Business English

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Курс ділової англійської мови

В.О. Лапочка

УДК

ББК

В.О. Лапочка. Курс ділової англійської мови: Навчально-методичний посібник для практичних занять та самостійної роботи студентів. Полтава, 2010. — 72 c.

Рецензенти:

Кононенко В.В. , канд. істор. наук, доцент кафедри романо-германської філології ПНПУ

Сирота О. В., канд. філолог. наук, доцент кафедри перекладу ПІЕП.

Навчально-методичний посібник містить матеріали практичних занять з курсу «Ділова англійська мова» та короткий конспективний виклад матеріалу, який студенти повинні засвоїти як мінімум з вказаного курсу, а також завдання, що виконуються під час практичних занять та самостійної роботи студентів. Матеріал викладено у відповідності до програми цього предмету. Посібник є другим, доповненим і переробленим, варіантом, в якому зокрема було розширено теоритичну частину, замінено деякі тексти уроків, включено нові вправи і завдання та додатки.

Посібник розрахований на студентів спеціальності «Філологія. Мова та література (англійська, німецька)». Його мета — допомогти студентам самостійно підготуватися до практичних занять та семінарів, засвоїти зразки перекладу ділових паперів і використовувати набуті знання та навички у практичній діяльності.

(c)В.О. Лапочка

Part 1. Business English and its Characteristic Features

Generals. Ukraine is located in the centre of the European continent and its geographical position has always been very favourable for foreign trade and policy. Our foreign trade had its ups and downs. However nowadays no country can exist isolated and Ukraine is no exception. The growing interest towards the development of foreign relations is only natural. In this connection we witness an ever increasing interest to business language, business communication. This interest is displayed on all levels: from an individual businessman to the Ministry of Higher and secondary Education: business language is now taught as a subject.

It is a logical result of those changes which have taken place in the country, the changes which oriented our economy towards foreign partners and markets. Business language exists not of its own but as a part (component) of the strategy of business. In many works on the problems of business negotiations language forms have been treated as an inseparable part of the general strategy of business negotiations process and general business plan.

It is quite understandable because we realize that business language like a language of any other special field of human activities — space exploration, medicine, physics, military science, etc. is absolutely specific, i.e. it has its logic and characteristic terminology, specific word-combinations and patterns as well as its own style. From the linguistic point of view genres or styles of speech coincide in all languages because they are defined according to similar or identical criteria. If we take, for example scientific style, we can see that its vocabulary consists of 90% of terms and 10% or even less of phraseological units. Within the course of lexicology we learned that there exist different styles or genres of speech and different scientists define those styles in different ways, but they coinside in different languages. And the task of the translator is to render the style of the document adequately.

Even a cursory glance at business documents shows that we have to deal in this case with a combination of styles. A certain merging of styles takes place and business language may serve an example of that phenomenon. Official or business language embraces documents, commercial correspondence, acts and laws, materials of conferences and negotiations, specifications, equipment manuals and everyday speech situations, in other words, we will find here legal, scientific, technical and everyday speech characteristics.

Another general peculiarity is that business language is explicit, concise and exact. This is expressed in the syntactical and lexical units used in business language: the Infinitive, the Gerund, the Participle, the Passive Voice (67% against 2% in literary writings), nouns are used as attributes in pre-position in 62% against 37% of literary writings, etc. Translators/ interpreters dealing with this kind of materials should bear in mind that their translation must be absolutely exact because it is often used as the basis for some very important decisions; it ensures the authenticity of the texts of treaties, agreements, contracts, etc. This fact naturally dictates the choice of methods and means of translation. Here we can see the tendency to render not only the meaning and general style but even the «wording» of the original text, some places of which may seem unimportant, purely formal at first glance.

Still another general characteristic feature of official and business language is that it is void of emotional or expressive colouring. Business English has its own peculiar emotional colouring but it cannot be transferred mechanically into the Ukrainan/Russian languages. Translators/ interpreters must remember it at all times and even more so because the Ukrainian or Russian business languages are more impersonal and official. In other words we have to neutralize the English units in the process of translation.

The mother company bore a daughter in the Far East, granted her a dowry of 2,000,000 pounds sterling and christened her…

The sentence can be translated only as: «Ця компанія організувала на Далекому Сході дочерню компанію і виділила їй капітал у 2 млн. фунтів стерлінгів; нова компанія була названа… «

The author did not aim to introduce any emotional colouring into the text. We find this figurativeness of speech in many English terms and terminological word-combinations: hot atom радіоактивний атом, to label мітити радіоактивним ізотопом, breathing jet engine повітряно-реактивний двигун, 3900−5500m abyss, зона мовчання dead space, запобіжна деталь fool-proof part, рятувальний жилет Mae West, літак, планер flying coffin. Sometimes we can even find idiomatic word-combinations in English business writings:

W. Germany`s Siemens AG, a heavyweight in medical electronics…

The new bipolar approach can become a real Cinderella in the production…

Very impressive is the mushrooming influence of these devices on designs of microchips.

