Peculiarities of translation of toponyms

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INTRODUCTION

The topic of this work is translation of the toponymy. The main idea of given work is to assign the translation of the toponymy in Ukraine language and how scientist decide this translation task. Presentation of the rationale for the study of toponymy is that Translation of the toponymy is necessary for translator, for they must feel the need in language material for widening and deepening their language possibilities, realizing close and far perspective in using this knowledge in future. Therefore the as professional translator such students ought to work in constant research, improving his foreign language and translation tasks. As a result the translator will develop his as philological such translation practice and capability to see sense and content through the language sign.

This topic is topicality for study, because translation of toponyms is very important for all people, who travels. Ukrainian grammar and the diversity of naming conventions make it hard to find their best English expression. Translators from other languages may see similar problems in their own practice. Scientists often note how English deals with foreign place names in general, then place names encountered in Ukrainian texts. They look at peculiarities of the map form of place names that appear in Russian or Ukrainian texts and discuss how to deal with them. And they can see how Ukraine grammar sometimes obscures the precise map form. The vast majority of map names do not have unique English forms because translators borrow them presumably intact. This is easy if the original language uses the Roman alphabet, but we must transliterate names from languages using other alphabets. Multiplicity of transliteration schemes accounts for some of the confusion in English forms, that’s why scientists should discuss this question all the time. They create a lot of indispensable resource where we can find translating of the place names. For discussion of this question translators can use atlas or any other source. Place names appear in Cyrillic on Ukrainian maps because simple transliteration usually suffices, but sometimes deriving an English equivalent from the Cyrillic takes ingenuity. Simple transliteration usually suffices, but sometimes deriving an English equivalent from the Cyrillic takes ingenuity. In the post-Soviet world, not all placenames originally spelled with the Cyrillic alphabet can be transliterated directly from a Russian text. For example, Russians spell the Ukrainian city Львов, whereas natives spell it Львiв. Consequently, we should follow the Ukrainian and transliterate L’viv, not L’vov.

The subject of this coursework is translation of toponyms.

The object of research is analysis of the toponymy.

In work use such methods of research:

— Analysis;

— Synthesis;

— Comparison;

— Generalization.

I learned how to analyze toponyms, the story of their origin, value of their translation.

Research consist of two chapter:

CHAPTER 1. Theoretical foundations of the study of place names

CHAPTER 2. Practical part

CHAPTER 1. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE STUDY OF PLACE NAMES

The word «toponymy» is derived from the Greek words tуpos (фьрпт) («place») and уnoma (?нпмб) («name»). Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use and typology. Toponymy is itself a branch of onomastics, the study of names of all kinds. Differences between toponymy and onomastics is that onomastics is the study of proper names and toponomastics is the study of place name. A toponymist is one who studies toponymy.

Toponym is the general term for any place or geographical entity. 1] Related, more specific types of toponym include hydronym for a body of water and oronym for a mountain or hill. Also It divides place-names into two broad categories: habitation names and feature names. A habitation name denotes a locality that is peopled or inhabited, such as a homestead, village, or town, and usually dates from the locality’s inception. Feature names refer to natural or physical features of the landscape and are subdivided into hydronyms (water features), oronyms (relief features), and places of natural vegetation growth (meadows, glades, groves).

One of the prominent functions of names in general is to empower the users to refer to the entities named. This is of paramount importance in the case of toponyms. As the work by Peter E. Raper shows, identifying and referring unambiguously to geographic entities is pivotal to most human activities today. This statement holds true also for ethnonyms. In order for toponyms and ethnonyms to refer unambiguously many linguistic, pragmatic, socio-cultural and intercommunicative conditions must be met. In the case of African onomastics, the satisfaction of these conditions is sometimes hindered by many obstacles, some of which are due to the colonialism.

Besides toponymy is concerned with the linguistic evolution (etymology) of place-names and the motive behind the naming of the place (historical and geographical aspects). Most toponymy, however, has concentrated on the etymological study of habitation names, often neglecting the study of feature names and the motive behind the naming of the place.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word «toponymy» first appeared in English in 1876; since then, toponym has come to replace «place-name» in professional discourse among geographers. citation needed] It can be argued that the first toponymists were the storytellers and poets who explained the origin of specific place names as part of their tales; sometimes place-names served as the basis for the etiological legends. The process of folk etymology usually took over, whereby a false meaning was extracted from a name based on its structure or sounds. Thus, the toponym of Hellespont was explained by Greek poets as being named after Helle, daughter of Athamas, who drowned there as she crossed it with her brother Phrixus on a flying golden ram. The name, however, is probably derived from an older language, such as Pelasgian, which was unknown to those who explained its origin. George R. Stewart theorized, in his book Names on the Globe, that Hellespont originally meant something like «narrow Pontus» or «entrance to Pontus», «Pontus» being an ancient name for the region around the Black Sea, and by extension, for the sea itself. 2]

Place names provide the most useful geographical reference system in the world. Consistency and accuracy are essential in referring to a place to prevent confusion in everyday business and recreation. A toponymist, through well-established local principles and procedures developed in cooperation and consultation with the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN), applies the science of toponymy to establish officially recognized geographical names. Toponymists are sometimes used by governments in order to verify the accuracy of certain names as used by cartographers, the media, researchers, publishers, and their duties also include the inputting of new names into databases and topographical maps. A toponymist relies not only on maps and local histories, but interviews with local residents to determine names with established local usage. The exact application of a toponym, its specific language, its pronunciation, and its origins and meaning are all important facts to be recorded during name surveys.

