis») and successful activities should be solved the following problems:

— Development of the motor cjmpany production building sites with the location of existing data and the number of cars;

— Development and introduction of a 6-rack lift buses with placing it in the Touring Car division;

— Development of working drawings lift;

— Describe the principle and the main characteristics of the lift;

— Description of possible faults lift and troubleshooting.

I. ORGANIZATIONAL PART

1.1 Feasibility study

Limited Liability Company «Otabeksupertrans» refers to enterprises manufacturing areas. The main specialization — passenger transport. Rolling Stock Company is a bus different brands and different capacity.

The company was formed in 2007 as a private enterprise in place of private enterprise «Navruztrans.» In February 2009 it was reorganized as a limited liability entity.

At March 28, 2014 Limited Liability Company «Otabeksupertrans» reorganization and renamed as LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis» in this moment of production site, LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis» is located in the industrial zone of the city Jizzak. This company has 7 work stations, two of which are intended for repair of buses of the middle class; third and fourth positions are intended for repair of large buses; fourth post is repairing suspension; fifth, sixth, seventh positions designed for body and paint work. OOO «Zhizzahavtotransservis» works on the imputed tax system. Located on the premises the following facilities: 1) an office building; 2) parking for storage of rolling stock; 3) repair and servicing base; 4) industrial warehouses; 5) checkpoint.

Organisation Limited — a legal entity duly registered and engaged in business activities of an entity.

The company works with organizations and individuals, and performs the carriage of passengers in urban and suburban routes.

On the territory LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis» is administrative buildings, maintenance facilities and ancillary facilities. Car storage is carried out on an open parking lot, located on the motor company (MC). The structure consists of MC production, warehouse, residential and office premises.

Office building with a control tower is on the motor company. Mode of operation of LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis» is 365 days a year.

1.2 Analysis of rolling stock LLC «Otabeksupertrans» (LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis»)

maintenance repair rolling stock

This time on the balance sheet vehicle fleet has 61 buses, «ISUZU» SAZ NP-37, «ISUZU» SAZ NP-21, DAMAS.

Since its inception up to the present time, the company changed its name several times.

As chairman of LLC «Otabeksupertrans» in December 2009 he was appointed Adiljanov Sherzod that after Jizzakh Polytechnic Institute 5 years working at the enterprise «Jizzakhtrans» chief engineer.

At this moment the passenger motor company LLC «Otabeksupertrans» reorganization renamed as LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis» — has 61 units of rolling stock, there are 32 people working. Core business is the transportation of passengers.

However, production and technical base of the enterprise does not meet modern requirements.

The big drawback is the lack of specialized production building.

Technical inspection rolling stock is carried out before leaving the line, while working on the line and when returning cars in the MC.

Production of cars on the line drawn as follows. 600 in the MC come vans delivering drivers. Drivers spend half an hour to start and warm up the engine, vehicle inspection, receipt logs, vehicle refuelling and other petroleum products. In 630 starts automobiles inspection mechanics control auditoria point. Primarily controlled technical condition of influencing traffic safety: steering, brakes and others. Technically sound cars are available on line.

Park LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis» consists of buses of various brands and different capacity. The table shows the brand and the number of buses.

Table 1. 1

Information on the rolling stock, LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis»

Vehicle

Number of units

1

2

Buses

«ISUZU» SAZ NP-37

32

«ISUZU» SAZ NP-21

1

DAMAS

28

1.3 Organization of maintenance and repair of rolling stock

Daily maintenance on the MC produced in-line method. The first and second maintenance performed on dead-end positions.

Daily maintenance includes such works as mechanized car washing, wiping or blowing air vehicles, refuelling vehicles oil and water, control air pressure in the tires and pumping air to normal.

With M-1 produced maintenance work on power systems, checking, fixing and adjusting work, electrical work, tire, lubricants, gas and cleaning work.

Positions on the M-2 produced fastening, adjusting work and service power system maintenance work on the brake system, steering and suspension, as well as lubricants, refueling and cleaning work. Returning to the line vehicles are inspected duty mechanic. Serviceable cars are sent to the DM and storage area. Cars to be the next maintenance and faulty after washing directed to the appropriate positions diagnosis, maintenance and repair, or to the waiting area.

Control and osmotrovye work performed mechanic control technical points and the driver. Washing and cleaning work — a specialized team, which includes cleaners, washers and obtirschiki. Gas works — the driver. Acceptance of work performed by the driver or Drover. Selective control — quality department employees.

Before M-1 cars are common diagnosis D-1 to detect faults and determine the status of units and systems to ensure safety. In case of troubleshooting before they are eliminated M-1 in the complex corrective maintenance (CM). M-1 is performed by a specialized team. Quality control is carried foreman M-1 and a representative of the quality department.