Semiconductor designers are up to their old tricks again.

They are cooking up a new generation of large-scale-integrated devices.

The idioms are also rendered with the help of neutral Ukrainian/Russian units.

These are the most general peculiarities of Business English while specific lexical peculiarities are: terms and terminological word-combination/words and words of general vocabulary with new meanings (neologisms), abbreviations, borrowings, traditional patterns or cliches, systems of weights and measures, etc.

Terms or terminological word-combinations. The most obvious peculiarity of Business English is a wide usage of terms or terminological word-combinations. Terms are words or word-combinations usually defined as monosemantic which have strictly specified meaning in this or that field of human activities. They can designate or describe notions, processes and names of things found there. To correctly understand the meaning of a particular term the translator must know the field of human activities to which the term belongs. Any term must be analysed as a word with a fixed technical meaning which however can change its content in the context of a particular field of human activities. Morphologically terms can be divided into:

1. simple — circuit ланцюг, feeder фідер, invoice рахунок-фактура;

2. compound — flywheel маховик, clock-work часовий механізм, deadline останній строк;

3. terminological word-combinations — load governor регулятор потужності, earth fault замикання на землю, to delay delivery затримати поставку, competitive company конкурентноспроможна компанія.

Scientific and technical terms include:

1. Many words of the general vocabulary that acquire the meanings specific for a certain field of science or technology. In this case the meaning of the term becomes one of the meanings of the word: shoe туфля has several technical meanings — кулісний камень, ползун, кінцева муфта кабеля, ріжучий башмак опускної крепі, грохот; arm рука is used in a specific meaning ричаг, кронштейн, стріла, спина, коса розпорка, рукав; pin болт, чека, палець, штирь, нагель, шпілька, булавка, штіфт, цапфа, шкворень, ось, шійка, п’ята, шплінт. Other examples of this process are: flywheel маховик; monkey баба (для забівки свай); horse рама; pig болванка, чушка; frog хрестовина; bush втулка, stiff leg жорстка опора, deadline останній строк.

2. General terms used in several fields of science and technology: power amplifier cервопідсилювач підсилювач потужності; rectifier ректифікатор, очисник; детектор; бурав для запальних шнурів; e-mail електронна пошта.

3. Special terms that are used only in one field of science or technology: transformer трансформатор, diesel locomotive тепловоз, impedance імпеданс, interlocker централізаційний апарат, availability of goods наявність товарів.

4. Terms used in different fields of science or technology that have two or more meanings: current density плотність потоку, плотність току; level рівень, нивелір, підйом.

Translators / interpreters must remember that today with the increased specialization of all sectors of human life due to technical and scientific progress, the problem of understanding and rendering terminology has to be addressed in somewhat new dimension for terms may have several meanings in different sectors or subject fields of human activities: valve клапан (machine building), електронна лампа (radio); power потужність, енергія (physics), ступінь (mathematics); yield доход від цінних паперів (finance), врожайність, врожай (agriculture), продуктивність (industry), видобуток (extraction of natural resources), вихід (processing industry), осідання (mining), потужність, тротиловий еквівалент вибухівки (military), пружинити (engineering). All the meanings of table are even hard to count.

Abbreviations and acronyms. Abbreviations are widely used in Business English and they can be of the following types:

1) letter abbreviations: E. = east; R. = railway; e. m. f. = electromotive force; LOC = letter of commitment; h. a. = hoc anno; CD =compact disc; EU = European Union; GDP = gross domestic product; f. o. b. = free on board; ac = account current; MP = Member of Parliament (MEP);

2) syllable abbreviations: maxcap = maximum capacity, radsta = radio station, intercom = intercommunication, biopic = biographical picture;

3) mixed: N-bomb = nitrogen bomb, H-bomb = hydrogen bomb, CP-1=Chicago Pile#1, A-pole;

4) contractions: inv = invoice, ref. = reference, tox. = toxic, mag. = magazine, Pool = Liverpool, Sac = Sacramento, Chi. = Chicago, camp. = campaign, ciggy = cigar, deli = delicatessen, limo = limousine, teeny = teenager, in. = inch, sub = subject, subeditor, sublimation, submarine, subscription.

Abbreviations can be roughly grouped into: 1) аbbreviations of terms and terminological word-combinations; 2) geographical names; 3) names of companies and organizations.

Geographical names can be names of countries, their administrative divisions respectively, or localities: UK United Kingdom, G.B. Great Britain, USA United States of America, Ua Ukraine, Col. Colorado, Mo Missouri, PA Pensylvania, Ont. Ontario, Beds. Bedfordshire, Glos. Gloustershire, Ches. Cheshire, W. Wales, R.I. Rhode Island, C.I. Channel Islands, DC District of Columbia.

Besides the abbreviations of geographical names we often find the abbreviations of names of organizations, companies, etc: UPI United Press International, UNO United Nations Organization, ECM European Common Market, EU European Union, IMF International Monetary Fund, ВПК військово промисловий комплекс, NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, IMCO Intergovernmental Maritime Consulting Organization, ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization, InterCom 2007; BBC British Broadcasting Corporation, BEA British Air Ways, ICI Imperial Chemical Industries, GM General Motors, Nabisco National Biscuit Corporation, CAT Caterpillar, Свема Светочувствительные материалы, BrStd British Standard.