Scholars have found that toponyms provide valuable insight into the historical geography of a particular region. In 1954 F. M. Powicke said of place-name study that it «uses, enriches and tests the discoveries of archaeology and history and the rules of the philologists». 3] Toponyms not only illustrate ethnic settlement patterns, but they can also help identify discrete periods of immigration. 4][5][6]

Toponymists are responsible for the active preservation of their region’s culture through its toponymy. They typically ensure the ongoing development of a geographical names data base and associated publications, for recording and disseminating authoritative hard-copy and digital toponymic data. This data may be disseminated in a wide variety of formats, including hard-copy topographic maps as well as digital formats such as geographic information systems and Google Maps. GIS-is a system designated to capture, store, analyze and present types of geographical data. It sometimes used for geographical information science or geospatical information studies to refer to the academic discipline or career of working with geographic information system. The first known use of term"Geographic Information System"was by Roger Tomlinson in the year 1986 in his paper «A Geographic System for Regional Planning. Tomlinson is also ancknowledged as the «father of GIS»

Acordang to «World English Dictionary» toponymy (t??p?n?m?)

1. the study of place names

2. rare the anatomical nomenclature of bodily regions, as distinguished from that of specific organs or structures

Toponymy is the study of geographic place names, including natural places like mountains and rivers, and human places, like cities and countries. The word comes from the Greek topos for place and onoma for name. Carving up the world into distinct features and regions, and putting a verbal label on them, is likely a universal human activity, although the particular place where the boundaries are carved is rather variable.

A common question about toponym concerns their origin. We can identify at least five common sources for toponyms. First, we can look to the migration history of a place and the people who reside there. Immigrants bring their culture with them, and place names reflect these patterns of relocation diffusion. Names like New England and Berlin (Wisconsin among others) recall the homeland. But colonists from Britain and other places probably even more often simply appropriated place names from the indigenous people they met in their new homeland. Many U.S. toponyms are American Indian words, including Ohio, Oklahoma, Michigan, and the names of over 20 other U.S. states. A second source of place names can be found in the values and aspirations of residents. Some values are religious (San Francisco, California and Jerusalem, Maryland), some are classical (numerous towns named Troy, Athens, or Rome in the U.S.), and some reflect respect for honored historical figures (both Washington and Martin Luther King lend their names to many entities in many U.S. states and other countries). Third, names often celebrate specific positive or negative events that have occurred somewhere. Eureka in California and Lucky Boy Pass in Nevada celebrate success at gold and silver prospecting, respectively. Death Valley in California comes from the desperate experience of a group of «49ers» headed to the California gold fields in 1849−1850. Fourth, names are often designed to capture accurately the physical character of a place. The Grand Canyon is certainly grand, Thousand Oaks in California had well over a thousand oak trees (and still does), Portage (many states have such a town) describes a place where canoes were carried between water bodies, Minneapolis has several large lakes and rivers (Dakota for water combined with Greek for city), and Glitter Gulch in Las Vegas definitely sparkles with electric lights. Finally, a fifth source of place names is again an attempt to capture the physical character of a place, but in this case, inaccurately or deceptively. Perhaps sarcastically or cynically, several names have been attached to places as a form of black humor or perhaps intentionally to mislead. Everyone is familiar with industrial parks and housing developments given names like Green Meadows or Flor Vista Park, although no meadows or flowers are evident. One of the most famous examples in geography comes from the Norseman Erik the Red, who reputedly named Iceland and Greenland in the 10th century to repel future visitors from the first place, a relatively balmy emerald jewel, and attract them to the second, a relatively cold and barren land.

As the Encyclopedia Britannica puts it, «one of the most important elements of the naming process concerns the meaning and associations of the name» (p. 734). The meaning of a name involves that which the constituent parts suggest. In this sense, the meaning of a name like Red River is obvious. «To get the meaning of a name like Philip, however, one must go back to its original Greek version, Philippos, which means „lover of horses“. This meaning of names frequently gets lost, however» (ibid). There are several causes for this:1. The name may be accepted into another language, as were the Indian place names in America, and the Greek and other names transferred to Europe and America via Christianity.

2. Names may cease to be understood as a result of language change, for example, the place name Birmingham was understandable in Old English as «habitation of Biorma’s people».

3. Names may have lost their meaning because they have been changed by shortening (e.g., Los Angeles, from El Pueblo de la Reyna de los Angeles, «Town of the Queen of the Angels», the town named in honor of the Virgin Mary).

