Cultural and linguistic features of the use of animalism to the concept BIRD in English and Ukrainian
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Part I. The concept and the significance in modern linguistics
1.1 The concept as the fundamental conception of cognitive linguistics
1.2 The problem of the definition between the concept and the significance
CONCLUSIONS TO PART I
Part II. Cultural and linguistic features of the use of animalism to the concept BIRD in English and Ukrainian
2.1 The use of animalism to the concept BIRD in English idioms
2.2 The use of animalism to the concept BIRD in Ukrainian phraseological units
CONCLUSIONS TO PART II
THE LIST OF LITERATURE USED
In the second half of the last century the language as an active intermediary between the world of reality and human consciousness enters the field of view of many experts in linguistics which is related to such scientific disciplines: logic, ethnologists, psychologists, culture and so on. This confirms that the solution of numerous fundamental questions (e.g. the question of the categorization of the world, the ratio of language and mind) cannot be found within any private science. Thereby, a number of promising areaswithin the anthropocentric paradigm isdistinguished: cognitive linguistics (G.I. Berestiyev, N. Boldyrev, V.Z. Demianko, E.S. Kubryakova, George Lakoff, Z. Popova, E.V. Rahylina, I.A. Stersh), psycholinguistics (V. Krasnykh, A.A. Leontiev), cultural studies (E.N. Vereschahin, V.G. Kostomarov, B. A. Maslov, S. Stepanov, N.V. Ufimtseva, A.T. Hrolenko), ethnolinguistics (A.S. Gerd, N. Tolstoy), etnohermeneutics (E.A. Pimenov, M.V. Pimenov).
One of the main purposes while describing the language is the study of linguistic picture of the world. In addition to that the language is seen as a means of design and the implementation of knowledge about the world, both external and internal.
The central term in the study of language world is a concept that attracted the attention of many researchers: linguists, culture and philosophers. However, the term «concept» in modern science of language has no monosemantic interpretation: that is to solve the problem of classification of concepts, methods to study the structure of the concept and its place in a number of linguistic terminology. The divisiveness of the status of the concept suggests, first of all, the difficulty of forming a new scientific paradigm.
The concept is a process of awareness and anunderstanding of a concept. The greatest interest in terms of research represents that concepts play an important role in the life of the ethnic group.
The work is a substantial investigation which aim is to describe the specific language representation of the concept BIRD in English and Ukrainian paintings of the world as from the language point of view as well as from a cultural one. Together with a wide range of theoretical developments, it is appeared a large number of works, which comprise specific descriptions of certain concepts. The urgency of this work is to show that this concept is in consciousness not only as a living being, but also as the image of the specific characters. It also facilitates the translation activity, as phraseological units are an integral part of speech as among the English speakers as well as amongthe Ukrainian ones.
The purpose of our work is to identify the features of the use of phraseology from the concept BIRD in animalism of comparable languages. Also to determine how the use of animalism in comparable languages?? is caused bylingvocultural and stereotyped view of the world by the British and Ukrainian.
The aim of our investigation was:
ь to conduct a critical review of literature on the problems of the study;
ь to explore the concept as a categorical basis of language;
ь to identify cultural features of the phenomenon due to the concept BIRD;
ь toconsider the transmission of expressive idioms with the concept BIRD.
The goals and the objectives of the investigation are played an important role in the choice of basic research methods, among which were used: a comparative and a descriptive.
The research paper includes the usage ofthe English-Ukrainian phraseological dictionary, edited by K.T. Barantsev and the Ukrainian phraseological dictionary, edited by V. Bilonozhenko.
The structure of our research paper presupposes the following parts: an introduction, two chapters, general conclusions and the list of references.
PART I. The concept and the significance in modern linguistics
1.1 The concept as the fundamental conception of cognitive linguistics
linguistic concept animalism bird
The private-scientific study of any object or subject of reality cannot be limited to their own units and categories, especially in the case of such a complex phenomenon as language. The comparison of languages reveals defects as monistic view of human nature, as a special human gift, which is the language [10, 21]. The comparison of language is an emergence in various spiritual and mental worlds of different nations, i.e. access to the substance of the highest order which is essentially multidimensional and unknowable to the end. According to O.S. Kubryakova the term «concept» is like an umbrella, he «covers» subject spheres of several research styles: first of all cognitive psychology and cognitive linguistics which concerned about thinking and learning, storage and processing of information [9, 90]. Cognitive linguistics together with cognitive psychology are designed to answer the questions about how the human mind is organized and how language reveals the mental space, how other people and nations see the world and how these differences are expressed in their language and communication [11, 41]. The entire human cognitive activity can be regarded as having developed the ability to navigate the world and is associated with the need to distinguish objects. Thus, the formation of concepts related to the comprehension of the world and forming ideas about it.
