Nature and value of the enterprise infrastructure
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Market economic processes in recent years have forced enterprises of Ukraine revise its policy on the effective use of all available resources to speedily resolve the problems of competitiveness and economic stability and improving the infrastructure of the enterprise Infrastructural complex enterprises should be considered as a set of functionally related organizations and institutions (logistical, institutional, economic, social and cultural), to support the implementation, management, organization, communication and management in the functioning of commodity markets. Starting position dissertation research is to consider the complex infrastructure of the consumer market as an open system that has the characteristics of self-organization, the presence of a common goal, hierarchical construction, large size of the complex, the complexity of treatment. Relevance of the topic — the effectiveness of economic activity that depends on the level of not only the main production processes. Given the continuous improvement of technical base of growing importance the problem of rational organization support and service processes, ie infrastructure development company. Each entity is not only difficult economic production, but no less complex social system. On the effectiveness of the company significantly affect the socio-cultural factors in the environment. Therefore, modern enterprise objective should direct some of their efforts and resources to address both internal and external problems of social character. The main aspects of infrastructure development enterprises should be consistent with relevant plans. Related to the fact that many social problems of its importance and possibilities of solving beyond the individual enterprise. The aim of the course work is to determine the infrastructure on the level of production and the functions it performs. Also characteristic of the modern trends of reproduction and development. The objective of the work is to define the central concept of enterprise infrastructure within the servicing system of production. Object — is the production and organization support, service process, namely the characteristics of enterprise infrastructure. The subject — Infrastructure company, as a component of the whole enterprise. The first section of the grounded theoretical concepts of enterprise infrastructure, its types and system maintenance. The second section contains the main directions and efektynist infrastructure development companies and logistics system infrastructure. The third section is built on the problem and its solutions, and enterprise infrastructure play. Structure of course work consists of an introduction, three interconnected and grounded chapters, conclusions and list of references.
CHAPTER 1. THE IMPORTANCE OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND MERITS OF THE ENTERPRISE
1.1 The concept, types and importance of enterprise infrastructure
Effectiveness of business enterprises depends on the level of not only the main production processes. In a further improvement of the technical basis of increasing importance to the issues of rational organization support and service processes, ie infrastructure development company. Infrastructure (from the Latin infra. ~ Below, during and struktura — construction, location) — a set of component parts of an object to be subordinate to the auxiliary and provide conditions for normal functioning of the facility as a whole. Infrastructure companies — a complex of shops, farms and services enterprise, providing the conditions necessary for the functioning of the enterprise. Infrastructure is a kind of «rear production», which is impossible without the normal operation of the enterprise. This distinction industrial and social infrastructure. [2, p. 222] Production infrastructure enterprise — a set of units that are not directly involved in creating the basic (profile) of enterprise, but whose activities contribute to the work of key departments, creating the necessary conditions. Production structure of the enterprise, in particular, are: — Support and service departments and the farm enterprise (repair, tool, energy, transport, storage, etc.); - Support and service station, located in the main shops; - Main facilities, communications networks, means of collecting and processing, environmental facilities and so on. (Figure 1. 1) Composition and size of objects of industrial infrastructure businesses depend on the industry type and scale of production, design features and technology of production, level of specialization. Enterprise — is not only technical and technological integrity. Modern management is considering the company primarily as a group of people who r united to achieve common goals. Man at work is both a factor of production and source of its development. Therefore, the modern enterprise is to the community both economic and social responsibility. Direct action for social enterprises is reflected in the formation of social infrastructure of the enterprise. Social infrastructure — a combination of business units that provide fun social and cultural needs of the company’s workers. Social infrastructure typically consists of units catering, health, childcare facilities, education, housing, recreation, physical education classes and sports. [2, 224] Organization and status of infrastructure significantly affect the economics of the enterprise. In modern terms in the maintenance of production in industrial enterprises operate from 40 to 50 / o of all industrial personnel. This is due not only relatively large amount of work to service primary production. Many support and service operations by their nature are difficult to mechanization and automation. Because of instability, irregularity and variety of these operations is difficult to plan, regulate and normalize. To support typical single units and small-scale types of production with a significant amount of manual labor. Disintegration