4. The meaning may have disappeared because the names have been changed by scribal error (e.g., Pria in France, a misread medieval abbreviation of Pradaria, «meadow»).

According to Newmark’s (1988a) categorization, proper names consist of people’s names and geographical terms. For instance, the place name Tonolo and the family name Brйal were created from random sequences of sounds. As for translation of geographical names they can be translated or transliterated. Place name which belong to the encyclopedia, not the dictionary and according to Mill (as cited in Newmark, 1988a, p. 70), they «have no meaning or connotations, therefore they are untranslatable». Also they can be transliterated. Based on Newmark’s suggestions, place names are normally transferred, thus preserving their nationality, and assuring that their names have no connotations in the text. Newmark’s transference, similar to Catford’s, is a translation procedure involving transliteration, which relates to the conversion of different alphabets. As for translating based on Korynets, his theory shows that names of seas, oceans, bays, archipelagos, isthmuses, straits, channels, administrative territories and compound names of countries having the structure of word-combinations are always translated. The geographical names formed on the basis of common nouns which acquired the status of proper names are generally translated from English into Ukrainian.

RENDERING OF PLACE NAMES FROM ENGLISH TO UKRAINIAN toponymy semantic lexical geographical

This question discusses by all Ukrainian translators who face with it. Place names can torment Ukrainian translators, because Ukrainian grammar and the diversity of naming conventions make it hard to find their best English expression. Translators from other languages may see similar problems in their own practice. Scientists often note how English deals with foreign place names in general, then place names encountered in Ukrainian texts. They look at peculiarities of the map form of place names that appear in Russian or Ukrainian texts and discuss how to deal with them. And they can see how Ukraine grammar sometimes obscures the precise map form. The vast majority of map names do not have unique English forms becouse translators borrow them presumably intact. This is easy if the original language uses the Roman alphabet, but we must transliterate names from languages using other alphabets. Multiplicity of transliteration schemes accounts for some of the confusion in English forms, that’s why scientists should discuss this guestion all the time. They create a lot of indispensable resource where we can find translating of the place names. For discussion of this question translators can use atlas or any other sourse. Place names appear in Cyrillic on Ukrainian maps because simple transliteration usually suffices, but sometimes deriving an English equivalent from the Cyrillic takes ingenuity. Simple transliteration usually suffices, but sometimes deriving an English equivalent from the Cyrillic takes ingenuity. In the post-Soviet world, not all placenames originally spelled with the Cyrillic alphabet can be transliterated directly from a Russian text. For example, Russians spell the Ukrainian city Львов, whereas natives spell it Львiв. Consequently, we should follow the Ukrainian and transliterate L’viv, not L’vov.

The U. S. Board on Geographical Names has published an exhaustive index of place names, the Official Standard Names Gazetteer. Volume 42 is devoted to the Soviet Union, and the second edition (1970) includes seven thick volumes of «official» English versions of Russian and Ukrainian and non-Russian and Ukrainian names with their geographic coordinates. It help me verify spellings for most of the English place names which appeare in a Ukrainian book on English that needed translating.

If investigate this question more deeply you can find a lot of interesting information about native origins of geographical names. Professor Brinsley Samaroo throughout his presentation outlined the different eras of our history and the influence each had on place names which have their native origins. For example, he said, the toponymy of the Amerindians reflected flora and fauna origins, while the Spanish dominance in 1498 saw an evolution of the place names, due to the fact that the Spanish wanted to establish themselves and remove any lineage of Amerindian influence. This evolution of place names, in essence, commensurated with the colonial conquerors at the time, such as the British and the free slaves, who eventually settled in places such as Naparima and Princes Town. Professor Samaroo also gave interesting facts about the naming of Lady Young Road, which got its name after Lady Young, the wife of a governor, and Wrightson Road, named after Sir Walsh Wrightson who built a sewer line from the Woodbrook Estate and paved a road to the lighthouse.

Translator Veronica Albin in his article «Proper and geographical names» seys about lost in translation as for street’s names: «Street names that may not be known internationally are often charged with meaning in a given geographical area. Fleet Street and Wall Street, for example, are easily recognized in the West, but Wall Street’s Canadian equivalent, Bay Street, may require an explanation or annotation. And whereas Rue de Rivoli might be well understood in the EU, it may not necessarily be in the US, where it would help to spell out the metonymy: 'The French Ministry of Finance.' In the work of Jorge Luis Borges, Avenida Mйxico sometimes denotes the Biblioteca Nacional in Buenos Aires, and a translator might be well advised to annotate the street name. Likewise, translating the meaning (s) hidden behind a 'Park Avenue wife'41 in New York, or the typically younger, but equally affluent 'Sloane Ranger'42 in London might require creativity on the part of the translator in order to convey the exclusivity of those streets. In all of these cases, annotations or explanations may be the best solutions.