At the end of XX century linguists have realized that a native speaker is a carrier of certain relevant conceptual systems. Each concept associations are important to human knowledge about the world and yet rejected unnecessary idea. The system concept creates the picture of the world showing the understanding of human reality, its special concept «picture» on which a person thinks about the world [11, 41].
It should be noted that the concepts are the result of two tendencies: the desire to display dialectical world, that is to reflect the world as it is, and the desire to construct the world in order to subordinate his will and desire of a man, that is to introduce the world easier, more rigid and deterministic to the extent that is necessary and sufficient for a person to solve practical problems.
The semantic space of a particular language consists of concepts and we can talk about the structure of knowledge under it. Cognitive linguistics are not guided by linguistic elements and units that are specific in origin, they appear as the guides of any information and fully or partly manifested in the language. To indicate these units used the term «concepts».
Due to the fact that modern scientific thought does not make ?? a single definition of the phenomenon of «concept» we present different approaches to its interpretation. Typically, researchers offer different definitions of the concept. Thus, scientists working in the mainstream cultural studies (S.G. Vorkachev, V.I. Karasik etc.) consider that the concept is the main fact of ethnic and cultural conditionality in determining while other representatives of cognitive linguistics (O.S. Kubryakova, Z. Popova, I.A. Sternin etc.) emphasize, first of all, the mental essence of the concept and its belongings to the sphere of consciousness of the individual.
According to the literary dictionary: «The concept (Latin «Concipere» — to form) is formulation, mental image, the general idea, the notion that dominates by the work of art or literary article"[4, 373].
Linguistic encyclopedic dictionary treats «concept as the phenomenon of the same order as the meaning of the word, but seen in another system connections like the value in the system of language, like the term in the system of logical relations and forms that are studied both in linguistics and in logic» [12, 384].
In Encyclopedic Dictionary of Philosophy concept is treated as one of the logical forms of thinking in the opposite judgment and opinion, which consist of concepts. There is a distinction between the concepts that we use in everyday life and logical ones. It is noted that in the thinking of people or individuals concepts are formed not by perception and integration inherent in the group of subjects, the same signs, and because of initially perceived and done over again the concept of substantial properties of things [18, 354].
A lot of works are published on various issues of conceptology today including interpretation of the term «concept». The definition of the concept we relied on the work corresponding to our understanding of the concept. Thus, S. Askoldov, one of the founders of the doctrine of the concept, defines it as «mental formation that replaces us in the process of thinking uncategorized plurality of items of the same kind» [1, 269]. Conceived in his opinion, the concept is not always a substitute for real objects it can replace some of the real object or action, such as the concept of «justice» and, in general, replace all sorts of highly accurate and only thinking function [2, 270].
In determining the types of concepts (cognitive and artistic) S. Askoldov, on the one hand, emphasized their unity (concepts of cognitive character only seemingly quite far from poetry. In fact, they feed their underground roots by irrational values and uncategorized element of poetic words and techniques [2, 268]) and on the other hand differentiated them as: [2, 274 — 275]
· Public concept.
· Individual concept.
· Psychologically simple
· Psychologically complex.
· Do not add feelings, desires or something irrational.
· It’s complex feelings, desires, irrational.
· Applies to multiple subject, real or ideal.
· Do not always concerns multiple of subject.
· Uncategorized opportunities which are subordinated to laws of logic or requirement pursuant to reality.
· Existing communication elements, aiming at the pragmatics of art associativity.
· Aiming at the specific idea that is of part of its logic «tribal» volume.
· Strive to potential patterns and aiming at them. Free from the scope of logical definition.
· Performed nominative or definitive feature.
· It’s the characters that have internal organic connection with their values.
In cognitive studies concepts represent relation of the phenomenon of the word of knowledge structures and their reflection in consciousness. Thus, A. Vezhbytska considers the concept as an object with a perfect world that has a name and reflects the cultural and conditioned understanding of human reality [4, 10].