In the process of translation we should remember that these abbreviations, most of them at least, have traditional or official equivalents in our language which must be used in the translation text: GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade — ГАТТ Генеральна угода про тарифи та торгівлю, IMF International Monetary Fund — Світовий Валютний Фонд.

In those cases when the names of the organizations, companies have no traditional or official equivalents in our language the translator/interpreter can give the full translation of the name according to the rules of translation of equivalent-lacking units.

We must also remember that most abbreviations can have several meanings:

a has up to 30 meanings: acceleration, absolute, accomodation, administration, aircraft, ampere, amplitude, angstrom, anode, area, atom, automobile, etc.; am above mentioned, ante meridian; av according to value (по вартості), acid value (кислотне число), actual velocity (дійсна швидкість), atomic volume (атомна ємність); ASA American Standards Association, Acoustical Society of America, Atomic Scientists Association (UK), Advertising Standards Authority (UK); RTC Railway Transport Corps, Recruit Training Centre, Reserve Training Corps, Royal Tanks Corps.

In every particular case we must be absolutely sure what meaning is used and only the context gives the answer and helps to choose it adequately.

Borrowings. Borrowings are a characteristic feature of the English language in general and of special writings in particular. So it is natural for scientific, technical and business writings to have a great number of borrowings from Latin, French, German and other languages in their original form. Generally speaking translators should preserve the part of the original text given in a foreign language unchanged in the translation text but that holds true only for literary translation. In the Ukrainian business language these patterns are rarely used and will not be understood by the receptors. That is why they are translated more often than not. There exists only a small group of such word-combinations which are traditionally known and used in this country: status quo, quorum, persona grata (non grata), terra incognita, tabula rasa, honoris causa, homo sapiens, de facto, de jure.

If we compare English and Ukrainian original texts, we will notice a great number of Latin and French words and word-combinations in English documents such as: fait accompli факт, що стався, condition sine qua non обов`язкова умова, mutatis mutandis з відповідними змінами, error facti фактична помилка, par excellence за перевагою, modus vivendi тимчасове рішення, modus operandi спосіб дій, ad hoc специальный, bona fide чистосердно/дійсно, per capita на душу населення, versus проти, ultima ratio головна підстава.

The meanings of these units can be found in special dictionaries and reference literature.

Traditional patterns. It became generally accepted practice to use traditional patterns in scientific, technical and business writings. Some of these traditional patterns have been created for many years and that is why they have sometimes somewhat archaic colouring: aforesaid, above-mentioned, hereby, hereinafter named, herein, henceforth. As a result we have many word-combinations and patterns (literally translated) which would be absolutely unacceptable in the process of translation of other styles and genres. They happen especially often in different international documents: treaties, agreements, contracts, letters, etc. and the translator / interpreter must know and use them in his translations to bar the possibility of misreading or misinterpretation of the document.

Other patterns are simply functional but also used very widely: in terms of за рахунок / використовуючи, in order to з метою, in question / at issue яке розглядається, in the course of time з часом, on the part з чієгось боку, due to завдяки, provided that за умови, що, in centers між центрами, to turn as far as it will go повернути до упору.

Grammar peculiarities. Among these we should bear in mind a wide usage of non-finite forms of verbs (the Infinitive, the Gerund, the Participle) and structures with them, of the Passive Voice structures, very long and complicated sentence structures, nouns used as attributes in pre-position in word-combinations, omission of some grammatical elements (articles, auxiliary verbs) in certain documents.

Part 2. Business documents

Fields of business

Business is the word that is commonly used in different languages. But exactly what does it mean? Traditionally, business simply meant exchange or trade for things people wanted or needed. Today one of the possible definitions of business is production, distribution, and sale of goods and services for profit. To examine this definition, we will look at its various parts.

First, production is creation of services or changing of materials into products. One example is the conversion of iron ore into metal car parts. Next, these products need to be moved from the factory to the market place. This is known as distribution.

Third is sale of goods and services. Sale is exchange of products or services for money. Goods are products that people either need or want; for example, cars can be classified as goods. Services, on the other hand, are activities that people or groups perform for other people or organizations. For example, an auto mechanic performs services when he repairs a car.

Business, then, is, а combination of аll these activities: production, distribution, and sale. However, there is one more important factor. This factor is creation of profit or economic surplus. А major goal in functioning of, а business is making profit. Profit is, а difference between the price charged for an item and the cost of the item to the seller: profit = price — cost.

In business, profit is most frequently considered in terms of net or retained profit. This is the amount of money left over at the end of the financial year when аll the expenses are paid: net profit = revenue — total costs.

Revenue is sometimes referred to as, а turnover, sales, or income. It refers to the total sales over, а period of time (often, а month or, а year). It can be expressed as: revenue = price x quantity. So, the price charged multiplied by the number of units sold over, а period of time is the total sales value, or revenue.