For one or two days before the M-2 cars head on in-depth diagnosis of D-2 for troubleshooting purposes, the elimination of which requires a lot of maintenance. These problems can be solved until the M-2complex in the CM. All the work of M-2 (routine maintenance and related repairs) done by specialized teams on the production line or the dead-end positions depending on the program. Quality control is carried foreman M-2 and a representative of the quality department.

In the beginning of the shift driver inspects the car, make sure it is operating normally and performs operations on DM.

1.4 Feature routes LLC «Jizzakhautotransservice» and technical and operational performance

On Table 1.2 presents the structure and composition of the workers LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis. «

Table 1. 2

Composition workers LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis»

Workers

Number of man

Engineering staff

4

Drivers

61

Maintenance workers

32

OOO «Zhizzahavtotransservis» provides passenger transportation in urban and suburban routes of varying lengths. The main city routes, organized LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis» this number routes 9 and 35. Moreover, the carriage of passengers carried on the routes for organizations and enterprises of the city, called duty routes.

The number of flights per year buses represented in Figure 1.1.

Table 1. 3

Total number of flights operated buses for the year

Years

Number of hauls

2009

262 338,9

2010

266 855,2

2011

273 408,3

2012

283 425,8

2013

280 429,2

Figure 1.1 — Total number of hauls

The total mileage of buses is presented in Table 1.4.

Table 1. 4

The total mileage of buses

Yaers

The total mileage of buses, km

2009

7 215 918,114

2010

7 383 172,571

2011

7 537 830,428

2012

7 767 527,217

2013

7 795 796,249

Figure 1. 2-Total distance buses

Total fuel consumption of the rolling stock, LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis» is presented in Table 1.5.

Table 1. 5

Fuel consumption

Years

Consumption of diesel fuel, litr

2009

1 476 314

2010

1 703 431

2011

1 950 608

2012

2 583 982

2013

2 740 057

On the graph (Figure 1. 3) shows that the fuel consumption diesel cars increases. This is due to changes in the structure of the bus fleet. Conducted by LLC «Zhizzahavtotransservis» policy on replacement of the bus fleet, gasoline powered buses with diesel engine has a number of advantages. First, the reduced fuel costs. Second, use the buses with diesel engine economically advantageous due to the low fuel consumption car. Thirdly, a diesel engine compared to a carburettor, has less adverse environmental impact.

Figure 1.3 Total fuel consumption

The total mileage of buses with passengers is presented in Table 7.

Table 1. 6

The total mileage of buses with passengers

Years

The total mileage of passengers, km

2009

6 490 983,374

2010

6 634 533,011

2011

6 781 510,828

2012

6 990 709,487

2013

7 016 890,379

Figure 1.4 Total distance passengers

II. TECHNOLOGICAL PART

2.1 Selection and justification of the initial data

maintenance repair rolling stock

1. Initial data for calculation of accept a feasibility study. In the long term management of the enterprise provides fleet renewal and planned to purchase 60 buses ISUZU. Proceeding from the above calculations supremely proizvozhu for bus fleet of 121 buses:

1. The design City — Jizzakh.

2. Balance number of cars — 121 buses.

3. Average daily mileage — 260 km

4. Mileage since new — 1,6 thousand km

5. Buses:

«ISUZU» SAZ NP-37

88

«ISUZU» SAZ NP-21

25

«ISUZU» SAZ NP-26

8

2. Projected land-body section.

Coach number of days the rolling stock on the line adopted by 365 days. The number of buses on the line shifts receive one shift. Working hours 10: 00 accept. Category for operation in hilly cities more than 100 thousand inhabitants accept III.

2.2 Calculation of the production program of maintenance

Production program MC maintenance is characterized by a number of technical services, planned for a certain period of time (year, day).

Cycle method of calculating production program involves selection and adjustment of frequency M-1, M-2 and run to capital repair rolling stock designed for MC, payment number and capital repair for 1 car per cycle, that is to run the CD ratio calculation conversion from cycle to year and, based on counting the number of values obtained and capital repair per cycle for 1 car park for the whole year.

Since MC plan on the basic parameters set for the calendar year, and production program for each type then rely on year. The program serves as a basis for determining the annual volume of work required MC and state workers.

Adjustments to regulatory periodicity maintenance and mileage to the capital repair. Mileage to the i-th species is then determined by the formula:

(1)

where — standard mileage to the i-th type of maintenance;

— coefficient taking into account the category of vehicle operating;

— coefficient taking into account the climatic conditions;

К1 = 0,8; К2 =0,9

Corrections to the average daily mileage proizvozhu follows:

where — average mileage, km;

Determining the number of the capital repair, for one car per cycle. Specifies the number of overhauls and maintenance for one car per cycle using the following formulas:

Determining the number of maintenance for one car and the entire park for the year. Define technical readiness coefficient applied to the repair cycle by the formula:

where dТОиТР — days of downtime in the maintenance and capital repair, day/1000 km to accept payments dТоиТР=0,30;

DK — number of days of inactivity car capital repair accept DK = 18 days.