A. Vezhbytska distinguishes the concept of minimum, maximum and concept-encyclopedic addition (appendix). The concept- minimum is incomplete knowledge of the word (speakers known reality, but not all, as it is concerned, in practice it is vital for it is not important or it is never encountered). The concept covers a maximum depth (full) knowledge of speaker meaning (reality he knows in all aspects), including encyclopedic information, professional knowledge of reality [4, 16]. Thus, if for the inhabitants of Ukraine APPLE concept is concept-maximum, the concept KIWI FRUIT is minimum (speakers do not know how such fruits grow: on the trees or bushes, how to take care about plants, how they bloom when fruits mature etc.).
Each concept has an idealized cognitive model, which refers to all of our understanding of the object at once, in general, an «undifferentiated image», which leads to a linguistic sign behavior (role structure). Yes, English jogging"біг підтюпцем" and running"біг" have different «idealized cognitive model». Jogging is associated with a healthy lifestyle, physical form of middle class people who succeed in societies of developed countries. The concept of the word excludes competition, target situation, and incompatible with the children, the elderly, animals and other concepts common to the running (do not say jog to catch the bus"бігти підтюпцем, щоб устигнути на автобус" or jog after someone"бігти підтюпцем за кимсь" but to run to catch the bus"бігти, щоб устигнути на автобус" and run after someone"бігти за кимсь").
Nowadays we can distinguish tree basic approaches in modern linguistics which help us to understand the concept and which based on general states: the concept is a thing which names the concept, synonymous with the meaning.
The first approach, the representative of which is Yu.S. Stepanov, while considering the concept, pays more attention to the cultural aspect, when the whole culture is understood as a set of concepts and relations between them. The concept is the basic unit of culture in the mental world of man. They occupy a nuclear position in the collective consciousness of language, and therefore their study is extremely urgent.
The second approach sees the engaging in cognitive linguistics semantics of the linguistic sign is the only means of forming the content of the concept. The representatives of the second approach are N.D. Arutyunova, T.V. Bulygina, A.D. Shmelev and others.
The representatives of the third approach are D.S. Likhachov and E.S. Kubryakova and they consider that the concept does not directly arise from the meaning of the word, as a result of clashes with the personal meaning of the word and the people’s experience of man, that is, concept is a mediator between words and reality.
Interesting theory of the concept is proposed by Yu.D. Apresyan, it is based on the following assumptions:
ь every natural language reflects a certain way of perceiving and organizing the world and expressed values in it which is added in some uniform system of beliefs, a kind of collective philosophy that all language imposed by the carrier;
ь peculiar way of conceptualizing the language of the world is partly universal and partly nationally specific;
ь the view of the world (a way of conceptualizing) is «naпve» in the sense that it differs from the scientific world, but it is not primitive notions[1,39].
It should be noted that the above definition of the concept are not mutually exclusive, but emphasize different ways of forming concepts. In our opinion, the most productive is an integrative approach to understand the concept. Concept is a term used to explain mental and psychological resources of the human mind and of the information structures that reflect knowledge and human experience, operational and semantic unit of memory, mental lexicon, conceptual system and language of the brain (lingua mentalist), all world view that is reflected in the human psyche [9, 90].
To understand the concept not necessarily to know the meaning of the word registered in the dictionary and which serves as a symbol of the concept, just to be able to deal with content components to [3, 16].
World of conceptual representations of objects and concepts transfixed by ethno — psychological features of human behavior mostly notably in comparison. This is well illustrated by the examples of speech etiquette. For example, for the Slavs an American answer Fine! (Дуже добре!) for a common question How are you? or How are you doing?(Як справи?) doesn’t sound honestly. We answer these questions more neutrally and calmly: добре, нормально, нічого, потихеньку. But such answers as погано, так собі or vice versa — чудово, відмінно, краще не буває etc. require interlocutor to be informed or explanation. In the American surroundings we are a little bit disturbed and seems familiar a greeting Hello!, which they very often used, even with strangers. Recently the trend has spread on spoken Hi! (Привіт!). The teacher can say hello to his students just Hi! or Hi, folks! (Привіт, хлопці та дівчата!). The use of such greetings addressing to a stranger does not tell us that Americans are not breeding. This is a method of identifying friendly attitude, intention and to make friends with a man.
National specific conceptual world with features of customs and traditions and stereotypes of behavior does not accurately reflected in the language of the people, and is born, grows and lives in language, making it indivisibly ethnic, psychological, linguistic, cultural field [10, 27].