Profit, contrary to, а popular belief, is rarely used «to line the pockets» of the owners of, а business. It is used instead for reinvestments, buying of new machinery, and improving of the future prospects of the enterprise.

Business is an increasingly important activity throughout the world today. Consequently, the opportunities for a business career have grown in variety and number. Originally the word «career» meant «road» or «path»; today it means a «progress through life» or a «job path». There are four broad fields, or areas, of business that offer exciting careers: management, marketing, accounting, and finance. Within each of these fields there are specific jobs in which one can specialize. For example, within the field of marketing one can specialize in market research, advertising, buying, selling, or distributing. The table below shows general career opportunities that are available in the various fields of business.

Business Fields and Careers:

Management

general manager

production manager

personnel manager

Marketing

researcher

advertiser

distributor

Accounting

bookkeeper

private accountant

public accountant

Finance

banker

financial analyst

stockbroker

Jobs in businesses and offices range from administration to general clerical work. These jobs exist in both small and large companies. Some typical occupations are cashier, purchasing agent, typist, and complaint clerk. This cluster includes word processing, accounting and financial detail, management, personnel, and materials and product handling. Although most jobs are done indoors, mail carriers and material handlers often work outside. A lot of occupations — managers, accountants, analysts — require higher education, others like secretaries and clerks — at least secondary school.

In choosing a business career, there are several questions one may want to ask. Firstly, does the work interest you? Are there any areas of business for which you have an aptitude or special capability? What are the opportunities involved, such as salary, a chance for advancement, and demand for the job? Answers to these questions and careful planning will help you to choose a successful career in business.

Learn the following words and word-combinations

surplus — (неразподілений) прибуток;

to charge, а price — призначати ціну;

retained profit — неразподілений прибуток;

revenue — валовий прибуток, річний прибуток;

total costs — загальні витрати;

turnover — оберт, оборачиваемость (капиталу);

total sales — загальний обсяг продажу;

to line the pockets — привласнити.

Answer the questions on the text

1. What is the traditional definition of business?

2. What is one of the modern definitions of business?

3. What areas and activities does business embrace?

4. What does production involve? Give examples: а) from the text; b) of your own.

5. What does sale mean?

6. Can we consider services as goods?

7. What is the most important factor in business?

8. What is profit?

9. How can companies dispose of their profits?

10. What are the principal fields of business?

Substitute the following definitions with the words listed below

Business, revenue, goods, distribution, services, marketplace, net profit, production, price, a business.

1) money charged for an item of goods;

2) commercial company;

3) producing, buying, and selling of goods and services for profit;

4) manufacturing of raw materials into finished products;

5) money left over when all expenses are paid;

6) products that people either need or want to purchase;

7) movement of finished products from the factory to the marketplace;

8) public place where people buy and sell goods;

9) activities that people or groups perform for other people or organizations;

10) income received during a particular period.

Classify the following items either as goods or services. Compare your results with other students. Motivate your point of view

advertising agency; letter delivery; personal banking; insurance; office computer system; airline ticket; software; TV commercial; dictionary; coffee maker; customs clearance; sports club shipment; french fries; home security system.

Classification of organization cultures

(After Prof С. Handy)

1. Power Cultures (силовий тип відносин).

In these cultures self-reliant and highly competitive self development provides the basis of relations. Manager’s success is related to his / her charisma and influence, rather than to his / her knowledge andexperience. The style of the chief executive is the model for оthег managers. In organizations of this type managers shall be tough-minded and aggressive.

2. Role Cultures (ролєвий тип).

In these cultures manager’s role is completely related to his / herplace within, а cenralized system. His / her success depends on how well this manager adheres to rules, procedures, and precedents.

Individualism and aggression are not valued in these cultures. Employees in these organizations should not get out of the limits of their roles.

3. Task Cultures (тип відносин, спрямований на виконання завдань).

In organizations of this type they value everything that makes it possible «to get the work done». The main concern in these organizations is with successful fulfilment оf their projects. Manager’s success is related to his / her knowledge and experience required to achieve tasks, rather than to meet the requirements of his / her role.

4. Individual Cultures (відносини індивідуальностей).

In organizations of this type the most possible freedom of expression is valued. Effectiveness of any activity in these organizations is rated by how much the activity satisfies the staff, rather than by how well it conforms to business plans. Independence, creativity, and experiment are also valued in these organizations.

Look at the business card and answer the following questions

CONTINENTAL EQUIPMENT

John G. Smith

Financial Director

9 North Road, Brighton, ВNI 5JF, England

Phone: (0273) 543 359 Fax: (0273) 559 364

Whose card is this?

What is he?

What company is he from?

What city is he from?

What is his telephone number?

What is the address of his company?

Make up your own business card.

Complete the dialogue between the Managing Director (MD) and the Personnel Manager (PM), choosing from the list of words below

sales, MBA, how to take decisions, accounting for managers, communications, distribution, specialized management-training courses, results, new technology, cost & price decisions, manage, promotion & marketing, learn about management structures, read the balance sheet, computer systems

MD: John, we must think about (1) ________ for our junior managers.

