Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
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- Международные отношения и мировая экономика
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THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN
KAZAKH NATIONAL PEDAGOGICAL UNIVERSITY NAMED AFTER ABAI
THE FACULTY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND LAW
DEPARTMENT INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
Student: Paltushev Azat
2. History of establishment
4. Scope of work
5. The structure
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim countries that seeks to promote free trade and economic cooperation throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Established in 1989 in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the advent of regional economic blocs (such as the European Union and the North American Free Trade Area) in other parts of the world, APEC works to raise living standards and education levels through sustainable economic growth and to foster a sense of community and an appreciation of shared interests among Asia-Pacific countries. Members account for approximately 40% of the world’s population, approximately 54% of world GDP and about 44% of world trade.
An annual APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting is attended by the heads of government of all APEC members except the Republic of China (Taiwan) which is represented under the name Chinese Taipei by a ministerial-level official. The location of the meeting rotates annually among the member economies, and a famous tradition involves the attending Leaders dressing in a national costume of the host member.
2. History of establishment
In January 1989, Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke called for more effective economic cooperation across the Pacific Rim region. This led to the first meeting of APEC in the Australian capital Canberra in November, chaired by Australian Foreign Affairs Minister Gareth Evans. Attended by political ministers from twelve countries, the meeting concluded with commitments for future annual meetings in Singapore and South Korea.
The initial proposal was opposed by countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) which instead proposed the East Asia Economic Caucus which would exclude non-Asian countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The plan was opposed and strongly criticized by Japan and the United States.
The first APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting occurred in 1993 when U.S. president Bill Clinton, after discussions with Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating, invited the heads of government from member economies to a summit on Blake Island. He believed it would help bring the stalled Uruguay Round of trade talks on track. At the meeting, some leaders called for continued reduction of barriers to trade and investment, envisioning a community in the Asia-Pacific region that might promote prosperity through cooperation. The APEC Secretariat, based in Singapore, was established to coordinate the activities of the organisation.
During the meeting in 1994 in Bogor, Indonesia, APEC Leaders adopted the Bogor Goals that aim for free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific by 2010 for industrialized economies and by 2020 for developing economies. In 1995, APEC established a business advisory body named the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC), composed of three business executives from each member economy.
economic cooperation asia trade membership
APEC’s Three Pillars
To meet the Bogor Goals, APEC carries out work in three main areas:
1. Trade and Investment Liberalization
2. Business Facilitation
3. Economic and Technical Cooperation
APEC Business Advisory Council
The APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) was created by the APEC Economic Leaders in November 1995 with the aim of providing advice to the APEC Economic Leaders on ways to achieve the Bogor Goals and other specific business sector priorities, and to provide the business perspective on specific areas of cooperation.
Each economy nominates up to three members from the private sector to ABAC. These business leaders represent a wide range of industry sectors.
ABAC provides an annual report to APEC Economic Leaders containing recommendations to improve the business and investment environment in the Asia-Pacific region, and outlining business views about priority regional issues.
ABAC is also the only non-governmental organisation that is on the official agenda of the APEC Economic Leader’s Meeting.
India has requested membership in APEC, and received initial support from the United States, Japan and Australia. Officials have decided not to allow India to join for various reasons. However, the decision was made not to admit more members until 2010. Moreover, India does not border the Pacific which all current members do. The Philippines trade negotiator was quoted as saying that there is concern that «Once the Indians come in, the (Asian) weighting would become heavier in this part of the world. «
In addition to India, Mongolia, Pakistan, Laos, Bangladesh, Costa Rica, Colombia, and Ecuador, are among a dozen countries seeking membership in APEC by 2008. Colombia applied for APEC’s membership as early as in 1995, but its bid was halted as the organization stopped accepting new members from 1993 to 1996, and the moratorium was further prolonged to 2007 due to the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Costa Rica, Colombia and Ecuador hope to become members in 2010. Guam has also been actively seeking a separate membership, citing the example of Hong Kong, but the request is opposed by the United States, which currently represents Guam.