Clearly, all definitions of the concept show the language connections with the culture. Objects of the world are «cultural objects of» only when information about them is etnospeeched thinking as «quantum» knowledge of concepts [11, 45]. By this time the term is not precise, although it is listed in linguistics and the study engaged in N.D. Arutyunov, A. P Babushkin, A. Vezhbytska, E.S. Kubryakova, S. Nikitin, V.N. Telia, R.M. Frumkina etc..
The notion of a concept is derived from philosophy and logic, but in the last 15 years it undergoes updating and rethinking. Different definitions enable us to identify the following features of the concept:
ь It is the minimum unit of human experience in its ideal conception, which verbalizes words and structures;
ь It is the basic unit of processing, storage and transfer of knowledge;
ь Concept has a precise function;
ь It is a social concept, its associative field determines the pragmatics of concept;
ь It is a basic culture center [9, 94].
Lack of general definitions of the concept are connected with the fact that the concept is complex, multidimensional structure, which includes in addition to conceptual framework that not only overthinking by native speaker, but also experienced it, association, emotion, evaluation, national images and connotations that are inherent a particular culture. It should be noted that the concepts are the result of two trends: the desire to display dialectical world, that reflect the world as it is, and the desire to constructive the world in order to subordinate his will and desire of man, that is to introduce the world easier, more rigid and deterministic to the extent that necessary and sufficient for a person to solve practical problems.
Among the components of the methods of describing the concept S. Stepanov identified [12, 383]:
1) «verbal sense» or «internal form»;
2) «passive», «historical» layer concept;
3) the latest, the active layer concept.
1.2 The problem of the definition between the concept and the significance
Of course, concept learning in cognitive linguistics is important. But when you try to accurate more and broader study of this issue raises a number of related concepts and terms. First, this is concepts, notions and significances.
The problem of differentiation is a major in linguistics. Yu.S. Stepanov equates the terms «notion» and «concept»: «The notion (concept) is the phenomenon of the same order as the meaning of the word, which is seen in another system connections; the value is in the system of language, understanding system logical relations and forms that are studied both in linguistics and in logic"[12, 384]. V.Z. Dem’yankov in his work «The notion and the concept in the literature and in scientific language» comes to the conclusion that the concept could be the basis for the notion: «…it is not always possible to «agree» to terms: sometimes more productive to reconstruct the usual meanings or concepts, and on the basis of perceptions, old concepts, not destroying them, to try to construct a new concept» [6, 45].
As for the opposition concept vs. notion occasionally note that last unit provides information on sample knowledge and concept except this can provide the sphere of its use. Therefore, the concept in factual terms is broader than notion, as it displays any sign of the object, while the notion is always associated only with the presentation of a set of necessary and sufficient logical evidence for its identification. Concept is not just a notion but also is the most complex, most important of them, without which it is difficult to imagine a culture (the Germans' «order» and the Ukrainians' «hospitality»).
In comparison with the concept the notion has a simpler structure: it prevails consistency and there are not all the components as shown in the structure of a concept [11, 38]. For example, in the 60s years it was believed that intellectual is the one who reads poetry. In addition, the number of lexical items that are concepts are limited because not all signs of certain phenomena are concepts. Concepts are only signs that relevant and valuable to this culture, serve as subjects for proverbs and sayings, poems and prose works. They represent certain characters, logos, text indicating the situation, knowledge that created them.
Usually the term «concept» refers to the content of the concept, considering it («concept») as synonymous with the term «understanding». Synonym to «concept» is the term «significance». That is the significance of a word is the subject or those subjects to which the word is used correctly, in accordance with the norms of this or that language, and the concept is an understanding of the speech.
Many linguists believe that the concept is a broader term than lexical meaning (V.I. Karasyk, S.A. Askoldov). Other researchers believe that the concept corresponds with the word in one of its values ??(D.S. Lihachov, V.P. Moskvin) [11, 40]. So we came to the conclusion that the concept and the significance are different terms. The concept is a relatively stable cognitive bar with the object of reality, as it is connected with the world more directly than the significance. While the word in its meaning is only part of its concept. But to gain access to the concept is best through language, word, sentence and discourse.
CONCLUSIONS TO PART I
Any attempt to grasp the essence of the concept leads to the realization of the existence of a number of related concepts and terms. It is known that terms such as «concept», «notion» and «significance» in the real word are often used as synonyms and often function by replacing each other in order to avoid monotonous repetition. In this regard, most linguists point to the need for dilution of terms such as «concept»,"notion" and"significance".
The relationship between the concept and the meaning of the word that is the significance is part of the relationship between linguistic and nonlinguistic knowledge, conceptual and lexical-semantic information.