of support and service agencies and facilities, low level of specialization and centralization led to their backwardness in technology and work organization. Analysis of the economic activity of enterprises shows a significant gap in technical and organizational level between the main and auxiliary production. In support and service operations below the level of mechanization and automation, significantly higher share of manual labor that makes the infrastructure bottleneck in most tsitchyznyanyh enterprises. [6, p. 294] Progress in the development of techniques and technologies of the main causes of the need for adequate changes in manufacturing infrastructure businesses. Increased mechanization and automation of manufacturing processes increases the volume and complexity of the repair, maintenance 'and debugging facilities, provides a significant expansion of the range instrument, equipment and adaptations. The transition to new technologies and accelerating technological modes of the equipment increases the quality requirements and increases the need for different types of energy. Complications of production processes and the deepening of internal relations between units increases the volume of work in transportation. Constantly increasing the load on the communication network. This significantly increases the role and importance of industrial infrastructure businesses. The increasing role and importance of industrial infrastructure because: 1) increasing mechanization and automation of manufacturing processes increases the volume and complexity of the repair and adjustment equipment needs to be expanded range of tools, equipment and fixtures; 2) the transition to new technologies and the intensification of technological modes of the equipment requirements to improve quality and increase the need for different types of energy; 3) The complexity of manufacturing processes and the strengthening of internal relations between units increases the scope of work of transportation; 4) the burden on communications networks and environmental facilities are increasing. Operation of industrial infrastructure is significantly different from the activities of the major divisions. Its features are that the result of the infrastructure service is a productive type, its products do not exist independently, outside the production process. The feature elements of industrial infrastructure is their territorial independence. As the process of consumption of services directly related to the production process, the concentration of infrastructure in one place can not compensate for their lack in another [12, p. 113]. To achieve high economic performance of enterprises not rationally organize jobs, establish their maintenance and operation. It is important to create a comfortable social environment, favorable psychological climate for greater motivation. All this directly affects the productivity and outcomes of the enterprise. In modern conditions to achieve high technical and economic indices of production is impossible without sustainable development as a major manufacturing and industrial and social infrastructure.
1.2 System maintenance
enterprise infrastructure ukraine
The necessary conditions of normal flow of production processes in the enterprise are: to maintain a constant operational machinery and equipment, other means of work, timely provision of jobs raw materials, tools, energy, and fulfillment of transport operations and other related work with them. All this has to effectively functioning system of technical maintenance. Within the system of maintenance carried out the following functions:? repair technology, energy, transport and other equipment, care for him and debugging;? provide jobs tools and devices as their own production and purchased (bought) in specialized manufacturers;? movement of goods, performance of loading and unloading;? ensure divisions electric and thermal energy, steam, gas, compressed air, etc.;? ensure timely production facilities (stations, separate productions) raw materials, materials and supplies, fuel;? warehousing and storage of imported (purchased), financial resources, as well as semi-assembly of individual units of finished products. [6, p. 283] wear unevenly. There is a need for renewal and replacement of worn parts of equipment which is suitable for further use. Repair — the process of restoring the original diyespromozhnosti equipment that was lost as a result of industrial use. Units that are part of maintenance, perform maintenance and repair of labor, installation and commissioning of new equipment, production of spare parts and optional equipment, modernization of existing machinery and equipment. In practice, three forms of repair and maintenance depending on the scale. For all forms of centralized repair personnel of the enterprise subordinated to the mechanics. Decentralized form, in contrast, assumes that all types of repair work performed by staff workshop repair facilities that are subordinated to the heads of departments. Mixed form of repair combining centralization and decentralization: maintenance and current repair personnel shall repair production facilities, and major repair, modernization, production of spare parts and optional equipment — staff repair and machine shop Determination of the volume and types of repairs in the repair system for the technical diagnosis is dependent on the actual need for them after the objective control of technical condition of this or that kind of work [6, p. 285] Tool Industry is one of the most important elements of the maintenance of production. The cost of the tool in mass production reaches 25−30% in the series — 10−15%, and in small-scale and unit — about 5% of the equipment. Units that are part of enterprise management tool, perform the particular function. Instrumental Department is engaged in supplying tools and devices that are manufactured on specialized tool factories and designing technological equipment for their own needs. Toolroom manufactures, repairs and restoration of special