Safety measures imposed state of emergency

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Introduction

1. Concept, aim, term and legal basis of extraordinary

2. Terms and causes of emergency

3. Action formations at carrying emergency measure and ensure public order in emergency situations

4. Planning civil defense measures in the tax militia units

5. Legal measures the state of emergency that introduced emergency conditions

Conclusions

References

announcement emergency public order

Introduction

Emergency — an exceptional situation when threatened is «life of the nation.» The state of emergency must be officially proclaimed state. The danger of the «life of the nation» can provide foreign military occupation, social unrest, such as riots or other internal differences that seriously threaten law and order in the country.

Since 1945, the concept of «state of emergency» replaced the phrase «state of war» and «siege situation.» The state of emergency — a concept that is of limited value. For example, it does not cover natural disasters, which often serve to justify the suspension of the implementation of the state of human rights. Measures that State Party may begin to reduce some of its obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, must meet three conditions:

* they should be «event caused by extreme necessity of the situation. «

* they must not «conflict with other obligations of the state to international law. «

* They should not cause discrimination solely on the basis of race, color, sex, language, religion or social origin.

1. Concept, aim, term and legal basis state of emergency

The state of emergency — a special legal regime can be introduced temporarily in Ukraine or in its particular areas in emergency situations of technogenic and natural character is below the national level that have led or may lead to human and material losses, endangering the lives and health of citizens, or when trying to capture state power or change the constitutional order by force and Ukraine provides the concerned authorities, military commanders and local authorities under this Act the powers necessary to prevent danger, security and public health, proper functioning national economy, state and local governments, the protection of the constitutional system, but also allows the temporary threat-induced restriction of the exercise of constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen, and the rights and legitimate interests of legal persons of the period of validity of these restrictions.

The purpose of emergency is to eliminate the threat and fastest elimination particularly serious technogenic emergencies or natural origin, normalcy, restore law and order when trying to capture state power or change the constitutional order by force, to restore constitutional rights and liberties, and the rights and legitimate interests entities, creating conditions for the normal functioning of state and local governments, and other institutions of civil society.

The legal basis of the state of emergency is the Constitution of Ukraine, the Law of Ukraine «On the legal state of emergency» and other laws of Ukraine and the President of Ukraine Decree imposing a state of emergency in Ukraine or in its particular areas approved by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.

According to the Law of Ukraine «On the legal state of emergency» state of emergency in Ukraine may be imposed for a period not exceeding 30 days and not more than 60 days in its particular areas.

If necessary, a state of emergency may be extended by the President of Ukraine, but not more than 30 days. Decree of the President of Ukraine to extend the state of emergency shall take effect upon its approval by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.

The state of emergency in Ukraine or in its particular areas may be waived by the President of Ukraine before the term for which he was introduced, where elimination of the circumstances that necessitated the introduction of a state of emergency.

On the proposal to abolish the state of emergency to the President of Ukraine may seek Supreme Council of Ukraine.

The state of emergency on the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea or in its particular areas may be canceled at the initiative of the Verkhovna Rada of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

Proposals to repeal the state of emergency in Ukraine or in its particular areas, entered the grounds provided by paragraph 1 of Article 4 of this Law shall be submitted by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

On the abolition of emergency announced immediately through the media or otherwise after the publication of the relevant Decree of the President of Ukraine.

2. Terms and causes state of emergency

No country in the world, regardless of their level of economic development, is not immune from emergencies that arise unexpectedly almost always characterized by a transition government for emergency management and the special method of regulating social relations in all areas of life, increased risk for the normal functioning of the state and life and health of citizens.