Based on the calculated values of бT define possible annual vehicle mileage formula:

Number of work days per year =365 days.

The transition rate from cycle to year determined by the formula:

Number maintenance on one car per year determined by the formula:

Number maintenance the entire park for the year determined by the formula:

where — balance number of vehicles.

Determination of the number of diagnostic effects of D-1 and D-2 for the entire park for the year. Number of diagnostic effects of D-1 and D-2 for the entire park for the year determined by the formula:

2.3 Determination of daily programs by type maintenance

The daily program of fleet determined by the formula:

2.4 Rationale and choice of maintenance and car diagnostics

The criterion for selecting the method of maintenance is a daily production program for each type of service similar cars. Diagnosing D-1 is organized on separate posts (selected diagnostics D-1). With a daily program of more than 100 cars DM provides service on the line. M-1 and M-2 is produced on the lines.

M-1 — line

M-2 — line

DM — line

2.5 Calculation of annual volume of work of the enterprise

Adjustments to regulatory complexity. Adjustments to regulatory complexity was producing in the following order:

— Define the complexity of the formula DM:

where Км — coefficient mechanization factor considering reducing labor by mechanization DM;

К4 — coefficient taking into account the size of the MC.

TiH — regulatory complexity M-1 and M-2.

КМ=0,6; К4=1,2; tDMH=0,80

— frequency determined by the formula M-1and M-2:

Specific regulatory complexity adjusted current repairs:

where — factor considering mileage vehicles since the beginning of operation.

The complexity of diagnosing D-1 is determined by the following formula:

The complexity of diagnosing D-1 is determined by the following formula:

The complexity of seasonal maintenance is determined by the formula:

Accept д=30%.

where д — share work with, from the complexity of M-2, %.

Calculation of annual volumes of activities of maintenance, diagnosis and CR. The annual volume of production activities of maintenance, diagnosis and repair of current determined by the formula:

Годовой объём производственных работ определяю по формуле:

Calculation of auxiliary labor costs for the enterprise. Annual volume of auxiliary labor costs, which include ongoing care for buildings and facilities, equipment repair, equipment, the enterprise is determined by the formula:

Table 2.1 shows the distribution of self-service works by type of activity.

Table 2. 1

Distribution of self-service works by type of activity

types of jobs

labor content, %

labor content, person-hour

mechanical

10,0

2991,259 968

Hand

16,0

4786,15 949

Forging

2,0

598,2 519 936

welding

4,0

1196,503 987

tinsmith

4,0

1196,503 987

coppersmith

1,0

299,1 259 968

Electrical

25,0

7478,14 992

Piping (locksmith)

22,0

6580,77 193

Repair and construction and woodworking

16,0

4786,15 949

TOTAL

100,0

29 912,59968

The complexity of the general production work for a large share of service jobs, as workers have to provide daily production of all necessary.

The composition and the approximate distribution of overhead work mix in Table 2.2.

Table 2. 2

The composition and the approximate distribution of overhead work

types of jobs

labor content, %

labor content, person-hour

black gang

12,0

5383,67 942

cleaners

12,0

5383,67 942

Storekeepers

14,0

6280,245 933

Drivers peregonschiki

30,0

13 457,66986

general workers

32,0

14 354,84785

TOTAL

100,0

44 858,89952

The distribution of annual volumes of works on and capital repair (CR) works on industrial zones and areas

Volume and CR distributed at his place of execution by technological and organizational characteristics. And TS performed on fasting and production sites. To include guards work and TS performed directly on the car. Checking and repair units, mechanisms, assemblies removed from the vehicle, performing on.

The distribution of annual volume of work is presented in Table 2.3.