rigging (tool) for general use. All purchased, manufactured and repaired (restored) tool comes to the central tool storage. Here is his acceptance, registration, storage and delivery shops (stations, production)-consumers. Direct service job shop production accessories provide instrumental and handouts pantry. They receive from the central tool of technological equipment, maintain its revolving fund, collect and transmit to the central part of the tool is worn out. [6, p. 286] The manufacture of products the company is accompanied by movement of a variety of goods (raw materials, fuels, waste products, finished products), which requires significant expenditure on transport services production, a clear organization which provides a combination of all elements of the production process. Complex units engaged in cargo unloaded their work and movement of goods, utvoryuye transport sector. [6, p. 288] The main objectives of the transport sector are: fast and smooth movement of the objects of labor, fuel and finished products according to the manufacturing process and effective use of vehicles and transport workers labor, mechanization and automation of transport and handling, reducing the cost of transport operations, ensuring strict consistency technological and transport operations, maintaining a constant vehicle in working condition. Relevant tasks of the transport sector are coordinating the work of industrial transport of the main rail, water, road, an extensive development package and container freight. Execution of the tasks depends on the proper organization of the transport sector, a clear planning of transport, a reasonable selection of vehicles, increased mechanization and automation of handling. [2, p. 265] Modern mechanical engineering related to the consumption of large amounts of electricity, fuel and other energy (steam, compressed air, hot water) and the provision of communications systems The objectives of the energy sector are: providing permanent company, its divisions and jobs all the established forms of energy parameters, the measures aimed at saving and efficient use of energy and all kinds of fuel assembly and organization of power equipment operation, maintenance and repair of power, implementation of control of standards, operating rules, maintenance of power equipment and networks, increased energy available labor, implementation of measures for improvement and development of energy managemen. [2, p. 252]
Chapter 2. MAIN AREAS AND EFFICIENCY OF ENTERPRISE INFRASTRUCTURE
2.1 Provided producing technologically-advanced enterprise infrastructure
The system of production equipment and technological tools — a collection of shops and departments that deal with acquisition, proektuvantion, manufacture, repair and renovation of technological equipment, its accounting, storage and delivery in shops and on jobs. The main components of this system is a instrumental farming enterprise. The concept of technological equipment covers all types of cutting was measuredtion and assembly tools, dies, models, different types of devices and others. The purpose of the functioning of the enterprise management tool — organtion of a stable of shops, stations and high-tech jobs improving NATO’s technological equipment in the right quantity and range for the minimum cost of its design, acquisition (or production), storage, maintenance, repair, recovery and recycling. Works to ensure the production of technologically equippedtion includes: — Technological control of design documentation for the object technolohichnosti design, interspecific and intraspecific unify products, their components and structural elements (linear dimensions, radii, FASki, thread, materials, coatings, etc.) [11, p.. 92 ] - Simplification of kinematic circuit product — The development of substantive and technological specialization and cooperation of production; - Typing of technological processes; - Unification of technological equipment and structural elements; - Calculation of needs for different types of tools and equipment; - Calculation of reserves instrument (operating fund; located in a central tool storage, etc.) — Design of premises hardware and organizational projects for zberihannya and supply equipment for jobs; - Design and manufacture of special equipment; - Market research and drafting contracts for the purchase of technological equipment from outside producers and organizing its suppliesing to the company; [10, p. 301] The enterprises can simultaneously use more than one thousand names and types of technological equipment and tools. Therefore, organizational structure management tool can be very diverse. Most companies create and craft bodies zahalnozavodski instrumental facilities. By zahalnozavodskyh agencies include: — Instrumental workshops; - Workshops and database recovery tools and equipment; - The central tool storage (CSA); - Grinding workshop (zahalnozavodski); - Instrumental department, which performs routine dispatch functions, functioning planning and organization management tool. Manages department deputy chief engineer or chief technologist of the enterprise. [10, p. 303] By craft of instrumental facilities include: — Instrumental and hand-out pantry (IRK) directly provide jobs tools and equipment, maintain their revolving fund and transfer to the central part is worn out tools; - Station (branch) of the sharpening and maintenance equipment and instruments. In Fig. 3. 14 shows a scheme of treatment tools and equipment at the facility. Sometimes, to determine the cost of production equipment in the performance of programs use the rules for calculation of costs. During normal equipment cosset his mind of that wear out in the performance of a specified amount of work. These rules define for each standard size equipment. Defining the total (annual) need technological equipment, planning and dispatching office of instrumental constantly performs another important function — the current inventory control tools and equipment. The fact that nd that required equipment supplied to the enterprise at a time, and parts. Therefore, for each kind of tools and equipment necessary to calculate: — Operational and capital equipping your shop; - An operational and capital equipment (and tools) company. Operating fund equipment shop (hekspi) in the i-th type of tool (equipment) is defined as the sum of the tool in the workplace (hrmi) in sharpening and repair (hzri), ie (2. 