Both phenomena — the concept and the significance — are of cognitive nature, both are the result of reflection and understanding the reality of the human mind. However, the significance and the concept are the products of different kinds of consciousness i.e. the conceptual and linguistic.
Most researchers noted that just like the notion, the concept is not equal to the significance: the concept is a unit concept sphere and the significanceis a unit of semantic space of language. For an explication of the concept it is usually required multiple lexical units, which means that we need many values. The significance and the concept are correlated as communicatively relevant part and the entiremental.
Linguists and psychologists of the functional orientation believe that a child acquires and adds concept system during its life on the basis of language and its own interaction with the environment through the senses. Conceptualization is the process of socialization of the child.
Culture to which the individual is immerse as theprocesses of conceptualization is creating the network of material and spiritual levels and determining assessments, norms, values, human livelihoods in a particular cultural and social environment. Language and cultural identity in the process of conceptualization are determined essential and mutuall. The concept is a major cultural center in the mental world of man through which the person penetrates into the culture and impacts on it.
PART II. Cultural and linguistic features of the use of animalism to the concept BIRD in English and Ukrainian
The display of nature, including its wildlife, in phraseological images associated with more traditional pre-Christian times, when people felt themselves as a part of nature and the very nature personified, endowed representatives of flora and fauna qualities inherent for a man. So over the years in the minds of the different cultures have formed various stereotypes, different ideas about the flora and fauna that we can see from the examples of folk art: fairy tales, proverbs, sayings etc. It also appeared in phraseological units, which include the names of flora and fauna, with their inherent human qualities either it is diligence or fidelity, laziness, cunning. These phraseological units have received the name of animalism or zoon.
The Geographic and cultural distance of language regions contributes to the uniqueness of many imaginative and emotive understanding of animals. The nature and content-oriented emotive associations often determined not by the properties of animals and its «life"but in the national folklore and mythological and literary contexts.
Let’s consider some representation which receives some animals. For example, the value associated with a fox in compared languages?? shows the same direction — this animal is associated with cunning and deceit (in Ukrainian — старий лис, хитрий лис; in English -sly as a fox; to play the fox). The wolf symbolizes cruelty, ruthlessness (злий, як вовк, вовком дивиться; to throw someone to the wolves). In English, the image of the wolf becomes humorous connotations of ladies' man (only in the American version): «Wolf-Whistle» is men’s favorable whistle with the advent of an attractive woman. However, in the minds of Ukrainians wolf has respectful connotations in the case of their use in a figurative sense — «людина, що багато пережила, загартована життям» — in English — the old wolf, fired wolf, sea wolf.
The Bear in both languages?? is important both in positive and in negative connotation. The Bear is called strong man: «to be a bear punishment» (бути витривалим), «великий, як ведмідь», «дужий, як ведмідь». It can also be clumsy person («як ведмідь у танці»), or crude and tasteless («the one who plays the bear»).
The Lion in the British outlook was extremely positive association, because for centuries it is the national emblem and symbol of Great Britain what is reflected in the political metaphor «to twist the Lion’s tail», i.e. to affect the interests of England. It is associated with strength and courage «lion-heanted» — courageous, steadfast.
The animalism «monkey» in both languages?? takes the meaning of a poser and grimacer: «мавпувати», «to ape», «to play the ape», «to monkey». In the Ukrainian consciousness «monkey's» association is followed by comparing the appearance of animals and humans, hence people often call an ugly person — «monkey» (in terms of appearance).
The turtle in both languages?? is associated with weakness, slowness; the donkey is associated with embodiment of stupidity; the ox is associated with a hard work.
Thus, we see that some of the features given to animals in the English and Ukrainian languages?? are similar and yet there are differences. They are dictated by the national stereotype of a particular animal. Animalism to the concept BIRD also differently represented in comparable languages.
The concept BIRD, which is a part of human consciousness is not just a living being, having the ability to fly, but also through specific ideological character it objectified the abstract ideological values?? and ideals. The study of practical material of our work is the theoretical position that the substantive aspects of the concepts are only partially objectification in language, in other words, verbalization are the elements that make up the concepts. Concept is considered as a conceptual picture of the world map which acts as the corresponding fragment of a language picture of the world.
In particular, the Ukrainian folk the birds' symbolism is the creatures that are linked to other worlds, i.e. to worlds of higher supernatural forces. People believed that the souls of the dead were returning in the form of birds to the earth in the spring.