Purpose, terms and conditions of emergency regime in any country, the types of emergencies for which introduces an extraordinary state-legal status, its validity, guarantee constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen in a state of emergency and others. provides special laws. Yes, Ukraine has a law «On legal regime of the state of emergency. «

In the Ukrainian legal literature to the general concept of state of emergency legal regime include: martial law, state of emergency treatment zone of ecological emergency, a special situation. The Law of Ukraine «On the legal state of emergency» does not provide differentiation state of emergency legal regime for such subspecies. In Art. 1 provides a general definition of a state of emergency as a «special legal regime that may temporarily be introduced in Ukraine or in its particular areas in emergency situations of technogenic and natural character is below the national level that have led or may lead to human and material losses, threaten life and health of citizens, or when trying to capture state power or change the constitutional order by force and Ukraine provides the concerned authorities, military commanders and local authorities under this Act the powers necessary to prevent danger and safety and health ' I citizens of the normal functioning of the national economy, state and local governments, the protection of the constitutional system, but also allows the temporary threat-induced restriction of the exercise of constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen, and the rights and legitimate interests of legal persons of the period of validity of these constraints. «

Extraordinary public-legal regime is an extreme measure and is used when normalize the situation through other measures impossible. For a state of emergency should be available conditions and reasons provided above the law of Ukraine.

Grounds — regulations which are the legal basis of state of emergency legal regime. According to Article 3 of the Law of Ukraine «On the legal state of emergency» legal basis for a state of emergency in Ukraine or in its particular areas is the Constitution of Ukraine, in particular Art. 106 § 21 establishes the right of the President of Ukraine in case of need to make decisions about the introduction in Ukraine or in its particular areas of state of emergency — with the subsequent approval of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. In Art. 64 of the Constitution of Ukraine stated that «the constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen may not be restricted, except as provided by the Constitution. Under martial law or a state of emergency may be specific restrictions on rights and freedoms of the period of validity of these restrictions. «Also in the aforementioned article of the Constitution of Ukraine provides a list of rights that can not be a violation under any circumstances, including when you enter a state of emergency. In the legal framework of emergency owns this Act and other laws of Ukraine, which include the Law of Ukraine «On Legal Regime of Martial Law,» «On the zone of ecological emergency», «On protection of population and territories from emergency situations of technogenic and natural character», «On Combating Terrorism» and others. Also the legal framework introducing the state of emergency related international instruments, to which Ukraine. For example, the International Covenant «On Civil and Political Rights» enshrines the principles of a state of emergency, purpose, terms and order of administration, law and liberty can not be limited in terms of the present constitutional and legal regime. As noted above, the President of Ukraine has the authority to decide on a state of emergency in Ukraine or in its particular areas. Based on this decision the President of Ukraine issued a decree imposing a state of emergency in Ukraine or in its particular areas to be approved by the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Decree of the President of the state of emergency suspends some legislation restricts the rights and freedoms of man and citizen (other than those referred to in Art. 64 of the Constitution of Ukraine), organizes the activities of public authorities, in which a duty to implement the emergency measures condition. Decree is mandatory, binding upon all subjects, its implementation is guaranteed coercive power of the state.

To enter a state of emergency requires special conditions. Conditions — such a system of social relations, the presence of which provides for the introduction of public emergency or in separate areas. The state of emergency may be introduced only if real (ie one that has already occurred) threats, or constitutional frets, eliminating any other means is impossible. State of emergency legal regime is the right but not the duty of the President of Ukraine, because even if the conditions for its input current, state of emergency may not be declared if the situation can be normalized by using other urgent arrangements. For example, in 2005 the Autonomous Republic of Crimea because of the spread of avian influenza was introduced state of emergency due to the impossibility of stabilization measures have been taken.

Law of Ukraine «On the legal state of emergency» provides the following conditions entering this mode:

1) of especially grave emergency man-made and natural disasters (natural disasters, accidents, particularly large fires, use of weapons, pandemics panzootiy etc.) that pose a threat to life and health of large segments of the population;

2) the implementation of massive terrorist attacks involving loss of life or destruction of critical life-support facilities;

3) the emergence of ethnic and religious conflicts, block or capture certain critical facilities or areas that threatens the safety of citizens and affects normal activity of state and local governments;

4) the emergence of mass disorders accompanied by violence against citizens, restricting their rights and liberties;

5) attempts to capture state power or change the constitutional order of Ukraine by violence;

6) mass transition border of the territory of neighboring states;

7) the need to restore constitutional order and public authorities.