5) where ht — number of i-type tool (equipment) in the workplace, from.; ht — number of tools (equipment) and the second type, found in aggravation and repair vehicles.; t1i — delivery period and the second type of instrument for jobs, vehicles. time; t2i — during removal tool from the equipment (machines), vehicles. time; keel bone tools and the second kind simultaneously used on all workplace workshop units. and those — the number of jobs, which also used this tool and the second type, units.; k — coefficient insurance reserve instrument and the second type of workplace; t3i — time spent on sharpening and repair of equipment (and tools) and the second type, units. time. [10, p. 304 — 307] Main directions of improvement of instrumental economy and increase its effectiveness governmental functioning as part of enterprise infrastructure: 1. In the field of product design and technology of its production — a simmering structure (structure) products, their unification and standardization; typing processes: control of technological design, the use of scientific approaches in the design and optimization methods. 2. In the field of designing and manufacturing of technological equipment, etc. strumentu — a unification and standardization of equipment components and structural elements, the use of computer aided design systems based on classification and coding equipment, reduction of developed and fabrication equipment. 3. In the field of management — the use of scientific approaches and methods of marketing research, detection of structural advantages of the enterprise, improve accounting, control, analysis, and work motivation. 4. In the field of operation, repair and renovation equipment — to ensure normal working conditions of the central instrumental composition and instrumental pantries distributing organization to ensure effective employment of high quality equipment and tools of modern samples, centralized tool sharpening, enhancing technologic supervision, regulatory streamlining economy, improve operations industrials and the current account and limit costs, and efficiency of repair and upgrade equipment and tools. [14, p. 143] Therefore, one of the main factors of production, which is part of enterprise infrastructure is to ensure production of technological equipment and tool companies.
2.2 Logistics system infrastructure
An infrastructure management business, today, is the least studied problem in logistics. In terms of EV Krykavskoho logistics infrastructure of the enterprise — a set of elements that perform important logistical tasks and ensure the implementation of logistics processes. Logistic processes occurring in the business — sales, purchasing, production, provision of certain services, sales, transportation and logistics operations — unloading, loading, storage and others. Very closely related to elements of infrastructure. Logistic infrastructure should be classified into: internal logistics infrastructure company and external logistics infrastructure of the enterprise. (Appendix 1). Before you define the problem correctly will reveal the essence of the concept of «management of logistics infrastructure.» Thus, under the management of logistics infrastructure company will understand the process of bringing the infrastructure of the enterprise to a state of equilibrium or the objectives of providing efficient service and logistics processes and operations at the facility. It is clear that achieving equilibrium infrastructure is difficult enough task in deciding which problems arise, which often face the company, through which decreases the efficiency of logistics infrastructure, hampered perform basic tasks, which puts the company, resulting in substantial unnecessary costs and time. In the system of logistics infrastructure highlights the following issues, subject to [3, p. 273]: — The general question of logistics infrastructure (own fleet of rolling — Composition, repair and maintenance equipment, storage facilities, handling equipment — Management of own transport economy (dispatch service units in planning combinations of movement, etc.). Internal logistics infrastructure of the industrial enterprise, which will have a presence in virtually all elements of logistics infrastructure necessary for the maintenance of all logistics processes and transactions related to certain material flow should be viewed both internally and externally, on the logistics system. Therefore, the system of logistics infrastructure will look different (Appendix 2). Thus, the overall system of logistics infrastructure companies look at how a set of two subsystems that have certain connections and relations between them: 1. external subsystem of logistic infrastructure companies (fleet of rolling stock, repair and maintenance equipment, storage facilities, handling equipment and other facilities and providing facilities that are not included in the internal environment of the logistics system that is studied, throughout the supply chain); 2. Subsystem internal management logistics infrastructure enterprises studied (own transport, mining, storage, packing services, equipment, units for servicing and other logistic processes that are internal logistics system environment). [3, p. 274−276] The control system of logistics infrastructure business has set itself the following tasks: — Choice of alternatives to the strategy development of logistics infrastructure; - Calculation of performance indicators logistic infrastructure elements; - Distribution of functions, duties, responsibilities of employees engaged in maintenance logistics processes and operations; - Motivation to work, staff training, retraining; - Ozrobka