Table 2. 3

Annual volume of work on MC

DM

M-1

M-2

CR

Тсам

УТ

guards

Cleaning

washers

wiping

diagnostic

Fixing

Thrust

Lubricants, refueling, cleaning

Electrical

By the system power

bus

Body

Razborochno-assembly

10 255,77

7976,71

4558,12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1212,71

7276,2624

1364,2992

3031,776

909,5328

454,7664

909,5328

-

-

-

-

-

1149,984

10 119,86

1609,98

2069,97

1379,98

689,9904

3219,955

-

-

-

-

-

3238,24

-

3238,24

-

-

-

-

-

40 478

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10 255,77

7976,71

4558,12

5600,9344

17 396,12

6212,5192

5101,746

2289,5128

1144,7568

4129,4878

-

40 478

TOTAL

22 790,6

15 158,88

20 239,72

46 954,48

-

105 143,68

precinct

aggregate

Mechanical fitter

Electrical

Cordless

By the system power

Tire Changers

vulcanization

Forging and for springs

coppersmith

welding

tinsmith

reinforcement

Joinery

Painting

Upholstery

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

689,9904

689,9904

689,9904

689,9904

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

25 905,92

12 952,96

12 952,96

1619,12

4857,36

4857,36

3238,24

4857,36

3238,24

8095,6

8095,6

8095,6

-

12 952,96

3238,24

-

7777,3

-

-

-

-

-

598,252

299,126

1196,5

1196,5

-

-

-

-

25 905,92

20 730,26

13 642,95

2309,1104

5547,3504

5547,3504

3238,24

5455,612

3537,366

9292,1

9292,1

8095. 6

-

12 952. 96

3238. 24

TOTAL

-

-

2759,96

114 957,52

11 067,68

128 785,16

Lots of self-care:

electro technical

Pipeline

Repair and construction

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7478,15

6580,77

4786

7478. 15

6580. 77

4786

TOTAL

-

-

-

-

18 844,92

18 844,92

TOTAL

22 790,6

15 158,88

22 999,68

161 912

29 912,6

252 773,76

2.6 Calculation of the number of production workers

For production workers include working areas and areas directly performing work and CR rolling stock. Foundation depends on the duration and the number of shifts working days a year. Annual Fund-time «regular» worker determines the actual time spent executing directly in the workplace.

Table 2. 4

Calculation of the number of workers

Name areas and shops

Annual volume of work on the zone or area

РТ

accepted number РТ

ФР

Number of full-time employees

Total

reassignment

rated

adopted

Zone M and CR:

— DM Zone

— Zone M-1

— Zone D-2

— ZonaD-1

— Area M-2

— CR zone (posts)

22 790,6

15 158,88

2508,48

23 902,032

20 239,72

46 954,48

11

7

1

12

12

23

11

7

1

12

12

23

6

4

1

6

6

12

1780

1780

1780

1780

1780

1730

13

9

2

14

14

27

13

9

2

14

14

27

TOTAL

66

66

35

79

79

Industrial areas:

— aggregate

— Electrical Engineering

— battery

— By the system power

— tire

— vulcanising

— coppersmith

— welding

— Forging and mechanical suspension

— Mechanical fitter

— carpenter

— Reinforce-body

— wallpaper

— painter

— sheet metal

25 905,92

13 642,95

6264,9

2309,1104

5547,3504

3238,24

3537,366

9292,1

5455,612

20 730,26

-

8095. 6

3238. 24

12 952. 96

9292,1

12

7

3

1

3

2

2

4

3

10

-

4

2

6

4

12

7

3

1

3

2

2

4

3

10

-

4

2

6

4

6

3

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

5

2

1

3

2

1780

1780

1730

1730

1780

1730

1730

1730

1730

1780

1780

1780

1780

1760

1780

15

8

4

1

3

2

2

5

3

12

5

2

7

5

15

8

4

1

3

2

2

5

3

12

5

2

7

5

TOTAL

62

62

31

73

73

— repair and construction

— steam piping

— Electrical Engineering

4786

6580,77

7478,15

2

3

4

2

3

4

1840

1840

1840

3

4

4

3

4

4

TOTAL

9

9

11

11

TOTAL

137

137

144

144

Number of workers needed technologically determined by the formula:

Number of workers needed technologically determined by the formula:

where Фм — annual fund temporary jobs or technologically necessary working in one shift, hour.

Annual Fund-time job or technologically necessary working hours for a six-day working week is:

Фм=(Дкг-Дв-Дм)*7-Дпп*1, час

Фм=(365−52−7)*7−56*1=2086 ч

According to calculations, the annual fund-time one workstation will be Фм = 2086 hour.

Calculation of the number of workers on the MC mix in the table 2.4.

2.7 Calculating the number of posts and lines maintenance and capital repair

Mode of operation zones maintenance and repair. Mode of operation zones maintenance depends on the mode rolling stock on the line.

For DM and M-1, operated in time between replacement duration defined service areas of intragarage release schedule and return vehicles. Duration time between replacement for uniform release vehicles can be determined:

where ТН — duration of the cars on the line, hour;

То — Lunchtime driver, hour;

ТВ — duration producing cars on line, hour.

Work zones assigned to one shift. To assign a M-2 in 1 shift. Daily posts of this mode assign repair in 1 shift. Production shops operate in one shift.

Rhythm production:

where Тоб — duration of the zone for this type of M within days,;

С — the number of shifts;

Payment batch production lines used for M-1and M-2. Tact line is then determined by the formula:

where Рл — the total number of technologically necessary working on the line M, person.

The number of workers on the line defined by the formula:

Рл=Хл * Рср

where Хл — number of posts on the line, adjustable for technological reasons, in accordance with the distribution of works of this kind of service; Рср — the average number of workers in the post.