It should be noted, that I.V. Korunets also has a great success in his book" Theory and practice of translation". The theory about the toponymy are really useful for transletors. The main role of his investigation is historical meaning of the geographical name in the target language. Korunets argues that the translators must bear it in mind that some geographical names have in English their historically established forms: Кольський півострів Kola Peninsula, Ладозьке озеро Ladoga, Онезьке озеро Onega, Мала Азія/ Asia Minor (also Western Isles), etc. He say, that a few geographical names have a traditionally established orthographical form which does not reflect in any way their pronunciation or their real orthographic form in the English language: the Arctic Ocean Північний Льодовитий океан; Maine Мен (штат США); Mexico- Мехіко, etc. His theory looks like as theory of Professor Brinsley about the historical evolution of the place names. Professor Brinsley Samaroo also investigates about place names which have their historical and native origins. As for translation of geographical names, at his presentation he gave an example that many English place names, along with other geographical and proper names, are conveyed in Ukrainian partly with the help of transcription and partly via transliteration.

Analyzing Korunets' theory I can say, that he describes not only about transcription, phonetical/phonological and translation, but also about historical origin of the toponymy.

Working with materials of this discurs I found an article which was published by Dr. Richmond E. Myers. He told about his investigation of place names for the Morning Call newspaper and investigated about local toponyms with a few remarks about Indian and not only Indian place names. His theory has the same principle as the theory of scientists which have been mentioned before. He says, that the bulk of all other geographical names, however, are also rendered into Ukrainian with the help of phonetical/phonological level units, i.e., either transcribed or transliterated. The degree of exactitude of their rendering depends on the existence/non-existence of appropriate or similar sounds in the target language. Care should be taken in order to avoid the influence of both the lingual and extra lingual factors.

There are some names that reflect the first source of wealth produced in the community. These are readily understood, but often the activity represented in the name is no longer there, but the name has remained. For example: Aluta (Latin for soft leather. Tanning was an early industry here), Applebutter Hill, Center Valley — посушливі землі, Bake Oven Knob is supposed to resemble a bake oven, the kind that was used in colonial days. Bear Rocks must have suggested to someone that they looked like a group of bears. Overlooking the Lehigh Gap is an oddly weathered projection of rock that resembles a pulpit, and has been given the name Devil’s Pulpit. He noted, that he can see this kind of thing in commercial caves where cave formations are given names because they are supposed to look like the Statue of Liberty or George Washington’s profile.

CHAPTER 2. PRACTICAL PART

2.1 ANALYSIS OF THE TOPONYMY

The study of place names plays an important role in linguistic, archaelogacal and historical research. As for linguistic culture of toponymy it has the structure of semantic,lexical and gramatical meaning.

As for gramatical structure, geographical names are always capitelized. Capitalizing geographic terms can get complicated, since many combine proper names with nouns that would not normally be capitalized. There are many instances of variation, but there are some guidelines that are almost always followed.

In general, geographic names are capitalized if they are proper nouns rather than general terms.

In the name of a clearly defined region, all the words are capitalized, including cardinal directions. If a region is not well-defined, the proper name but not its directional adjective will be capitalized. The difference is usually determined by whether an area has set boundaries. South Carolina has demarcated borders, so «South» is capitalized. However, south Texas is an area of the state but not its own distinct region, so «south» is not capitalized. Geographic features follow a similar rule. If the term is part of a place name, it should be capitalized. For instance, you should capitalize the word mountain in «the Appalachian Mountains» and the word river in «the River Thames.» However, do not capitalize a generic term that follows a capitalized name. «Atlantic Ocean» is capitalized but not «Atlantic Ocean coastline,» since it refers to a general area, not a specific one.

This rule also applies to street names. Words like «avenue» and «boulevard» are capitalized only when they are included in a proper name. The same goes for the word «the» in place names.

The name of an area’s citizens is capitalized just like the name of the area is, as in «Texan» or «New Yorker. «

Not least role of the toponymy plays articles. The use of articles with geographical names has certain patterns. For example, the name of a river is used with the definite article, and the name of a lake is used without any article. The name of one mountain (or one island) is used without any article, and the name of a mountain chain (or a group of islands) is used with the definite article. If lexical or descriptive meaning is absent in place names, grammatical meaning, which involves such aspects as number, case and gender, is only peripherally present. It has been stated that names are always definite. Definiteness is linked to existence of the referent, not existence in reality, but existence in the realm of interpretation of speaker and hearer. Thus a place name like Xanadu or Jurie Steyn 's Post Office is just as valid as Pretoria or Zeerust.

The notion of definiteness implies that a name cannot be used, for example, with an indefinite article. If one speaks of 'a Johannesburg', 'another Vrededorp', and so forth, the notion behind these utterances concerns the characteristics of the entities bearing the name. It has been said that in such phrases the proper names are being used as common names. A second aspect of place names is that they are always inherently singular or, to be more specific, each proper name selects and identifies, in a particular context, an individual member of a discrete set. Apparent plurals, such as Die Spitskoppe, The Crags and so forth, are felt to be collectives and therefore singular.