norms and standards of labor and material — technical development; - Creation of information infrastructure; - Reducing the cost of maintenance of material flow; - Through planning and control of all participants in the logistics chain. Today, the complexity in implementing the above tasks associated with the emergence of problems in the management of logistics infrastructure, which most businesses do not consider attention. The emergence of these problems affect the competitiveness and efficiency of the whole enterprise. [13, p. 79] Yes, one of the common problems is the problem of location of infrastructure. There are two manifestations of this problem, in — First, most companies have in their internal infrastructure of some elements, such as lack of personal and technical means, the vehicle fleet, and others. Because companies are beginning to interact with other organizations and companies that can provide all necessary services to maintain logistic processes and operations, the location of which is often not economically profitable for the enterprise; on — Second, companies may have their own structure in all the above listed items of infrastructure, but these elements (warehouses, transport companies, etc.) well located geographically unprofitable, hence increasing the cost of time and financial resources of the enterprise as a whole. And in the first and second case, we are faced with the problem of location decision which has long-term. Convenient location — not a guarantor of a successful business, but it is a necessary condition. Starting form the logistical infrastructure necessary to determine the number and location of each type of unit (facilities) required to perform logistics functions. In addition, you must determine how many and which stocks should be kept in each object and where customers place orders for supplies. [1, sec. 345]. When choosing the location of the elements necessary logistics infrastructure, consider the following factors: — Location of customers (location near to the users reduce costs and transportation); - Location of suppliers and materials (for manufacturers advantageously located near suppliers of materials and raw materials for prey); - Culture (when placing your business must take into account cultural values, laws and way of life of the territory on which planned location); - The ratio of government and their plans (acquaintance with the peculiarities of the legal framework and take into account the possibility of local investuvan); - Direct and indirect costs (taking into account the peculiarities of local taxes, pension and payroll taxes, the percentage of salary in the region, constantly monitor their own financial position); - The ratio of the society (ie the different relations of the society to the achievements of the team, to methods for the provision of high productivity); - Operation (range trends decisions on operations, taking into account local conditions or implementation of its rules of performance to facilitate control and increased productivity); - Transport accessibility area (analysis area equipped with means of transport, which depends on the availability as well as for its own staff and for clients); - Competition (research and analysis of competitors, number, location, characteristics of business); - The situation in the local labor market (labor market analysis: number of employees, their qualifications, performance) and others. [1, sec. 350] Taking into account the above factors are not talking about a complete solution to this problem, solving the problems of placement and optimal variant layout logistics infrastructure is impossible without the use of mathematical and heuristic methods. The second problem of logistics infrastructure — is inefficient use of company assets (buildings, structures, equipment), which is a consequence of increasing costs. The main reasons for this problem are: the disproportionate relationship between labor and fixed capital, simple equipment, without intensive use of equipment, not the rational use of production area, reducing capital investment and other capital assets. The third problem that should be mentioned in this — the high cost of equipment and technological infrastructure. As they say, professionals, costs of equipment too large, so we recommend that the main financial flows directed to the objects and tools [4, p. 393]. Today, to fill a competitive position in the market of certain products and services to quickly respond to any changes and user requirements. Often, to improve the enterprise, falls constantly improve, and in some cases, completely change the traditional technologies and methods of logistics functions. These changes are accompanied by significant costs to upgrade equipment and purchase of new technological tools necessary infrastructure. Today, when the logistics begins to develop at a faster speed, expand foreign — economic relations, and thus begins to blossom and business enterprises increasingly require different types of services, such as transport, warehousing, information. Clearly, for the enterprise, from business point of view — interest, beneficial in its infrastructure have all these subsystems serving, but it’s too expensive, and requirements and they are too high. The fourth problem concerns the training of personnel involved in management of logistics infrastructure, methods of operation, equipped with modern technological facilities and equipment, infrastructure management methods. The problem of professional personnel, but rather a problem of lack of professional logistics staff, really important for companies that have decided to build its operations, using logistic approach. This is due to the fact that in our country logistics are just beginning to develop, so most experts still do not understand some of the tasks of logistics functions and duties. The last of the problems, which should attract attention — a low level of enterprise information infrastructure, lack of integrated information center Continue entire logistics chain.