Рл1=4 * 2=8 man

Рл2=4 *2=8 man

Tact line is equal to:

The number of lines is determined by the relation service:

Working length of the production line defined by the formula:

DM zone calculation. Tact DM line defined by the formula:

where Nу — washing plant performance, the bus/hour;

Nу=40 bus/hour. — for buses.

Number of posts on the line DM 2 posts.

Number of lines:

Calculation of the number of posts D-1 and D-2. Number of specialized posts diagnosing the D-1 and D-2 defined by the formula:

where Тд — annual diagnostic work, person-hour;

Драб. г. — number of working days in the area of diagnosis;

Тсм — duration of change, hour;

С — number of change;

Рд — the number of workers in the post, man;

зд =0,85…0,90 — utilization of working time post diagnosis.

Calculating the number of posts the current repair

where ц — coefficient of irregularity of cars on the positions CM, ц=1,2…1,5. accept ц=1,5;

ТТРп — annual guards work CR, person-hour;

Драб. г. — number of days of work per year zone CR;

Тсм — duration of change, hour;

С — number of change (2…3);

Рп — the number of workers in the post, man;

зп =0,85…0,90 — utilization of working time post.

Posts CR specialize by type of work performed:

— Universal posts — 2 post;

— Posts transmission repair, brakes, steering and suspension — 6 posts;

— Post control and brake adjustment — 1 post;

— Post adjustment and control wheel alignment 1 — Lent;

— Engine repair stations and systems — 1 positions.

Number of posts expectations. Posts expectations — it posts that cars requiring some form or another and CR, waiting queue to go to the appropriate post or production line. These posts provide stable operation and CR zones, eliminating to some extent on the uneven cars and CR.

The number of posts is as follows:

— Before the line DM — starting from 15 … 20% of the time line capacity of DM;

— Before the M-1- based on 10 … 15% of the replacement program;

— Before the M-2 starting from 30 … 40% of the replacement program;

— CR before proceeding from 20 … 30% of the number of posts CR.

Since the company has covered parking for storage of buses, the posts waiting in front lines do not provide M.

Calculating the number of storage locations (parking) cars. Car-seat storage can be assigned to specific vehicles or impersonal.

Number of car-storage locations when attaching them for the scheduling of matches car park. At MC take possession rolling stock without securing parking places.

Choice of a rational number at post M and CR. The number of simultanDMusly working on Harvesting washing zone positions DM take 6 people. Positions on M-1and M-2 concurrent set depending on the method of organization M: on the production lines 4 people. For specialized positions diagnosing D-1 and D-2 the number of workers in the post 2 people. The number of simultaneously running for CR taken depending on the type of rolling stock: for buses 2 people.

2.8 Calculation of the area

To premises. Square MC functional purpose are divided into three main groups: production, storage, storage rolling stock and support.

Production and storage — area M and CR, production sites CR, warehouses, as well as technical areas of energy and sanitation services, and devices (compressor, transformer, etc.).

Storage rolling stock — parking area, the surface area occupied by equipment for heating, frames and other passages of floor.

Auxiliary — sanitary and domestic, catering facilities, public health, cultural services and communication, training sessions and public organizations.

Calculation of the area zones M and CR. Area zones M and CR is given by:

where fа — the area occupied by the vehicle in terms of, m2;

Х — number of posts;

КП — density ratio placement positions, for calculations accept Кп=4,5.

The fooCMrint of the car in terms defined by the formula:

where Ш — car width, to accept payments over the width of the bus ISUZU SAZ NP-37, Ш =2,5 m;

L — length of the car, to accept payments over the length of the bus ISUZU SAZ NP-37, L =7,0 м.

Number of posts to accept zones without waiting positions, as the company has covered parking for car storage:

Zone area M-1:

Zone area M-2

CR zone area:

DM zone area:

Area D-1 zone:

Area D-2 zone:

Calculation of the area of industrial sites. Area of industrial sites by counting the specific area per production worker of the number of simultanDMusly working on a plot by the formula:

where fp1 — specific area per worker, m2;

fp2 — specific area in subsequent work stations, m2;

РТ — technological concurrent to the greatest change.

Area fitter mechanical part:

Forge-size portion of spring:

Land area coppersmith:

Area of sheet metal section:

Area welding area:

Size of wallpaper section:

Area reinforcing portion:

Land area of electrical:

Area paint area:

Lot size tire changer:

Area vulcanization area:

Lot size battery:

Land area repair the power supply system:

Area aggregate area:

Area bodywork section:

2.9 Settlement areas of warehouse

Calculation of storage space on specific standards for mileage. Settlement areas of warehouse made on a specific area of 1 million kilometers rolling stock is determined by the formula:

where Lг — annual mileage cars, km;

Аи — Balance number of vehicles;

fуд — the specific area of the warehouse to 1 million kilometres, m2;

КПС- coefficient taking into account the type of rolling stock;

Кр — coefficient taking into account the number of vehicles;

Краз — factor considering rolling stock miscellaneous branded.