Quite a different picture of the bird is in the English symbolism. Birds in English are often the messenger and even cause of death.
The concept BIRD in European culture is linked with the ideas of freedom and dream which are always trying to achieve their goals and development. In most cases the value of the animalism with the concept BIRD matches in comparable languages. Especially to our opinion there is an interesting animalism «вільний птах» which is presented in both languages ??(«as free as a bird»). This image is used to describe a person who is independent in its actions and behavior.
To find out what kind of set values?? of the concept are inherent in phraseology only in the Ukrainian language or in the English language it should be more practical to work with the study of values?? and with the structure of the phraseology of the concept BIRD that appears in the compared languages.
2.1 The use of animalism to the concept BIRD in English idioms
In English the concept BIRD is marked by a lexeme BIRD. Such examples of birds names in English as: owl, cock, hen, swallow, pigeon, cuckoo, goose, duck, swan, etc. enable us to visualize the image of birds in general. The image of each of these statements is conceptual features as: wish, height, happiness, beauty and intelligence. These signs of consolidation are fasten in such sustained, symbols and associations: the Blue bird (the blue bird of happiness), the Arabian bird (Phoenix), the bird of piece (the dove of peace); to do something like a bird; to sing like a bird (to sing like a lark); nightingales will nor sing in a cage, etc.
The study of lexical-semantic meaning of the concept BIRD in English is based on the collection and idioms with a lexemebird.
1. In the minds of speakers of English a state or feeling of freedom is associated with the bird: «to get the bird» or «as free as a bird». In the Ukrainian language a man simply called «an independent». There is no differences in the structure, too — «He is as free as a bird» and «Він вільний птах».
2. In English the phrase «to do something like a bird» means «do something willingly». There is no a relevant phraseological in the Ukrainian language. In this sense the concept BIRD takes only positive meaning.
3. An interesting example of two phraseological units but with completely opposite meanings: «a bird in the bush» («something unreal») and «a bird in the hand» («something real»). These expressions can be seen in the English proverb: «a bird in the hand is worth two in the bush» and it is an equivalent to Ukrainian proverb: «краще синиця в жмені, ніж журавель в небі».
4. «To make a bird (of)» means to hit the target. The Ukrainian version is more neutral. Lost animalistic element.
5. «An old bird is not caught with chaff». This example of folk wisdom says that a person is experienced in a given case or matter, or seen much in his life. Ukrainian is spoken: «старий сич» or «стріляний/обстріляний птах».
6. Another example of animalism in which this concept has an exclusively negative connotation: «a little bird told me» — «сорока на хвості принесла» or «як сорока на хвості розносить». When animalistic element BIRD changes to the item СОРОКА an emotion and intensity of expression is not lost. When the concept BIRD is lost in Ukrainian version the expression has more vivid meaning.
7. To indicate a person who eats a very small amount of food we use suchanimalism in the English language: «to eat like a bird». Ukrainians compare it with the sparrow «за горобця», «з горобину душу» that is a very small amount.
8. When it is understood that two people have identical views, opinions, or his behavior we say «birds of a feather flock together», it means «одного гніздечка птиці» or «одного поля ягода». This estimation of Ukrainian and British coincides and has the same negative value.
9. To indicate a hardworking person and a person who does not avoid work and rises early to do everything in time the English says: «it is the early bird that catches the worm» or «an early bird». In the Ukrainian language there are also animalisms which are very similar to English: «ранній птах», «з півнями».
10. «To kill two birds with one stone». This proverb tells us that people want to have and do everything in time but often left with nothing. The Ukrainian equivalent is «убити одним пострілом двох зайців». This wisdom clearly and successfully used the famous Ukrainian writer M. Staritsky in his play «Chasing Two Hares».
11. The expression «on the bird» shows that a material is approved for displaying on TV.
In addition to a lexeme BIRD in English idioms different species of birds animalisms are used. For example COCK always symbolizes aggressiveness, fight character, leadership, but at the same time impudence and conceit.
1. It is no secret that cock is a harbinger of a new day so with the expression «to sit till the second cock» — «сидіти до ранку» the British image and emphasize its importance. In this animalism COCK is positive.
2. «That cock won’t fight» means this trick will not work. This phrase is used to show that to repeat the same cause in most cases — a bad one will fail. There is no equivalent in the Ukrainian language.