The list of these conditions is comprehensive, and to prevent the usurpation of power, not allowed the imposition of emergency treatment in the presence of other conditions.

3. Action formations at carrying evakozahodiv and ensure public order in emergency situations

In order to ensure law and order, prevent and suppress cases of looting, theft of property in the cities, settlements, economic activities and facilities in areas where there is a threat of occurrence and in emergency situations of technogenic and natural character, to help service public order MIA Ukraine are non-military formation of public order GO (team, group management), the main objectives of which are:

personal safety, protection of their rights and freedoms and lawful interests in the performance of civil defense measures of prevention and emergency response;

prevent and combat crime during emergencies;

maintain public order during civil defense measures and emergency response;

road safety during evacuation, material and other valuables from damage cells (infection) and zones of catastrophic flooding;

protection of business entities and objects utilities in lesions and areas of contamination;

having a role in the representation of social and legal assistance to citizens in lesions and areas of contamination.

Formation of non-military public order CO can be both territorial and Object destination.

When conducting an emergency evacuation of the lesion foci (radioactive, chemical and bacteriological contamination) and catastrophic flooding zones forming non-military public order GO assist service public order MIA of Ukraine in maintaining law and order on the collection points, embarkation and disembarkation of evacuees, when following the evacuees in the foot columns, escorted convoys, regulate traffic on roads, helping the elderly and children, participate in health housing facilities and other property from theft and looting before returning population, housing and inspect objects for the presence of people not evacuated for various reasons. When public notification by the Department of Emergency and Civil Protection to start evacuation. Duplicate these notifications by moving zvukomovnyh settings.

In the case of complete evacuation facilities and economic activities of domestic export items, equipment and other tangible assets render assistance Accompanied passenger and freight traffic in the emergency regulation of traffic on major highways, protection and maintenance of law and order in the cities of embarkation and disembarkation evakonaselennya, loading and unloading equipment, household items and other property, health perimeter of the lesion, to prevent its territory strangers and avtotrasportu.

In crowded places throng of people support the police, do not allow the emergence of uncontrolled mass behavior, isolate provocateurs and hooligan elements, explain the situation, do not admit of panic among people and also provide mutual assistance to victims.

In daily activities forming non-military public order civil defense may participate in the protection of public order, strengthening health facilities during mass celebrations and izza other reasons.

Between the threat of an emergency NF public order DPP participate in the strengthening of public order and economic entities, regulation of traffic and protecting the boundaries of zones of possible cell damage and limit access to these areas of population and transport.

In the event of an emergency NF public order DPP participate in the evacuation of people and property from damage centers, public venues and rescue and other emergency operations, the maintenance of law and order in places of temporary stay evakonaselennya, protection of business entities and objects utilities, keeping rezhymnoobmezhuvalnyh measures when entering quarantine (or observation), health limits zones of radioactive, chemical and bacteriological contamination, maintaining law and order in food places, food and clothing of the victim population.

When massive forest, peat, steppe and man-made hazardous objects (NPP, petroleum, chemical industry, etc.) fires nevoyenizovanni formation of public order DPP participate in reporting population using zvukomovnyh installations, conducting emergency evacuation and removal of material values?? accompanying evakokolony, the protection of public order, prevention and prevention of cases of looting and theft of property, protection of borders zones fires prevention in these areas of population and traffic and other activities.

Formation of non-military public order CO powered willingness to address the chief civil defense region (city of regional subordination), territorial management of emergencies and civil protection or civil defense chief business entity.

Formation of non-military public order CO are usually with the forces of public order service MIA of Ukraine or civil defense forces (Commandant companies, platoons), and under their leadership.

4. Planning civil defense measures in the tax militia units

Planning for civil defense is an important part of the training bodies and institutions of the tax police to act in extreme situations peace and wartime.