Chapter 3. PROBLEMS OF REPRODUCTION TASHLYAHIV INFRASTRUCTURE
3.1 Problems of industrial infrastructure in the Ukraine
In the modern system of industry, when no specialized enterprise maintenance companies are forced to develop its own set of shops, facilities and services for maintenance of basic industries. In the development of industrial infrastructure has certain disadvantages: — Fragmentation of support and service agencies; - Low level of specialization and concentration, the lag in technology and work organization; - Low level of mechanization and automation; - Low productivity and high costs of production, works and services. Progress in the development of techniques and technologies of the main causes of changes need adequate industrial infrastructure businesses. Increased mechanization and automation of manufacturing processes increases the volume and complexity of the repair, maintenance and debugging facilities, provides a significant expansion of the range instrument, equipment and adaptations. The transition to new technologies and accelerating technological modes of the equipment increases the quality requirements and increases the need for different types of energy. Complications of production processes and the deepening of internal relations between units increases the volume of work in transportation. This significantly increases the role and importance of industrial infrastructure businesses. However, in this context and problems of rational organization of production infrastructure. To achieve high economic performance of enterprises not rationally organize jobs, you need to adjust their maintenance and operation. All this directly affects the productivity and outcomes of the enterprise. In modern conditions to achieve high technical and economic indices of production is impossible without sustainable development as a major manufacturing and industrial infrastructure. Since the role of service units and services in the manufacturing process changes considerably under the influence of market factors and scientific and technical progress, for the rational organization of maintenance must anticipate and take into account the tendencies of their development. First, enterprise restructuring, which resulted in the formation of certain specialized industries, oriented individualized demand of their services. World practice of maintenance put into question the existence of service and support facilities directly to large industrial enterprises. Many of them against self-service operation and supporting industries put forward the following arguments: — Low level of mechanization and automation of work; - Weak base service units; - The worst possible use of progressive forms and methods of maintenance — Higher costs and worse quality of a performance-obsluhovuvalnyh auxiliary operations and production; - High proportion of auxiliary workers in comparison with world standards. Many companies are often the number of auxiliary workers reached 50% of the total amount. At the same time in the industrially-developed countries in similar enterprises: — The number of auxiliary workers twice smaller: — Extreme fragmentation of service that leads to a significant gap between the mechanization of basic and auxiliary production; - Incomplete loading areas ancillary industries and insufficient use of their capacity, leading to disruption of functional activity of these units; - Dispersion of fixed and floating facilities, labor, affecting the growth of irrational costs. Thus, it is factors that are indicative of negative consequences operation maintenance directly in the industry. From this, the tendency to perform the functions of maintenance of specialized small businesses. For example. in the U.S. the vast majority of maintenance work carried out by specialized firms and many industrial enterprises not serving their farms. Second, there are changes in the structure of the maintenance, increase the technical level as the main production pours the contents of auxiliary works, pull them to the general level and increase their role in the production process. With the complication of processes expands the scope of work of auxiliary workers and robi complexity of maintenance. In the near future, substantially changed the role of support and service functions that will move into the category defining. It therefore requires changing the way the forms and methods of maintenance and encourage the emergence of new professions with versatile functions. Thus, the objective processes that result from scientific and technical progress and other factors could lead to the integration of basic and auxiliary, process where the organization of maintenance will be part of a single process of production and operation of the service will be linked with technology direct manufacturing of products based on a single integrated technology of the production process as a whole. For developing countries, as well as for Ukraine, in addition to purely technical perfection, no less and sometimes more important is the use of alternative infrastructure. Analysis of international experience points to the following principles of reform of infrastructure: — Organization of functioning infrastructure is not on administrative, and business principles, which increases its sensitivity to consumer demand; - The development of competition both directly through liberalization of access to activities that have no technological barriers, and indirectly through a competitive bidding for the exclusive right of service where there are other conditions of natural monopoly, and, finally, through liberalization of activities to provide alternative services; - Providing users and other interested parties an opportunity to express their preferences, it is necessary to ensure accountability to the users and suppliers of other interest groups; - Organization of public and private sectors in financing infrastructure projects. In conclusion, we note that, despite the fact that the trend will dominate: whether to create a separate service industry based on specific homogeneous functions, or merger subsidiary and main processes and acquiring the status equivalent to the technological process of production, management efficiency factor of the criterion of minimum costs performance of maintenance. Since the transformation process in this respect, incomplete, current study is the current system of institutional infrastructure and improving the experience of its adaptation to the market economic environment.