2. 10 Calculation of the storage area rolling stock

Vehicles, storage space is determined by the formula:

where Аст — Balance number of vehicles;

КП — density ratio arrangement cars, accept for payment КП=2,5.

2. 11 Definition of areas of support facilities

Auxiliary facilities — administrative, household, community — are the subject of architectural design and construction must comply with design standards and regulations.

The approximate composition of ancillary facilities provided for by the MC as follows:

Administrative offices:

— For senior staff (director, chief engineer, chief operation);

— Departments (technical, planning, operational, accounting, etc.);

— Dispatch, elegant, chauffeur, shop offices, facilities director of the colony, and pass protection watchdog;

— Non-governmental organizations — trade unions, as well as classrooms, meeting and recreation.

Square administrative offices is calculated from the state administrative apparatus to the following standards:

— Departments working rooms — 4 m2 per worker in the room;

— Rooms — from 10 to 15% of working rooms depending on the number of employees.

Office space for drivers to determine the rate of the simultanDMus presence of 30% of drivers working in the most populous change per 1 m2 per person, but not less than 18 m2 total area.

Area of the premises to rescue drivers determined the rate of 3 m2 per attendant.

Envisage the territory MC detached two-storey administrative building.

Restrooms: cloakroom, showers, washrooms, toilets, smoking, eating establishments, clinics.

Area of public spaces at rates calculated based on the number of employees.

When stored in closed closets all kinds of clothes number of individual cabinets is taken to be working on all shifts. Dimensions for closed stationary locker for storing clothes following: depth — 0.5 m, width — 0,33 m, floor area dressing one locker — 0. 25 m

For buildings designed MC envisage dressing with the number of lockers for workers — 50, -100 for drivers. Then make a dressing room area: 177.2 sqm

Number of shower screens and taps in washrooms is determined by the number of employees in most large change depending on the group of the production process of calculation from 3 to 15 people per shower and from 7 to 20 people per tap. Floor space on one shower with dressing room is taken equal to 2 m2, one sink — 0.8 m2 at their sole location.

Number of shower rooms for workers to accept MC design 12 showers. Number of shower rooms for drivers take to design 12. Overall shower area will be: (12 +12) * 2 = 62 sq.m.

Floor space is taken equal to 2.0 WC x3, 0 per cabin. The bathrooms, number of cabins with toilets at work in the most populous accept change rate of one stall for 5 women and 1 in 10 men at the cabin, the number of booths for drivers — at the rate of drivers traveling in the period of maximum production of the vehicles. Cabin size 1,2×0, 9 m distance from the most remote workstation must be no more than 75 m

Toilets in the MC: (125 +192 +110) / 30 = 14, 14 for design accept. Area toilets: 14 * 2 * 3 = 84 sq.m.

Smoking area is determined based on an employee in most big change: 0. 03 m2 — for men and 0. 01 m2 — for women, but not less than 9 m2. Distance from jobs to smoking should not exceed 75 m

Smoking rooms on MC: 0,03 * 121 = 3. 63 meters, design accept 4 sq.m.

Also support facilities should be considered as the area of technical facilities, which are calculated in each case on the relevant standards, depending on the system adopted for heating, water and ventilation.

To accept the compressor room area of 15 m2, for pumping — 10 m2, ventiljatornaja — 20 m2, transformer — 15 m2. Boiler house and coal storage is not provided as heating in the building MC centralized.

Determining the total area of MC by the formula:

(57)

III. RESEARCH PART

3.1 Optimal technology Body Repair

Body repair technology provides a set of measures aimed at the implementation of quality car repairs. Body repair technology determined by the degree and extent of damage, as well as cooperates depending on the goals and objectives. So the optimal body repair technology with significant damage is to replace metal parts. For minor injuries chips, scratches, abrasions, the technology of the local body repair, where exposures are directly affected area, but not the entire piece in its entirety. When this body repair technology also provides a local painting eliminating defects. In addition, the technology provides for the restoration of body repair parts by embossing the surface aligned as possible options to avoid having to applying a thick layer of putty.

Body repair technology with complex lesions of the body, accompanied by his skewed or breach geometry, provides pre-reduction options, followed by replacement parts. Reverse body repair technology is not provided. Compliance with recommended elements in the body repair work regardless of its complexity is a guarantee of quality work.

Body section is intended to correct defects and malfunctions body that occur during operation. On site kuzovnom restore their original shape and strength of repaired body, and also perform work to maintain the body and its mechanisms in good technical condition.