PM: Yes, our promising younger people need to (2) ________.

MD: They need to know (3) ________ and the (4) ________ of these decisions.

PM: And, of course, (5) _________ is essential.

And they must know how to (6) _______.

MD: Without it, they will never (7) _______ successfully, and they won`t know anything about stock control, costing, pricing… you name it.

PM: Yes, (8) _______ depend on knowing this.

MD: Of course, that’s not the only thing they need to know. (9) _______ means that they need to know about things like (10) _______.

PM: What else?

MD: (11) _______, for example.

PM: Yes, and I think that the (12) _______ departments need managers with this background, as well as the (13) _______ department.

MD: Even the (14) _______ managers could benefit, too.

MD: Perhaps we should only appoint managers with a Harvard (15) _______!

Watch BBC Business Course, unit Meeting a Partner, make up your own dialogues.

Job hunt. Advice for job seekers

(By Robert M. Hochheiser)

Whether you are out of work or just looking for a better-paying opportunity, there is no such thing as a foolproof way to get hired. You can, however, boost your chances іf you are willing to work hard at aggressively promoting yourself. Here are some guidelines.

Apply in quantity. Oil people know that to get a gusher they have to drill a lot of holes. As a job-seeker, you must operate the same way. To get an offer for a good job, you must be prepared to apply (one at a time) to an army of potential employers. If you are sending fewer than several dozen applications every week, you’re not trying hard enough. For if you don’t make the contacts, someone else will. Aside from going after every advertised job appropriate to your field, make yourself known to recruiters and employment agencies.

Tailor your sales pitch to the reader. With the exception of companies looking for a trainee or a corporate president, few employers will be interested in a well-rounded jack-of-all-trades. Usually, prospective bosses will be impressed only if your skills, achievements, educational background and experience are first rate and directly applicable to the specific job they want to be done as well as to their specific business. They don’t care about anything else. When you include in a resume or letter information that is not pertinent, you waste space that you could otherwise use to focus on job-related strengths. You also waste the reader’s time, an accomplishment that never makes a good impression.

Don’t promise to deliver more than the employer requires. If employers want more, they’ll ask for it. Should you offer too much or your claims be too extravagant, you may be viewed as either a dreamer or someone who pursues unrealistic goals. Similarly, if you look too good on paper, the reader may erroneously conclude that your salary requirements are too high or that you would not be satisfied with the job for long.

They may be right. Perhaps the job is not a good one for you. But why prejudge? Don’t oversell, get your foot in the door and decide for yourself.

Learn the following words and word-combinations:

foolproof — простий;

to boost — різко збільшувати, підвищувати;

gusher — нафтовий фонтан;

pitch — рівень;

jack-of-all-trades — майстер на всі руки;

specific — конкретний;

pertinent — відповідний, по суті;

strengths — позитивні якості;

claim — вимога;

to pursue — мати на меті;

erroneously — помилково;

requirement — вимога, умова;

Interpret the following phrases; give their adequate translation.

1. Apply in quantity.

2. Tailor your sales pitch to the reader.

3. Don’t oversеll, get your foot in the door and decide for yourself.

Match the synonyms:

1) character traits

а) friendly

2) talent

b) dynamic

3) trained

c) resourceful

4) reliable

d) flexible

5) expert

e) tolerant

6) energetic

f) personality

7) diplomatic

g). responsible

8) well-wishing

h) self-evaluation

Read the passage and study the job abbreviations below refer to them in the next task:

Job Abbreviations

Advertisements (ads) for employment appear in all the media including radio, television, and Internet. However, newspapers and magazines are usually the main source for vacancies. Most «ads» use abbreviated forms to announce conditions of employment, especially in the «small ad» section for appointments, e.g.: Wntd sec. full-time for smll mnfg co. Gd slry. 5-day week, hrs 9−5 usl bnfts (Wanted secretary for full-time employment for small manufacturing company. Good salary, five days a week, hours of work 09. 00 to 17. 00, and the usual benefits in terms of conditions and holidays.)

Other abbreviations that might appear include clk (clerk), accnts (accounts), mngr (manager), asst (assistant), DOE (depends on experience), dr. lic. (driving licence), EOE (Equal opportunity employer), Nego (negotiable), PA (Personal Assistant), PC (personal computer), PR (public relations), Refs (references), w.p.m. (words per minute) and vacs (vacations). Terms like M/m (male) and F/f (female), are no longer permitted by law in the UK.

Complete the letter from Jane, a young secretary, to her friend Susan. Choose from the words listed below:

shorthand, minutes, memos, petty cash, diary, notebook, post book, proof reading, audio typing, typing, screen, word processor, letters, typewriter.

Dear Susan,

Well, I’ve got the job! And I seem to need most of the things I learned in College.