3. 2 Reproduction and development of enterprise infrastructure
Formation, restoration and development of industrial and infrastructure facilities are made in the capital building, which objectively consider the specific elements of infrastructure company. Capital construction — the process of creating new, reconstruction, expansion and technical upgrading of existing industrial enterprises and infrastructure facilities or other primary businesses. The sphere of capital construction include: 1) construction of buildings and production facilities (social) purposes; 2) installation of industrial and non-production equipment and other means of work and social activities; 3) Project and research and other preparatory work associated with the con-rudzhennyam new and reconstruction of operating production facilities and social purposes; 4) major renewable and repairs of buildings and structures you and social purposes. Planning of capital construction objects of industrial and social purposes has certain features. The basis of planning of capital construction of production facilities of the calculations the introduction of production capacities, fixed assets and the estimated cost of construction (reconstruction, expansion) of the corresponding objects. The main purpose and outcome of major building — the introduction of new production capacity. Its planning of the company are as follows. 1. Specified payments balance production capacity with a corresponding range of products. With this IU checked by that: the availability of production capacity at the beginning of the planned period, estimates of their use; terms of project development capacities of objects that were previously enacted. 2. Assesses the possibility of growth of production capacity at the expense of organizational and technical measures, technical renovation and reconstruction. 3. Determined amount necessary introduction of new products capacity by expanding existing production facilities or new construction. They are calculated as the difference between the planned increase in production of the products and the greatest possible increase capacity at existing production facilities due to their technical equipments and reconstruction. In the planning of capital construction is important to you not only the volume of the introduction of production potuzhnos Tay, but also costs connected therewith. This is necessary in order to justify the economic feasibility of construction (expansion, re construction), choose the best way of capital investment, promptly pay for completed construction work purchased equipment and more. For this purpose, determined estimated cost of works which, in fact, be cost-structures in its provisions a particular object. Estimated construction cost — is expressed in monetary regulations (design) costs: Construction, purchase equipment, tools, equipment, design and exploration works; cover other costs associated with construction. All costs provided for in the estimates is worth toast of construction works, divided into: * direct costs (basic salary construction cost of building materials, components, structures, you spending on operation of construction machines and mechanisms); * overhead costs (costs for maintenance and construction management); * planned savings (normative profit building organizations that set as a percentage of the sum of direct and Kladno costs). The task of putting into operation of fixed assets are defined as differences between this estimated cost of construction of objects that will be enacted in the planning period, and expenses that do not form a value of fixed assets. Specification of tasks plan of capital construction and these tasks to the agents by means of thou listings. Title list — is planning document, which set the terms of beginning and end of Construction option (expansion, rehabilitation) facilities, their capacity, total cost of construction, the construction and installation work, the annual size of the introduction of fixed assets called the contractors and the organizations that do the work and equipment suppliers. For such a scheme is planning major paint-operation and social facilities. The principal his personality is just that the planning of capital construction of social infrastructure by taking into account their so-called capacity (number of seats in the dining room, children’s garden the number of daily visits to clinics etc.). The initial stage of capital construction is its design. Project as the final result of the design process is a complex document, which substantiates the technical feasibility and economic-to the integrity of construction (reconstruction) of a particular object. The process of usually specialized design organizations. It includes two successive stages: 1) the collection and preparation necessary to design materials; 2) directly figure rose revision of estimates and calculations. Typical contents of feasibility are: * justify the demands for products (services) facility that provides build (expand, reconstruct); * characteristics of specialization (destination) and the structure of the object, its design capacity (bandwidth); * description of possible sources of the necessary categories of personnel, material and financial resources; * choice of territorial location of the object (for construction of a new facility); * the approximate calculation of the necessary investments and their socio-economic efficiency; Based on the approved feasibility study together with the