In this area is carried out sheet metal and welding Fittings and body works, which include operations for disassembly, assembly, welding and straightening damaged panels, body parts and mechanisms can be carried out repairs of radiators, fuel tanks, as well as springs and wheel rims. There also needed to produce replacement body parts: panel inserts, patches, etc.

Provide repair sheet metal work (removal of dents, cracks, tears) mudguards, front hood, radiator facings, doors and other parts of the body, as well as partial manufacture simple parts to repair replace dilapidated. Panel is a progressive method of repair, providing a complete replacement of the damaged item or part of the body.

Disassembly-assembly operations include removal and installation of doors, panels or individual body parts, tools, glass and other removable parts. Partial disassembly of the body to repair its parts is carried out to the extent necessary to ensure quality execution of all maintenance operations. For body assembly after repair, including the installation of parts and components to the body (doors, fenders, panels), use different sets of equipment, tools and a set of templates.

Straightening operation depending on the nature of the damage is to eliminate irregularities in the deformed surfaces, as well as in correcting distortion gDMmetric dimensions of the body (distortions).

Welding operations are an integral part of the sheet metal-body work. Almost all repair operations require the use of welding in a given volume. body use on site gas, arc and spot welding. For repair welding is used for removing the damaged area, straightening work, installing new parts or areas of the body and additional details (amplifier boxes, pads, liners, etc.), as well as welding cracks, gaps and holes with or without the imposition of patching depending on the size and condition of the damaged surface.

Reinforcement works include repairs of all the mechanisms of the body (locks, door hinges, windows, etc.), as well as repairs of windows and glass replacement. Renovated and assembled mechanism put in place followed by adjustment. When replacing the glass used tools for assembly of glass, wood and rubber mallet, mandrel.

Body section provide the necessary documentation, including technical cards on main activities and associated equipment.

The main elements of the manufacturing process body repair are:

— Preparation of the body to repair (washing, dismantling, removing coatings, determination of repairs);

— Renovation of the old and new parts manufacturing, as well as the creation of an adequate supply of components and parts for repair and procurement departments for uninterruptible power supply repair and assembly areas of the body;

— Implementation of body repairs on the principle of interchange ability of parts and components removed from the body.

These basic elements of the manufacturing process are carried out on the basis of mutual coordination and procurement of all major sites. The manufacturing process also includes training of repair facilities; organization service jobs; receiving and storing repair fund materials, semi-spare parts; all stages of repair and body assembly and its components, transportation of parts and assemblies.

By the design of the body have different requirements, some of which are common to all types of bodies, and some depend on the purpose of the body.

The general requirements include the provision of: good visibility for the driver and passengers, the tightness of the body that does not allow penetration into the body moisture and IPT; Body strength housing elements and their compounds, allowing to perceive acting on the body load and voltage with minimal deformation of the structure and form; disassembly and repair capabilities hidden under the body of the car mechanisms and free access to them; technological hull design, convenient for assembly, finishing, maintenance and repair, and parts there of shall be simple to manufacture; beautiful appearance of the car.

The design of the body is not allowed pockets of moisture. Not allowed as rattling and creaking body. Of great importance is the body performance, the ability of the body to be repaired with a minimum expenditure of time.

The main objectives of overhaul of the car body are full checks of the construction and equipment of the body; Troubleshooting and recovery of strength properties of the body and its reliability; repair or replacement of damaged structural elements of the car body and its equipment.

Technological process overhaul body is determined by its design features. Repair starts with the inspection body for acceptance it repaired to identify feasibility body repair, verify its completeness and detection of visible without dismantling the body damage. After washing the body is pre-inspection, the purpose of which ascertain the status and feasibility of repair of parts and components subject to mandatory removal from the body (glass, interior upholstery, etc.). After preliminary Troubleshooting perform general dismantling of the body. With a total disassembly disconnect and remove all installed on the body shell assemblies, components and parts. Unparsed remains only body shell. When cleaning the exterior of the body to its disassembly not washed surface, closed interior panels, body floor, assemblies and parts mounted on the body.

Disassembled and cleaned the body and tail of the car is sent to the site of old paint removal; units and components to be repaired in other shops, is sent to the warehouse storage units awaiting repair.; fittings, upholstery and other parts and body parts that need repair — in the specialized department of the body shop. On a plot of collation also receives refurbished and new parts installed on the body instead of discarded when it is built.

After removing the old paint is subjected to detailed monitoring body at which indicate the nature of damage to a body when it is operating. Then the body acts on the site of repair. Renovated box is pre-assembled, with the body hung on the door panel set, feathers and other parts to be painted with the body. Then the body paint and final assembly.