Semantic structure . Each geographical names have its semantic loans expressed in morphemes. For example: according to the story the original hill or ridge was called «Tor» (hill). Later, when the meaning of this name was no longer transparent to speakers it came to be called Torpen (Tor hill), then, still later, Torpenhow (Torpen hill), although the version «Torpenhow hill» is apparently only wishful thinking.

Lexical structure. Place names consists of a simplex and compound names. Geographical names consisting of a simplex should not cause any problems. Compound names are normally written as one word. If the place name have complex lexical structures they are often highlight the culturally salient profile of the landscape and reveal a cultural model of geography. Names consists of two parts which in a non-onomastic context are two nouns. Sometimes the two parts are also linked with an -s, for example in Boesmanskraal, Broedersput, Klawershoek.

Note: 1) suggested that local custom should decide the issue. Sometimes there is uncertainty as to which one a of the following pairs is admissible: laagte or leegte, rand or rant, olien or oliewen, wilge or wilger, et cetera. It is suggested that local custom should decide the issue. However, this freedom of choice no longer exists in the case of -stat and -stad. The form -stat is now retained only in Dingaanstat, in all other cases the form -stad is used.

2) Names of the following kind are also written as one word: Brugo (from Bruwer and Hugo), Krudoring (from Kruger and doring), and syllable names such as Delmyn (from delwery and mynbou), et cetera, These, and most names compounded of an adjective plus a noun, are written as one word. And names composed of syllables or parts of names or words, such as Atcem from (Atlas Cement Company), (Coronation Brick), Navex (Navarro Exploration), Soweto (South Western Townships) they are written as one word too. But such nouns as the Atlantic Ocean are written as two words.

3)Compound names may be written separately, as one word or hyphenated:

a) hyphenated compound names. The hyphen is used in combinations with contrasting or distinguishing additions, such as Agter, Voor, Groot, Ou. They occur before or after a place-name, for example Agter -Sneeub erg, Groot-Brakrivier, Nuwe-Mosbank, Noord-Rand, Somerset- Oos, Riebeek-Wes. In anordinary word which is not a distinguishing place- name, such additions are normally affixed to the ordinary word without a hyphen. In this way one finds BoTautesberg, but Boplaas; Groot- Drakenstein, but Grootvloer; Wes-Transvaal, but Weskoppies. Note: Where certain vowels occur together in such combinations, a hyphen is used to facilitate legibility, for example Bo-erf (instead of Boerf), Perde-eiland (instead of Perdeeiland), et cetera. Hyphens are also used in place-names consisting of two words linked by en, for example Haak-en-Steek, Rus-en- Vrede, Hoog-en-Droog.

(b) Compound names that are written separately :

1)when a place name consistsof a surname of the type beginning with De, Du, Van, Van den, Van der, the prefixed parts in the place-name are also written separately. Note: There used to be a tendency to write names of this kind all as one word, for example Dewetsdorp, Vanderbijlpark, Vanwyksvlei. Where this form of writing has become traditional it must be retained. Ou is written separately when it precedes a personal name or nickname in place names such as Ou Thomas se Loop, or where the Ou no longer has any distinguishing or contrast value, for example Ou Handelspos.

2) Place-names consisting of combinations with the possessive se between the words are written separately, for example Beck se Plaas, Booi se Kraal, Lof se Dam, and many others.

3) Where the definite article Die forms the first word in a place-name, it is written separately, and there is a tendency for the words following it to be written separately as well, for example Die Hollandse Saal, Die Onderste Aar, Die Ou Elands, Die Ou Vaal.

4) The components of place-names consisting of a numeral plus a noun used in the plural form are written separately; for example Drie Susters, Veertien Strome, Twee Riviere, each element beginning with a capital letter. If the numeral is followed by a noun in the singular form, the elements are written as one word: Driefontein, Tweespruit, Vyfhoek.

5) Place-names comprising phrases such as Agter die Berg, Hoek van die Berg, Koppie Alleen are written separately. In these cases only the main words begin with capitals.

6) Place-names consisting of two verbs such as Aanhou Hoop, Help Soek, are written as separate words

c)As one word: 1) Names ending in bourne, bury, combe, dene, hurst, lea, leigh, mere, wick, et cetera. For example Ashbourne, Woodbury, Ashcombe, Forestdene, Meadhurst, Birchleigh, Buttermere, Thornwick, et cetera;

2) names composed of syllables or parts of names or words, such as Atcem from (Atlas Cement Company), (Coronation Brick), Navex (Navarro Exploration), Soweto (South Western Townships).

3) names beginning with Bal, Brae, Clan, Craig, Dal, Holm, Pen, Sel, Strath, et cetera.

Compounded names generally consist of a term indicating the type of feature to which the name refers (mountain, river, etc.), and a term which describes, qualifies or modifies it. The former is known as the generic term (or generic) and the latter the specific term (or specific).

An analysis of place names has indicated that the generic term usually refers to elevations and depressions, the presence of water, or settlement, demarcation, allocation or division of land. Thus occur names such as Attakwas Mountains, Enselsberg, Girinaris, Thaba Bosiu; Bonnievale, Gamkaskloof, Otjikoto, Albert Falls, Nossob, Bellville.