Since its formation in 1989, APEC has held annual meetings with representatives from all member economies. The first four annual meetings were attended by ministerial-level officials. Beginning in 1993, the annual meetings are named APEC Economic Leaders' Meetings and are attended by the heads of government from all member economies except Taiwan, which is represented by a ministerial-level official. The annual Leaders' Meetings are not called summits.
4. Scope of Work
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) works in three broad areas to meet the Bogor Goals of free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific by 2010 for developed economies and 2020 for developing economies.
The outcomes of these three areas enable APEC Member Economies to strengthen their economies by pooling resources within the region and achieving efficiencies. Tangible benefits are also delivered to consumers in the APEC region through increased training and employment opportunities, greater choices in the marketplace, cheaper goods and services and improved access to international markets.
Trade and Investment Liberalisation
Trade and Investment Liberalisation reduces and eventually eliminates tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade and investment. Protectionism is expensive because it raises prices for goods and services. Thus, Trade and Investment Liberation focuses on opening markets to increase trade and investment among economies, resulting in economic growth for APEC Member Economies and increased standards of living for all. This goal is also now furthered by APEC’s Regional Economic Integration agenda, which includes work on model measures for bilateral and regional trade agreements and an examination of the prospects for a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific.
Business Facilitation focuses on reducing the costs of business transactions, improving access to trade information and aligning policy and business strategies to facilitate growth, and free and open trade. Essentially, Business Facilitation helps importers and exporters in Asia Pacific meet and conduct business more efficiently, thus reducing costs of production and leading to increased trade, cheaper goods and services and more employment opportunities due to an expanded economy. APEC’s Structural Reform agenda addresses this area: it focuses on reforming domestic policies and institutions that adversely affect the operation of markets, and the capacity of businesses to access markets and to operate efficiently.
Economic and Technical Cooperation (ECOTECH)
ECOTECH is dedicated to providing training and cooperation to build capacities in all APEC Member Economies to take advantage of global trade. This area builds capacity at the institutional and personal level to assist APEC Member Economies and its people gain the necessary skills to meet their economic potential.
5. The structure
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) has three Official Observers: the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Secretariat, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat. These observers participate in APEC meetings and have full access to documents and information related to these meetings. The observer groups provide partnership, expertise and insight that assist APEC to attain its goals and implement its initiatives.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat
The ASEAN Declaration states that the aims and purposes of the Association are:
to accelerate the economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region through joint endeavours in the spirit of equality and partnership in order to strengthen the foundation for a prosperous and peaceful community of Southeast Asian nations, and
to promote regional peace and stability through abiding respect for justice and the rule of law in the relationship among countries in the region and adherence to the principles of the United Nations Charter.
Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC)
PECC is a unique tripartite partnership of senior individuals from business and industry, government, academic and other intellectual circles.
All participate in their private capacity and discuss freely current, practical policy issues of the Asia-Pacific region.
PECC aims to serve as a regional forum for cooperation and policy coordination to promote economic development in the Asia-Pacific region, based on the following premises —
The respective strengths of business and industry, government, academic and other intellectual circles can be better focused to promote the acceleration of economic growth, social progress, scientific and technological development and environmental quality in the region, and
Trade, joint ventures, mutual aid and other forms of linkage, when developed in a spirit of partnership, fairness, respect and genuine cooperation, strengthen the foundation needed for a prosperous, progressive and peaceful Pacific Region.
Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) Secretariat
PIF is the paramount regional inter-governmental forum in the South Pacific. PIF addresses issues such as regional trade, economic development, the environment and regional law enforcement, cooperation and security in the South Pacific.
1. Policy Briefs in International Economics, Number P B 0 7 — 2, February 2007;
2. Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding APEC;
3. http: //www. apec. org/apec/about_apec. html;
4. http: //www. dominicantoday. com/dr/economy/2006/8/29/16 917/Peru-