They wanted to know my (l) ______ and (2) ______ speeds, and what kind of a (3) ______ I was used to, and whether I could use a (4) ______ as well. Because my boss, Mr. Sutherland, is away from the office a lot he often dictates on to a cassette tape, so they wanted to know if I could manage (5) ______. But they also gave me a shorthand (6) ______. They explained that I will often be making appointments for Mr. Sutherland, so I must keep his (7) ______. I’ll also be typing his correspondence and when he is away I may have to sign some of his (8) ______ I’ll also be responsible for circulating (9) ______ to other members of the staff, and when I go to meetings I’ll be taking the (10) ______. Because I’ll be buying the stamps and coffee and so on, I’ll deal with the (11) ______ and keep the (12) ______. They also want me to (13) ______ callers to the office, so that Mr. Sutherland doesn’t get disturbed when he’s busy. And I’ll have to do some (14) ______ (of catalogues, press releases, and things like that). So I think I’ll keep busy!

It all sounds fascinating, and I’m terribly excited!

Love,

Jane.

Read the ads or mini-resumes. Choose the most appropriate for you. Use it as a pattern for your own mini-resume.

Without work experience:

Office manager/administrator

Lady, 27, linguistic education, English, French, German, PC, responsible, able to learn, is looking for a job in a foreign company assistant to executive bodies.

as a manager, secretary, personal

Tel. 513−24−76.

With work experience:

Office manager/administrator

F, 23, higher education, English,

PC skills, work experience as office manager, hard-working, ability to learn fast, seeks an employment as a secretary, office-manager.

Tel.: 442−0621, ask Olga.

Secretary/receptionist

F, University degree, PC, ftuent English, good German, Russian, Looking for the position of receptionist, secretary. Ability to learn,

Call Tatyana. Tel. 228−4415

Secretary/receptionist

Lady, 22, University degree in

foreign languages and management, good English, German, PC skills. Experience as secretary / translator.

Tel. 417−65−27

Application Letter

The application letter (sometimes called «a cover letter» because it is sent with a C.V. in the same envelope) is aimed at getting a job interview.

There are two types of application letters. A solicited application letter is sent to a definite, or announced, job opening. An unsolicited or «prospecting» letter is one sent to, а company that has not announced an opening. The objectives of an application letter are:

— to get attention;

— to introduce qualifications;

— to present evidence;

— to encourage action.

Remember, your application letter will represent you to the employer. If several applicants have the same qualifications, опlу those writing impressive letters will be interviewed.

Sample of a Cover Letter

Mark Diamond

4701 Pine Street, #K-13

Philadelphia, PA 19 143

Tel. I-(215)-748−3037

M. Marinichenko, President, AEROSVIT

25 Gogol Street, 111 234, Kyiv, Ukraine

April 2, 1992

Dear Mr. Marinichenko,

I am a first-year student In the M.B. A, program at the Wharton Business School in Philadelphia.

I understand that you are heading an independent Ukrainian airline. I have heard from my friend Mr. Bill Eastmann, a student at Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business that you might wish to have an American M.B.A. student work with your airline this summer as an intern. I am very interested in the possibility of such an internship during the summer of 1992.

My professional experience has given me an in-depth knowledge of the air transportation industry. I have, in particular, worked for Americam Airlines, the Federal Aviation Administration, and Kurth & Company, Inc., an aviation consulting firm where I was Manager of Airline Analysis. My responsibilities included the study of schedules, fares, equipment selection, and financial results. Notably, I prepared numerous feasibility studies for both jet and turboprop routes, including passenger and pure cargo service, for proposed transatlantic and transpacific services.

I wish to place this experience at the disposal of your airline. I believe strongly that my knowledge of the deregulated air transportation industry in the United States could be quite beneficial to your carrier,

I have enclosed a copy of my resume. If my background and qualifications are of interest to you, please telephone me at (215) 748−3037. I would be interested in meeting with you in mid-April in New York to discuss further the possibility of such a summer position, and your requirements.

Sincerely,

Mark Diamond

Encl. Resume 2pp.

Resume

Resume is a summary of education, work experience, and qualifications. There are two terms which exist in parallel: C. V. (Br.), or a curriculum vitae, which comes from Latin and means autobiography, and resume (Am.) which is borrowed from French and means a summary. There is no much difference between them except that a resume is usually shorter (one page long) and written by those applicants who have little work experience.

The resume is very important in job searching. It is a calling card which is purposed to attract the interest of the prospective employer. The resume should describe an applicant’s personality and demonstrate his energy, ambition, and ability to work in teams. It should give the employer a sense that this candidate would be a good investment for the company.

An effective resume must make a good first impression. Of course, appearance is important but content is even more crucial. The information in a resume needs to be well-organized, easy to read, and result-oriented. It usually includes personal information, professional and volunteer experience, special skills, education, accomplishments, and references.

An effective resume should address the employer’s needs. Its aim is to show the prospective employers how an applicant’s skills, accomplishments and abilities match their needs and organization goals. The best way to achieve this is to include only the work experience that is relevant to the job you are applying for.