3.2 Scheme selection process Body Repair

Preparing the body for the repair is carried out in accordance with the scheme of the process of repairing and includes disassembly, removal of coatings, damage detection and repair work. Dismantling body runs for two consecutive times:

1. Removal from the bodies of all units and components installed on his body from the inside and the outside.

2. Dismantling body to repair after removal of paint and to identify any damages in the case.

Disassembly of the body to repair its parts is carried out to the extent necessary to ensure quality execution of all maintenance operations. Metal welded body shell does not understand. Unfit panel cut out and replaced with new repair parts. Technological processes in body repair are usually designed in accordance with the specifications that contain requirements of major assemblies and parts of the body, the permissible methods of recovery and the data required to monitor them after repair.

Overhaul of the car when the old paint is recommended to remove it from the body to repair, as often hidden under the paint damage (dents, cracks and other defects). Removing the old paint is also one of the first steps of surface preparation for the application of the new body paint.

After removing the old paint body undergoes careful monitoring in order to identify areas needing repair, and determine the amount of repair work directly on the body, the so-called flaw.

Definition of the technical state of (testing) Body usually carried out in accordance with the technical specifications for its repair. The accepted method of fault detection and thoroughness of its performance depends heavily on the quality of repair. Flaw detection of a body and its parts are organized in the areas of the provisional body disassembly and Divisions repair.

For the detection of cracks and determine stocking density articulated parts used parts tapping method, which is based on the definition of tone sound when a hammer rapping parts. By changing the pitch of the sound can identify cracks and loose connections. In some places, the bearing members of the body due to the accumulation of fatigue and a significant hardening of the metal due to work hardening, which appeared in the process of re-repair panels, there are hairline cracks that can be detected with a magnifying glass with a four-or six-fold increase, and the best with a dye penetrant. Surface to be checked previously degreased by wiping with a clean cloth dipped in gasoline; then covered with red paint; wipe dry with a painted surface and cover with the help of white paint spray gun. Using dye penetrant can check the state of the metal in the most critical areas of the body. If there is a crack on the surface, the red paint lingers in it, visible through the white paint, revealing the contour of the crack.

Depending on the nature of the metal body repair damage done:

— The elimination of irregularities in the panels and distortion geometric dimensions of the body;

— Elimination of damage to cells bearing the body frame;

— Replacement of the destroyed body parts with new parts;

— Welding cracks and breaks.

Repair irregularities in the body panels and plumage are currently engaged in three main ways: mechanical impact on metal (pressure treatment); thermal influence on the metal panels; hardens quickly plastics. The main requirements for car bodies are as follows: line formed by two or more surfaces of the body panels should be smooth; faceplates subjected to repair Align carefully, all traces of straightening and welding, and places that can not be straightening filled plastic mass to complete their alignment. Doors, fenders, hood and other body parts should be strengthened reliably and without distortions. Mismatch of the mating surfaces must not exceed the tolerance. Not allowed creaks noise jamming rotating parts and assemblies, backlash in the loops, self opening doors while driving and other deviations from the normal state assemblies and parts of the body, agreed specifications. Glass should not have defects that distort the profile path, yellowing and cracking.

Figure 3.1 is a flow diagram of the execution body work.

Figure 3.1 — Technological diagram of the execution body work.

Upholstery body should be taut; backwardness, sagging, wrinkles and creases are not allowed. Screws securing the trim and cladding parts should be wrapped without distortions, and their heads should not have burrs. Upholstery color should be in harmony with the color of decorative paint finishes. Not allowed warping cab interior upholstery.

Paint finishes must be monochromatic, without spots, with a smooth sheen without streaks of paint, rowan, cracks, scratches from the grinding tool and the like. Chipped paint on the edges are not permitted.

3.3 Tooling bodywork section

Skip to main body shop equipment include:

— Lifts;

— Jacks;

— Grinder;

— Welding equipment;

— Stands for dismantling, body assembly;

— Stands for the repair and straightening of car bodies;

— Installations for the anticorrosive coating;

— machine work piece, bending, flanging, grooving and cutting sheet material;

— Racks for tools;

— Shelving for parts and assemblies;

— Welding table for work;

— Table for gas welding works;

— Bench for body and sheet metal work with a set of tools;

— Trolley to move the body.

List of necessary equipment and tooling designed bodywork section is given in Table 3.1.

Table 3. 1

Technological equipment bodywork section

Name of equipment

Type, brand

Number

Tripper electromechanical

П-129

1

Hydraulic jack garage

П-130

1

Grinding machine reversible dust collectors

33Б or ЗИЛ-900

1

inverter welding

ПСО-300Д

1

Welding transformer odnopostovoj

СТШ-300

1

Stand for repair and straightening of car bodies

Р-612М или Р-620

1

Table for electric welding

ОКС-7523 (Russia)

1

Table for gas welding works

7547 (Russia)

1

Trolley for moving body

ИЭ-70 (Russia)

1

Workbench for body and sheet metal work (with kit)

«Клесто-1» (Czech Republic)

1

Stand for fitting glass doors Car

1

The materials used for the bodywork:

— Sandpaper;

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