All these factors account for the great variety of linguistic projects related to toponyms, i.e. grammatical and morphosyntactical studies, modelisation, as well as the use of toponyms in spoken and written contexts. Also it contains morphological and morphosyntactical description. A morphological and morphosyntactical description provides in turn a detailed formal classification of the types of toponyms and gives an overview of their behaviour in context. Toponymy has it’s morphemic structures as well as phonetic changes in the regional or dialectal utterances of the collected place-names. Also geographical names may be derived from diverse linguistic roots and they form part of the cultural and linguistic history of the country.

Toponymy are characterized by masculine and feminine endings. Masculine have - b or -p endings and feminine is characterized by —s ending thus Goab, Neip, Goms. Also they may include locative morphemes such as -se, -si, -re, -te, -ti, -be, -bi, -bee, etc, which generally occur in the penultimate position, as in Nababeep, Komtes, Gobabis, Gobaseb. Toponyms from the African languages are characterized by locative prefixes such as Sotho Ga (GaDikgale), Nguni Kwa (Kwa Mashu), Venda Ha (Hamasia), Tsonga eKa (eKa Mhinga), or by prefixes and suffixes, such as Nguni o-ini (Otobotim), e-ni (Edulini), o-eni (Obenjeni), etc.

Analyzing material relating to linguistic analysis of geographical names, I can also say that the geographical names are characterized by description. As for description of the toponymy, they may be descriptive of color (Blouberg, Heigariep), size (Great Fish River, Klein-Karoo) or shape (Gouib, Spitskop, Table Mountain). They may refer to fauna or flora encountered there (Crocodile River, Gamka, Taung; Wilge River); they may be descriptive of the type of soil or rock (Duineveld, Kalk Bay, Modder River); they may refer to climatological conditions (Cold Bokkeveld, Noagore, Terra dos Bramidos); they may refer to people in authority (Colesberg, Land van Waveren) or to owners of land (Adendorp,

Odendaalsrus) or someone who had a link with the place (Daveyton, Trappe’s Valley). The original lexical meaning is irrelevant in toponyms, a generic term is sometimes not regarded as a word with meaning, and another, different generic may be added to the name; or else a new generic may be added to an existing name to indicate an extended entity. Thus names occur such as Breede River Valley, Karkloofrivier, Fairmount Ridge.

As was mentioned before, we know that toponymy can be translated and transliterated. The latter, as may have been noticed, are conveyed in Ukrainian/English in the same way as the proper names of people, i.e., they are traditionally transliterated or transcribed: Arkansas Арканзас (ріка) but Аркенсо (штат США); Belfast/Chicago Белфаст/Чикаго, Dublin/Ottawa Дублін/ Оттава, San-Francisco Сан-Франциско, Бахмач Bakhmach.

Translation. There are three kinds of translations can be differentiated:

1) names of which all the parts are translated, e.g. Bloedrivier — Blood River; Coffee Bay — Koffiebaai; et cetera;

2) names of which both parts are ordinary words in the language concerned, but only the second part is translated, e.g. Bergrivier — Berg River; Melkbosrand — Melkbos Ridge, et cetera;

3) names of which the first part is a personal name and the second a generic term, e.g. Boshoffweg — Boshoff Road; Caledonplein — Caledon Square.

Names of likes, seas, oceans, bays, archipelagos, isthmuses, straits, channels, administrative territories and compound names of countries having the structure of word-combinations are always translated: Lake Superior озеро/Верхнє the Atlantic/Pacific/Indian Ocean Атлантичний/Тихий/Індійський океан; the Grampians (Appalachians) Грампіанські (Аппалацькі) гори; the Gulf of Mexico (Salonika) Мексиканська (Салонікська) затока; the Isthmus of Suez/Panama Суецький (Панамський) перешийок; New South Wales Новий Південний Уельс (Австралія); Strait of Magellan/Gibraltar/Магелланова/Ґібралтарська протока. The geographical names formed on the basis of common nouns which acquired the status of proper names are generally translated from English into Ukrainian vice versa: Cape of Good Hope/ Cape May cea Доброї Надії/cea Кейп-Мей, Golden Gate Золоті Ворота.