The purpose of planning — the maximum reduction of human and material losses, achieving clear and timely action personnel, workers, employees, special contingent in the event of natural disasters, accidents, and in wartime.

Planning for CO in accordance with the recommendations of the Ministry of Emergencies of Ukraine, Civil Defence Headquarters Ukraine, order, direction Tax Police of Ukraine with local (dislocation near the plant, chemically hazardous facilities, flood, etc.).

Organization of the planning availability zones catastrophic CO relies on units of staff on civil defense, and in their absence — the Chairman- nicks civil defense. By planning these events involved officials of industry services and departments.

In Ukraine PM system developed plans:

— Basic steps to prepare civil defense. This plan develop-lyayetsya annually, according to organizational guidelines Staff Civil Defence of Ukraine, PM of Ukraine, taking into consideration local opportuni Vost and conditions. It provides for measures to promote and udoskona Lenny civil defense, training of personnel to act in emergency situations tea;

— Defined actions that are performed when the threat and occurrence of natural disasters, major accidents, disasters, and the translation of civil defense of peace to a state of war, according metho-cal recommendations Ukraine PM.

Number of copies of civil defense plan represents the number of control points, and in the organs, institutions, tax police, schools, volume max CO — by the decision of the DPP head, but at least two.

Logistical and financial support of civil defense measures.

Financial support of civil defense in the tax police in Ukraine — a complex organizational, technical, legal and other measures to a continuous supply of organs and departments of Interior, interior troops and convoy protection, personnel, special contingent of the necessary tools and assets under threat and emerged tion emergencies.

The need for material resources, technology and special types of property is determined by the tax police of Ukraine, acquisition and management software is military and logistical support of the tax police in Ukraine. To this end, developed and approved by order of the President of the STA membership rules of basic kinds of logistical resources and assets, namely:

— Personal anti-gas protection (masks, respirators, protective suits, coats, individual anti-gas kits, etc.);

— Collective protection (equipment for storage and protyradia-traditional shelter);

— Control points of the protected work space, appropriate equipment, property and documents;

— Autonomous power sources;

— Svitlomaskuvalnyh means for buildings and transport;

— Communication and notification;

— Radiation devices and chemical detection and radiation monitoring;

— The training and material resources (equipment and materials for training classes DPP).

To ensure personnel safety equipment, dosimetry devices, real estate, medical drugs, pro food products and other property in the event of accidents at nuclear power plants and other emergencies in peacetime and wartime, the tax police of Ukraine, UTM, departments PM creates a mobilization reserve. Monitoring the accumulation and storage of CO property carried the heads of relevant departments of the tax police.

Technical support of civil defense measures are:

— Planning and organization of repair technicians who came down during the tasks GO;

— Organization of maintenance equipment;

— Evacuate damaged vehicles routes and areas rescue and other urgent works on stationary automobile maintenance and assembly points damaged vehicles;

— Ensuring the bodies and institutions of the Interior and repair enterprises spare parts.

The objectives of transportation measures CO are:

— Planning of transportation emergency situations this;

— Preparation of vehicles for their intended use;

— Organization of a sustainable transport involved in evacuation and other transport

Responsibility for civil defense units tax police Ukraine

In the main control, management and tax police units Ukraine relies: :

1. Organization and planning of civil defense measures in subordinate servi-bang and monitoring of the work of subordinate bodies, institutions, and divisions of the tax police.

2. Development of typical civil defense plans for subordinate services with characteris-ACTORY their tasks and functions in civil defense.

3. Development and implementation of measures for sustainable functioning of subordinate services, protection of employees and their families.

4. Ensuring continuous service readiness subordinates to act in over ordinary situations peace and wartime.

5. Organization warning employees about the threat or emergency situations and commissioning stages of readiness.

6. Assessment of the situation prevailing in subordinate services as a result of above-normal situations, and activities in emergency response and recovery activities of subordinate units in the organs, agencies, institutions, tax police.

7. Rozro6ka and submission to the established order of the draft plans of civil defense measures that require capital investments and material tech night means; overseeing their implementation.