customer project organization is a task for a technical project, which contains all the necessary design information, including: performance production (activities) and capital investment requirements for the use of scientific and technical and organizational progress and so on. The second stage — direct design. Depending on the size and complexity of the object is projected, this step can be performed in one or two stages. For large and complex objects design process includes two stages: 1) development of technical design, 2) the processing of working drawings. The composition of technical project includes several sections, the most important ones are: the economic part, the general plan and transportation, technological part of the construction, organization of construction work, estimates. Technical project together with the consolidated budget and financial accounts to be approved by the customer. He then becomes the basis for financing the construction (expansion, reconstruction) of the object, ordering equipment and processing of working drawings. By working drawings made directly carried out construction and installation work. For building, which is typical for projects or for small and technically simple design objects by a single stage — through the development of techno-business project, ie technical design with working drawings. Capital construction (expansion, reconstruction) of objects of any appointment can be made in two ways: contracting and commercial. Contracting method of construction — a work of permanent construction and assembly organizations (contractors) who perform work related to various customers under contract. In accordance with contract agreement contractor undertakes to do its own construction of the facility for the project in compliance with building codes. The customer must provide the contractor building site, approved project estimates, to ensure timely receipt of financing the construction and manufacturing equipment, and take the completed facility and fully pay the contractor for work done recently. To perform some complex operations contractor has the right to involve other specialized organizations for the subcontract. However, responsibility to the customer for quality and timely execution of all works is the main (general) contractor. [5, p. 294 — 257] Commercial construction method means the full range of works by the developer (enterprise, organization) on their own. In this case, the enterprise (organization) — developer acts as head of construction and the artist of construction works at the same time. To this end, it (she) creates during construction of the necessary apparatus and manufacturing capabilities, provides a temporary hiring of workers required and the involvement of the construction equipment.
Status of infrastructure significantly affects the economy of the enterprise. In modern terms in the maintenance of production in industrial enterprises operate from 40 to 50% of the industrial personnel. This is due not only relatively large amount of work to service primary production. Many support and service operations by their nature are difficult to mechanization and automation. Because of instability, irregularity and variety of these operations is difficult to plan, regulate and normalize.
To support typical single units and small-scale types of production with a significant amount of manual labor. Disintegration of support and service agencies and facilities, low level of specialization and centralization led to their backwardness in technology and work organization. Analysis of the economic activity of enterprises shows a significant gap in technical and organizational level between the main and auxiliary production. In support and service operations below the level of mechanization and automation, significantly higher share of manual labor that makes the infrastructure bottleneck in most domestic enterprises.
One of the main factors of production, which is part of the infrastructure of the enterprise is to ensure production of technological equipment and tool companies. Progress in the development of techniques and technologies of the main causes of changes need adequate industrial infrastructure businesses. Increased mechanization and automation of manufacturing processes increases the volume and complexity of the repair, maintenance and debugging facilities, provides a significant expansion of the range instrument, equipment and adaptations. The transition to new technologies and accelerating technological modes of the equipment increases the quality requirements and increases the need for different types of energy. Complications of production processes and the deepening of internal relations between units increases the volume of work in transportation. Constantly increasing the load on the communication network. This significantly increases the role and importance of industrial infrastructure businesses. In modern conditions to achieve high technical and economic indices of production is impossible without sustainable development as a major manufacturing and industrial and social infrastructure. Therefore, the organization of the system infrastructure, occupies an important place, but requires considerable practical base. In modern conditions to achieve high technical and economic indices of production is impossible without sustainable development as a major manufacturing and industrial and social infrastructure.
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