3. «To live like a fighting cock» means to thrive. In the minds of British people it is good to life as a «fighting cock», i.e. «бойовим півнем». According to the Ukrainian language there was formed stable expression «жити, як у Бога за пазухою».
GOOSE is always portrayed as irrational, but in reality it symbolizes wisdom and practicality, happiness and inspiration, courage and loyalty, commitment and communication, teamwork and confidence. A vivid example of the use of this image in English folklore is «Mother Goose» («Матінка Гусиня»).
1. In situations where a person destroys or gets rid of what it was useful English says «to kill the goose that lays the golden egg». Instead, the concept of Ukrainian GOOSE changed to HEN.
2. «One's goose is cooked» means to get into trouble. Perhaps this statement can be considered as a continuation of the previous one. That is, getting rid of something or revealing all the plans, the person finds himself in a desperate situation.
3. «All one’s geese are swans». The Difference between the English proverb and Ukrainian phrase «робити з мухи слона» is that the Ukrainian is more emotional, as far as a fly is in several hundred times larger than an elephant and shows the absurdity of the situation.
4. «The goose hangs high». Used to show that everything is going well. Ukrainian say «everything goes like clockwork». The Lack of animalism in Ukrainian counterparts does not reduce its expression and brightness.
5. «What's sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander». This combination in a single expression shows that what is well for one as well for another. The Ukrainians on this issue say: «як у лісі гукнеш, так і відгукнеться» or «який стук, такий грюк».
6. «To set a fox to keep one’s geese». This example of folk wisdom says that man alone creates the problems. It should be noted that the Ukrainian equivalent of this saying is «пустити цапа в капусту». Despite the complete change of animalism these expressions do not lose their coloring.
7. To say that everything is easy and the situation is under control the British uses the concept DUCK: «easy as duck soup» or «as a duck takes to water».
8. «Lord love a duck». This expression is very emotional loading. We are not very well imagine what emotions speakers put in this exclamation and what is a duck, so the appropriate phrase in the Ukrainian language devoid animalistic elements («Їй-бо»).
9. «To take to something like a duck to water». When the British wants to show that he is comfortable and he feels good in this situation he uses animalism DUCK, while the Ukrainian compares all this with the concept of FISH. The Ukrainian equivalent is"почуватися як риба у воді".
10. The phrase «Like water off a duck’s back» shows that someone does not respond to something or does not influence on anyone. This expression both in English and in Ukrainian has almost an identical content: «як з гуски вода».
PIGEON is a symbol of the Holy Spirit. Also it is a symbol of true love, peace and tenderness. For mankind pigeon is a mundane love bird, the bird of peace.
1. When the British wants to say that people cope with labor, in spite of its external parameters, they use the proverb: «Little pigeons can carry great messages». The Ukrainian equivalent does not contain animalistic elements in its structure, but no less interesting: «Мале тілом, та велике духом».
2. The expression «to put / set a cat among the pigeons» shows that someone said or did something wrong, thus offended interlocutors. The Ukrainian equivalent has not been found.
3. There are such idioms in English: «that's my pigeon», which translates «this is my business» («це моя справа»). This animalism exists only in English and bears the load which is not clear enough for a man of the Ukrainian mentality.
4. It is well known that a pigeon symbolizes love and tenderness, family happiness and prosperity. It is not surprising that a responsible and honest man in England associated with this bird: «to be somebody’s pigeon» (нести відповідальнісь).
The concept STORK also can serve as an interesting example of phraseological units.
Stork is a symbol of love to a father, mother, and so it is a symbol of family welfare. According to the legend only those yard can live in happiness where storks nest, because he is the sacred bird and to ruin his nest will punished by fire. And stork brings babies into the house. Therefore, expressions using this concept can carry only a single value, which is connected with children.
For example, the idiom «to keep the stork flying» means to have many children, and «visit from the stork» means to bear.
HAWK is a synthesis of mind, courage, youth and strength. Hawk is a mediator between the worlds, because it has the clearest eyes and the fastest wings and this allows him to carry the soul of the deceased into the Other World.
1. Everybody knows that the hawk has an excellent eyesight, so no wonder why the British compare it with the hawk’s eyes: «To have eyes like a hawk». The Ukrainian express it simply: «мати гострий зір». In this case, the English version is more emotional.
2. «To watch someone like a hawk» is a phrase which is used when a person closely watching something, not taking his eyes. There is no a Ukrainian equivalent to this phrase.