Every day employers sort through piles of resumes and typically devote 30 seconds or less to each one. Employers won’t read any more than two pages, anyway. If you can fit your resume onto one page, that’s fine! Employers are looking for, among other qualities, strong organizational and communication skills.

Sample of a Resume

Jared Scott Schnader

7766 Louella Dr.

Roscoe, IL 61 073

(815) 623−6244

Shnadz13@mailcity. com

Qualification Summary_________________________________________

· Experienced in the organization of multi-functional projects involving fund-raising, resource organization, marketing and advertising.

· Conversational in the Russian Language.

Education_____________________________________________________

University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama

Major in Financial Investments, Minor in Economics: 1999−2003

· Member of American Marketing Association and elected board member of the Independent Voters Association

· Active member in the Big Brothers / Big Sisters Program and Habitat for Humanity

Business Experience____________________________________________

Peace Corps Volunteer in Ukraine: Institute of Economics and Law / Pedagogical University / Cooperative University / Technical University, Poltava, Ukraine

Professor of Marketing and Management: February 2004 — Present

· Created the first Marketing and Management curriculums in English for the Institute of Economics and Law

· Established a community service organization name «Ray of Hope» with 20 active members

· Developed the first Ukrainian Angel Tree Project getting 105 orphans presents for New Years of 2005

· Coordinated and organized two oblast-wide conferences at the Institute of Economics and Law serving over 150 secondary and university school students with guest speakers teaching in areas: creative thinking, critical thinking, study abroad, leadership, etc.

· Active member and speaker in the first Poltava Business Club held by the NGO Polbi Business Center

Licensing Coordinator: Fireman’s Fund Insurance Chicago, Illinois:

August 2003 — February 2004 (Interned May 2001 — August 2001)

· Coordinated with agents in updating their licenses

· Updated company records for over 500 agents

· Helped develop the department mission statement

Sales Consultant: Cingular Wireless

Tuscaloosa, Alabama: October 2001- June 2003

· Won company wide sales events for most items sold over specified periods of time

· Managed and facilitated problems, questions and concerns from an average of 20 customers daily

· Trained in sales technique seminars once a month

· Developed advertising scheme for the region.

Make up your own Cover Letter and Resume.

Complete the sentences by choosing from the words below each sentence to fill in the gaps. The first has been done for you.

1. The employees responsible for carrying out general office duties, filling forms and keeping statistics are …

a) clerks; b) accountants; c) supervisors.

2. The employees who sell company’s products are the sales representatives, usually known as…

a) vendors; b) renters; c) reps.

3. The employees who decide what to purchase, and who make the purchases of finished goods or components to be made into goods, are the…

a) choosers; b) procurers; c) buyers.

4. The employees who are responsible for seeing that the finished goods are well made are the…

a) packers; b) quality controllers; c) financial staff.

5. The clerical workers who use typewriters or word processors and who produce letters, memos or other documents, are…

a) secretaries; b) editors; c) copywriters.

6. The employees who check a company’s financial affairs are the…

a) statisticians; b) accountants; c) counters.

7. The employees who are responsible for preparing checks, pay packets and payslips are the …

a) wages clerks; b) filing clerks; c) paying clerks.

8. The workers who process data, under the control of managers and supervisors, are the computer…

a) hackers; b) operators; c) screeners.

9. The person who greets a visitor and tells him or her how to get to the right office is the…

a) manager; b) president; c) receptionist.

10. The employees who deal with a company’s telephone calls are the

a) PC operators; b) telex operators; c) switchboard operators.

Listen to the interviews of two people applying for jobs, analyze them, point out mistakes, if any, they made in the process of their interviews.

Business letters

Letter writing is an essential part of business communication. A letter should always accompany a cheque, a contract or any other business paper sent by mail. The letter says what is being sent, so that the recipient should know exactly what you intended to send. There exist traditional structures of business letters generally accepted and used throughout the world. A well-composed letter will make a better impression on the reader. Thus good letters make good business partners.

The letters may be subdivided into such groups as: enquiries, offers, orders, refusals, acknoledgements, quotations, letters of complaint/claim, etc.

The firms, as a rule, have forms for the letters printed on good paper. The form should have the name of the firm, its address, and also the character of the business of the firm.

Five C's for Business Letter Writing

* Clearness: Avoid business jargon, use simple, direct language.

* Completeness: Include all necessary information within the letter. Assume that the readers do not know all the facts. Make it easy for the readers to understand your situation.

* Conciseness: Be specific. Say what you mean clearly. Don’t be vague or confusing.

* Correctness: Always proofread and edit your letters.

* Courteousness: Use proper salutations, avoid phrases that scold or annoy, end on a friendly note.