8. Development and implementation of measures to evacuate employees and family members from areas damage emergencies.

9. Guidance on the establishment of subordinate objects of civil defense and the organization of training.

10. Training on civilian defense employees, workers and employees.

11. Control over the means of individual personnel-tion protection devices radiation, chemical detection and radiation monitoring in accordance with the norms of belonging attendance, as well as state and organization STORAGE rihannya the property.

12. Organization and implementation of interaction with other sectoral ministries services in civil defense.

13. Development of measures to improve sustainability management services in subordinate bodies, institutions, tax police in these situations extraor peaceful and wartime deployments including spare (country) control points, identifying settlements employees paragraphs tah management and distribution of ministries between management functions.

14. The organization in its field of analytical and research work you to develop issues and the formulation of optimal solutions, creating algorithms actions the units of the tax police in emergency situations of war and peace in the performance of civil defense tasks.

15. Compile and disseminate best practices organization, the preparation and implementation of civil defense in subordinate units.

16. Development of orders, instructions, manuals, guidelines and other documents regulating the activities of subordinate units and institutions of the tax police in civil defense.

17. Development and presentation in court reporting, reference and other documents on the lines of the work associated with the implementation of its tasks with civil defense.

18. Control of civil defense in subordinate units for the submission of tax police authorities of Ukraine proposals for its further improvement.

5. Legal measures the state of emergency that introduced emergency conditions

Decree of the President of Ukraine on the state of emergency in the interest of national security and public order, the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of public health or the protection of the rights and freedoms of other people during the state of emergency can be implemented the following measures:

1) establishment of a special mode of entry and exit, as well as restrictions on freedom of movement in areas where introduced state of emergency;

2) limiting the movement of vehicles and their review;

3) strengthening of public order and objects vital for the population and economy;

4) prohibition of events, in addition to measures prohibition on conduct which is set by the court,

5) prohibition of strikes.

Additional measures of state of emergency in connection with emergency man-made or natural origin

1) temporary or irreversible evacuation of people from places that are dangerous to stay, providing them with mandatory fixed or temporary premises;

2) the establishment of legal entities ought to rent temporary accommodation or temporarily evacuated resettlers population, rescue units and military units involved in emergency situations;

3) a temporary ban on new construction, expansion of existing enterprises and other objects whose activity is not related to the emergency or livelihood and rescue units;

4) establishment of quarantine and other required sanitary and preventive measures;

5) introduction of a special order distribution of food and essentials;

6) the mobilization and utilization of resources of enterprises, institutions and organizations regardless of ownership, to prevent hazards and emergency response to mandatory compensation of the losses;

7) change the mode of enterprises, institutions and organizations of all forms of ownership, the reorientation of the production needed in emergency situations products, other changes in production activities necessary to carry out rescue and recovery work;

8) removal from work for a period of emergency, in case of improper performance of their duties, directors of state enterprises, institutions and organizations from the activity of which depends on the normalization of the situation in the area of emergency and imposing temporary duties of these managers to others.

To eliminate natural disaster or catastrophe in peacetime can be targeted mobilization, amount and terms of which are defined in the Decree of the President of Ukraine on the state of emergency. In exceptional cases, related to the need for immediate rescue operations, allowed temporary transfer or involvement in voluntary workforce and vehicles citizens to perform these works with the permission of the relevant head of rescue operations and provided mandatory safety labor.