As for Meanings of place names they consist of common names or common nouns, each name contains spoken or written form and an internal content, sense or meaning. So, we sould to know that dictionary meaning of the toponymy have logico-semantic, lexical, descriptive or conceptual meaning. Analyzing this guestion we have to know, that correct translation of toponymy have an important role. And it’s really neseccery to know their meanings. A name also refers to, or denotes, an extra linguistic entity. Each geographic name consists of a word, or of more than one word. Secondly, some of the names will immediately be `understandable', or apparently semantically transparent, while others will be semantically opaque. Also each name will be the appellation of a particular place or geographic entity. Names are an integral part of language, and a primary function of language is to communicate. It would therefore seem to be unreasonable to assume that names have no meaning at all. Yet some clearly do not appear to `mean' very much, except to indicate what a particular place is called. The solution to the problem seems to lie in what is meant by `meaning'. The problem may be solved by distinguishing between synchronic and diachronic meaning. Synchronic meaning is that which is discernible in the name at a (the present) point in time, diachronic meaning that which may be discerned by viewing the name through the course of time. Synchronically, names are generally regarded as being devoid of lexical or conceptual meaning. Diachronically, when a name is viewed as being derived from (a) descriptive common noun (s), the etymological meaning may be either discerned or traced. Thus an apparently transparent name is homonymous with its appellative counterpart. For place names such as these, which have counterparts which are common nouns or appellatives (Table Mountain as opposed to `table mountain'), the terms appellative name or semi-appellative name have been coined.

This paper attempts to compare some prototypical semantic and lexical-grammatical structures adopted in English and Ukrainian an toponyms to discover some closely identical as well as some entirely unique trends in the place-naming practices of two genetically unrelated languages. The presence of similar basic geographical entities in Britain and in Ukraine seems to have resulted in establishing: 1 toponyms of identical semantic and grammatical structure; 2 toponyms of similar semantic, but distinct grammatical structure; (3) toponyms of similar semantic and grammatical structure including lexemes of restricted use; 4 toponyms of similar semantic and/or grammatical structure including strongly culture-dependent lexemes and 5 toponyms of distinct semantic and lexical-grammatical structure.

Toponyms are facts of the language which are hailed to the particular territory. It was determined that toponyms are the source of people’s history and its language.

Toponymy as geographical name has it’s interesting origin and meaning as historical such and linquistic meaning. In toponymy there is a deficit of theory and methods which consider a linguistic analysis of toponym structure in parallel with a detailed cultural analysis of the socio-historical significance of toponyms and processes of toponymy. Documenting patterns of pristine toponymy, or toponymic knowledge in locations where people remember the locations and histories of people and events associated with extant placenames, seems a worthwhile endeavour in linguistically pristine island environments, i.e. islands that were uninhabited prior to ceanization. As for the characteristic of geographical names, they are divided on official and unofficial toponyms. The principal research question for the study sought to establish whether the difference between official and unofficial toponyms and processes of toponymy in the island environments was a consequence of the degree of linguistic, cultural and ecological embeddedness of these toponyms and toponymic processes. For exemple The linguistic situation on Norfolk is diglossic: English and Norf`k, the language of the descendants of the Bounty mutineers, are spoken. Both languages are present in the contemporary toponymic landscape on the island.

The results of this study revealed that the differences between official and unofficial toponyms can be accounted for by the establishment of a typology involving four toponym categories: (1) common colonial forms, (2) official and unofficial descriptive toponyms, (3) unofficial names commemorating local people, and (4) unofficial and esoteric names commemorating local events and people.

Finishing work with linguistic analysis of the toponymy, I’d like to analyse geographical name «the Atlantic Ocean.» It is the specific name of ocean and part of a place name.

As for grammatical structure, we must bear it in mind that the names of rivers and oceans are always capitalized and are used with definite article. If the term is part of a place name refers to a general area for example «Atlantic Ocean coastline,» it do not capitalize. The definite article «the «is used before singular noun in our case. Also definite article `the' it is used before both singular and plural nouns when the noun is specific. The names of geographical names are specific names and may require definite articles: names of rivers, oceans and seas. Translating this name, you should to know, that names of seas and oceans are translated. As for translating of name «The Atlantic Ocean» it has a traditionally established or geographical form which does not reflect in any way their pronunciation or their real orthographic form in the English language. Also it has the structure of word-combinations that are always translated.

As for semantic structure — geographical name has its semantic loans (from Latin Atlanticus and Greek Atlantikos) expressed in morphemes. Late 14 c., cean of athlant «sea off the west coast of Africa. «Adjectival form of Atlas (so called because it lay beyond the Atlas Mauntains in Mauritania). Origin of this name consist of three periods: Middle English < Latin Atlanticum (mare) the Atlantic (ocean) neuter of Atlanticus< Greek Atlantocosof (Mount) Atlas, equivalent toAtlant (stem of Atlas±icos -ic. Toponymy can be adjective and noun and have the different meaning.

F. eg. adjective

-of or pertaining to the Atlantic Ocean.

-of, pertaining to, or situated on the eastern seaboard of the U.S.: the Atlantic states.

-of or pertaining to the countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean, especially those of North America and Europe.

-of or pertaining to the North Atlantic Treaty organization or its members: the Atlantic Alliance.

Noun

-Atlantic Ocean.

-Railroads. A steam locomotive having a four-wheeled front truck, four driving wheels, and a two-wheeled rear truck.

According to the World English Dictionary:

Noun

1)the Atlantic short for Atlantic ocean

Adjective

2)of or relating to or bordering the Atlantic Ocean.

3)of or relating to Atlas or Atlas Mountais.

Lexical structure. «The Atlantic ocean"-compound noun consist of two words.