Business Letter Layout

Letterhead: Name of the company/Field of activities/Logo

Sender’s address: No. of building, Street, City, State, post/zip code, Country

Telephone/Fax/E-mail

Addressee’s name/Job title/Company name and address

(For the attention of …)

Your ref:

Our ref:

Date

Salutation: (Dear Mr/Ms Hill)

Re:

Body of the letter:

1. Opening paragraph

2. Main part

3. Closing paragraph

Parting

Signature

(For/p.p. Sender’s name)

Sender’s position

(JP/rs)

Enc. (Enclosure)

c.c. (Copies)

Answer the questions on the text:

1. What is the purpose of a business letter today?

2. Is there any difference between the layout of an application letter and a business letter?

3. What does the letterhead of a business letter consist of?

4. Why is the month in the date not recommended to write in figures?

5. What salutation is the most frequent in business letters at present?

6. What is the purpose of using «Re» in business letters?

7. What information is enclosed in the body of a business letter?

8. Whose initials are written at the bottom of the letter?

9. What does the abbreviation «c.c.» mean in business letter writing: a) carbon copy; b) current cost; c) copies to?

What types of business letters do the following abstracts belong to?

1. I am, today, sending you some of our brochures, in a separate package. With these, I have included details of our new pocket portable telephone, which you may be interested in.

2. Further to our telephone discussion on Thursday, I am delighted to tell you that we are now able to reduce the price of our computers by 10%.

3. Unfortunately, we have not received the filing cabinets which were a part of the order. We would be grateful if you could deliver these as soon as possible or refund our money.

4. We would like to book 25 places on Sun Express Holiday No. 5210, depart 14th July. business english payment job

5. Payment on the above order is now overdue. We would be grateful if you could send us your check without delay.

6. Our company is considering leasing 12 automobiles rather than buying them outright. Because it is important for us to present a favorable (and prosperous) image to our clients, we are interested in luxury cars only.

State where the following word-combinations are used: at the beginning of a letter (B), end (E) or both (BE).

a) feel free to contact

i) this is to inform you

b) please don’t hesitate

j) as you may recall

c) in response to

k) as soon as possible

d) once again

1) in accordance with

e) get in touch

m) further to

f) at your earliest convenience

n) thank you for

g) effective June 15

o) would be appreciated

h) may be able to help you

p) I enclose

Choosing from the words in the box, label the parts of the letter. The first has been done for you:

date; main paragraph; letterhead; references; salutation; introductory paragraph; concluding paragraph; recipient’s address; (sender's) address; (typed) signature; complimentary ending; enclosures (abbreviation); position/title; signature.

1) WIDGETRY LTD

2) 6 Pine Estate, Westhornet, Bedfordshire, UB1822BC

Telephone 9017 23 456 Telex X238 WID Fax 9017 67 893

3) Michael Scott, Sales Manager, Smith and Brown plc,

Napler House, North Molton Street, Renton, Oxbridge OB84 9TD.

4) Your ref. MS/WID/15/88

Our ref. ST/MN/10/88

5) 31 January 20…

6) Dear Mr Scott,

7) Thank you for your letter of 20 January, explaining that the super widgets, catalogue reference X-3908, are no longer available but that ST-1432, made to the same specifications but using a slightly different alloy, are now available instead. Before I place a firm order I should like to see samples of the new super widgets. If the replacement is as good as you say it is, I shall certainly wish to reinstate the original order, but placing an order for the new items.

8) Apart from anything else, I should prefer to continue to deal with Smith and Brown, whose service has always been satisfactory in the past. But you will understand that I must safeguard Widgetry’s interests and make sure that the quality is good.

9) I would, therefore, be grateful if you could let me have a sample as soon as possible.

10) Yours sincerely,

11)

12) Simon Thomas

13) Production Manager

14) Enc.

The internet, fax, e-mail, memo

The Internet, a global computer network which embraces millions of users all over the world, began in the United Slates in 1969 as a military experiment. It was designed to survive a nuclear war. Information sent over the Internet takes the shortest path available from one computer to another. Because of this, any two computers on the Internet will be able to stay in touch with each other as long as there is a single route between them. This technology is called packet swithing. Owing to this technology, if some computers on the network are knocked out (by a nuclear explosion, for example), information will just route around them. One such packet-swithing network already survived a war. It was the Iraqi computer network which was not knocked out during the Gulf War.

Most of the internet host computers (more than 50%) are in the United Slates, while the rest are located in more than 100 olher countries. Although the number of host computers can be counted fairly' accurately, nobody knows exactly how many people use the Internet, there are millions, and their number is growing by thousands each month worldwide.

The most popular Internet service is e-mail. Most of the people, who have access to the Internet, use the network only for sending and receiving e-mail messages. However, other popular services are avail- able on the (Internet: reading USENET News, using the World-Wide Web, telnet, FTP, and Gopher.

In many developing countries the Internet may provide businessmen with a reliable alternative to the expensive and unreliable telecommunications systems of these countries. Commercial users can communicate over the Internet with the rest of the world and can do it very cheaply. When they send e-mail messages, they only have to pay for phone calls to their local service providers, not for calls across their countries or around the world. But who accually pays for sending e-mail messages over the Internet long distances, around the world? The answer is very simple: an user pays his/her service provider a monthly or hourly fee. Part of this fee goes towards its costs to connect to a larger service provider. And part of the fee got by the larger provider goes to cover its cost of running a worldwide network of wires and wireless stations.

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