Do not involving minors and pregnant women to work, which may adversely affect their health. Additional measures of the legal state of emergency due to massive violations of public order

1) the introduction of a curfew (prohibition on the street and in other public places without special permits issued and identity within the set hours of the day);

2) verification of documents from the citizens, and if necessary — of personal inspection, reviews of things, vehicles, baggage and cargo, the offices and homes of citizens;

3) prohibition of draftees and indebted to change residence without the consent of the respective military commissariat;

4) restriction or temporary prohibition of the sale of weapons, toxic and potent chemicals and alcohol and substances produced by alcohol-based;

5) temporary exemption from citizens registered firearms and bladed weapons and ammunition, and in enterprises, institutions and organizations — also training of military equipment, explosives, radioactive materials, toxic and potent chemicals;

6) prohibiting the manufacture and distribution of informational materials that could destabilize;

7) regulation of civilian television and the radio, the prohibition of amateur radio transmitting equipment and devices radiovyprominyuvalnyh personal and collective use;

8) Special rules communication and transmission of information over computer networks;

9) violation of the procedure established by the Constitution and laws of Ukraine, the prohibition of political parties, civil society in the interests of national security and public order, public health or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others

Conclusions

Thus, the state of emergency — a special legal regime can be introduced temporarily in Ukraine or in its particular areas in emergency situations of technogenic and natural character is below the national level that have led or may lead to human and material losses, endangering the lives and health 'S citizens or when trying to capture state power or change the constitutional order by force and Ukraine provides the concerned authorities, military commanders and local authorities under this Act the powers necessary to prevent danger, security and public health, normal functioning of the national economy, state and local governments, to protect the constitutional order and allow temporary and threat-induced restriction of the exercise of constitutional rights and freedoms of man and citizen, and the rights and legitimate interests of legal persons of the period of validity of these restrictions.

The state of emergency in Ukraine, terms and conditions are governed by its introduction of Ukraine «On the legal state of emergency» and the International Covenant «On Civil and Political Rights» on 16 December 1966.

Extraordinary public-legal regime is an extreme measure and is used when normalize the situation through other measures impossible.

Measures of state of emergency in connection with emergency man-made or natural origin

1) temporary or irreversible evacuation of people from places that are dangerous to stay, providing them with mandatory fixed or temporary premises;

2) the establishment of legal entities ought to rent temporary accommodation or temporarily evacuated resettlers population, rescue units and military units involved in emergency situations;

3) a temporary ban on new construction, expansion of existing enterprises and other objects whose activity is not related to the emergency or livelihood and rescue units;

4) establishment of quarantine and other required sanitary and preventive measures;

5) introduction of a special order distribution of food and essentials;

6) the mobilization and utilization of resources of enterprises, institutions and organizations regardless of ownership, to prevent hazards and emergency response to mandatory compensation of the losses;

7) change the mode of enterprises, institutions and organizations of all forms of ownership, the reorientation of the production needed in emergency situations products, other changes in production activities necessary to carry out rescue and recovery work;

8) removal from work for a period of emergency, in case of improper performance of their duties, directors of state enterprises, institutions and organizations from the activity of which depends on the normalization of the situation in the area of emergency and imposing temporary duties of these managers to others.

References

1. Law of Ukraine «On the legal state of emergency» — VVR (BD), 2000, N 23, st. 176.

2. International Covenant «On Civil and Political Rights» on 16 December 1966.

3. Law of Ukraine «On Defence of Ukraine» Kyiv, December 6, 1991.

4. Law of Ukraine «On the legal regime of martial law.» — VVR (BD), 2000, N 28, art. 224.

5. Gladun ZS, MG Fedchyshyn Principles of Constitutional Law of Ukraine. Ternopil: Aston, 2001, 463 p.

6. Kivalov SV Orzih MP Fundamentals of Law. Kyiv: «Knowledge,» coop, 2001, 364 p.

7. Kozyubra MI, Kolody AM Kopyeychykov VV. Principles of Constitutional Law of Ukraine. Kyiv: Yurinkom Inter, 2000, 288 p.

8. Kopyeychykov V. Principles of Constitutional Law of Ukraine. Kyiv: Yurinkom Inter, 1998, 288 p.

9. Kravchenko VV Constitutional law of Ukraine. Kyiv: Atika, 2000, 320 p.

10. Altunyn T. Formation of Civil Defense in Fighting co styhyynыmy bedstvyyamy. M., 1978.

11. Huryanova T. virus fears. Sluchaynoy victim may become UNI / Version. 2001. № 12 (136). P. 26.

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