3

As we know, geographical names, which have adjective and noun but consist of two words is used as compound noun. Also names of seas, oceans and rivers are used as singular. As for morphemic structure word «Atlantic» include locative morpheme -ti.

1. Communicative and pragmatic characteristics of the text and their importance for translation:

1) Scientists who investigate the translation of geographical names transmit textual information to translators in their books, articles and other difference sources. The word «toponymy» first appeared in English in 1876; since then, toponym has come to replace «place-name» in professional discourse among geographers. citation needed] It can be argued that the first toponymists were the storytellers and poets who explained the origin of specific place names as part of their tales; sometimes place-names served as the basis for the etiological legends. The process of folk etymology usually took over, whereby a false meaning was extracted from a name based on its structure or sounds. The first name of the toponym it is «Hellespont». It was explained by Greek poets as being named after Helle, daughter of Athamas, who drowned there as she crossed it with her brother Phrixus on a flying golden ram. They transmit such information with aim to help to translators or person of any profession to use names in the right situation correctly. For example geographical name «Atlantic Ocean» you should to know that it is translated as «Атлантичний океан». Toponymists write such special names of the toponymy in their vocabulary, articles, maps, etc. It helps us to express correctly the country where you traveled, where do you live or able to correctly identify the geographical name that you are interested in.

2) We have verbal and non verbal means of information which give us a lot of information and help to decide any translator questions. As for the non- verbal it is a maps, globes, article and so on. The toponym «Atlantic Ocean» and it’s correct translation you can find in article which is about place names of America or photo where is displayed sight place in the photograph with information about it.

Maps and globes show the countries or towns which borders with particular country. Atlantic Ocean is located between the Continents of North and South America. So, such non-verbal means can give you comprehension about this ocean where is situated or how to find the right direction.

2. Stylystyc characteristics of the text and their importance of the translation:

1)As for stylistic characteristic of the geographical name «Atlantic Ocean» it is scientific style. The main criteria of the given name it is translation. scientists have come to us through the scientific literature to help with the correct translation of the place name.

2)Combination of nouns. Name «the Atlantic Ocean» is compound noun consist of two words. Each compound noun acts as a single unit and can be modified by adjectives and other nouns. We have adjective + noun in words «Atlantic» and «Ocean» it is compound noun as two nouns.

3)Transformations and other techniques of translation.

Finish working on a term paper, I learned that the place names can be transliterated or translated. As for transformation in translations there are several types such as addition, omission, transposition, differentiation, etc.

Name such as «the Atlantic Ocean» is translated as geographical name of ocean. But sometimes place names may be ambiguous value where the name of the «Atlantic Ocean» can be transliterated. If the name is found in the translation as a hotel name or company then the name is transliterated.

CONCLUSION

In this work presents the following basic definitions: «toponymy», «toponymist». Also presents the views of various scholars on the concept of place name, such as: M. Powicke, Peter E., Korynets etc. In chapter 2, provides an analysis of place names. I made linguistic analysis of toponymy it has the structure of semantic, lexical and grammatical meaning.

I deepened my theoretical knowledge and acquired skills to solve specific tasks independent, acquired the skills of independent study and analytical study of a specific problem area. I have skills to independently organize and analyze the literature on the topic, mastered the methods of research summaries and logical presentation.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century the Surveyor-General of the colony of New South Wales, Major Thomas Mitchell (1838: 174), had expressed the desire to use Indigenous names for places because they were the only ones deemed suitable to describe the Australian landscape. It was the first form of place names.

The way of referring to a place in the geographical space can be formal, based on the spatial coordinates, or informal, which we use in natural language by using toponyms (place names). A toponym can represent several geographical places. This ambiguity made problematic its conversion towards a unique formal representation. Toponym disambiguation in text is the task of assigning a unique location to an ambiguous place name in a given textual context.

Several toponym disambiguation heuristics assumed a geographical proximity between the toponyms of the same context. This proximity can be in terms of spatial distance or in terms of arborsecent relationships, i.e., proximity in the hierarchical tree of the world places. This study presented a new toponym disambiguation heuristic in text based on the quantification of thearborescent proximity between toponyms. This quantification was done by a new measure of geographical correlation that we call the Geographical Density.

Translation of place names is very important nowadays. A bad translation of geographical terms can hurt some sensibilities. It can also destroy the credibility of a given document, or even make it unintelligible. Hence, the translator should not only rely on printed or electronic sources of information, but must have significant experience on the subject. If this is not the case, the translator should seek an experienced advisor. As the skipper navigating in treacherous waters, if he knows where the rocks are and how the currents flow, he will arrive safe to port. If he does not, he’d better find an experienced pilot.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Беленькая В. Д. Очерки англоязычной топонимики / В. Д. Беленькая. — М.: Высш. шк., 1977. — 124 с.

2. Берг Л.C. Критические заметки о топонимических взглядах В. А. Никонова // Географическая среда и географические названия / Сб. ст. — Ленинград, 1974. — С. 5−10.

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