SWAN is a symbol of the divine, white swan is a symbol of the Sun and Good, Beauty and true Love. The High expression of loyalty is loyalty to a swan, and the last and the most significant life step is a swan song…
A black swan is a symbol of evil forces, loneliness and death.
As a «holy bird», he is endowed with an unusually pure and majestic beauty, which combines strength and tenderness, passion and spirituality, loyalty and sacrifice.
1. «Swan song». Swan is a symbol of endless love and enduring faithfulness. And this is what swans, the grace of God, have and only they are available to know secret — the secret of eternal love, which has been given to their loyalty and sacrifice and has been returned spiritual immortality. How to achieve this know only swans with their loyalty and they just sing about it in their swan song. However, a man can understand this song clearly if he learn a swan fidelity.
2. A striking example of respect to this bird British have showed calling the great English playwright William Shakespeare «Swan of Avon». He was born and buried in Stratford-on-Avon.
It should be noted that the analyzed English concept has mostly positive connotations, which are expressed in culture. A bird is a widespread symbol of the spirit and soul in the ancient world that still has a value in Christian symbolism ('and the Holy Spirit descended upon Him in bodily form like a dove'). The vigilance of a bird (hawk eyes) is another example of a positive perception. Crows and owls in mythology and literature necessarily associated with wisdom (solemn as an owl). For the representatives of English culture the bird in various versions was a symbol of great strength of their country and this idea is proved by popular use of birds in heraldry of the official arms of counties and districts of Great Britain: Maine, Abingdon, Cornwall, West Sussex, Cumberland, Poway, Bedfordshire, in the coats of arms of Australia (kiwi) and of the United States of America (American eagle — bald eagle), each of them has their own «bird logo».
The comparison with a bird was natural for everything what in the mind of man could conquer the elements: as the sky so the sea. No wonder the comparison with the bird is created vessels of ancient Celts and Germans, whose rostrums were decorated with goose neck.
For centuries the image of birds in English culture contacted with the dream of heaven and with the man’s wish to fly, so the last century, he has found himself at the forefront of discoveries and operated in aircraft: it is a form of bird supply aircraft designers all models of aircraft, and the lexeme is used in bird colloquially to describe any flying machine (airplane, rocket, artificial satellite) and in the names of some models, such as aircraft Hy-Bird, Little Bird, Sky bird, T-Bird, Bird of Prey, Lockheed, Black bird, satellites Hot Bird, Eurobird, etc.
2.2 The use of animalism to the concept BIRD in Ukrainian phraseological units
The conceptПТАХ takes some other value in the minds of Ukrainians and sometimes have very unexpected correspondences in English.
1. «Битися наче птах у клітці» («to make both ends meet», «to earn one’s keep»). This expression describes Ukrainian difficult financial situation, poverty. Here, the Ukrainian version seems more emotionally full.
2. «Тільки пташиного молока нема». It is shown completely opposite meaning to the first example. It speaks of prosperous life, that is you have completely everything for a good life.
3. «Не нашого пера пташка» or «птах не нашого польоту» is a person who does not belong to a circle, something different from it. The British also say: «a cuckoo in the nest». Changing of the concept «пташка» in English on «cuckoo"made ??the Ukrainian version more neutral, although the structurally variants are the same.
4. A man who occupies a high position in society and has the power, weight, greatly influenced the Ukrainians compare with the bird: «важливий птах», «велика птиця», «птах високого польоту», «велика цяця». The English also say: «he thinks himself a swell». The equivalents in comparable languages?? have slightly different structures because of the lack of animalistic elements in English. Antonym of expression in the Ukrainian language is the expression"птах низького польоту".
5. «Перелітний птах». One can easily understand why someone who does not stay long in one place is compared with the bird. We find Ukrainian equivalent with the same structure in English: «bird of passage».
6. «Синій птах». It is a symbol of happiness, the ideal in Ukraine that represents for someone most cherished dreams, aspirations. It is difficult to understand what kind of a bird it is and why it is of this particular color, and what qualities has this animal in this sustainable terms. In English, this phrase has no equivalent.
7. The question «що за птиця? «can have two meanings. The first is to ask who that person is. And the second one is used to express contempt and humiliation. We find an equivalent which is very similar to a Ukrainian: «What kind of bird is he / she?».
8. «Воля краща пташці від золотої клітки». An English equivalent: «Nightingales will not sing in a cage». Also English phrase is «No man loves his fetters, be they made of gold» which translates like bands are always the burden, whether they made of gold and the Ukrainian language has the following equivalents: «Золота клітка солов’я не тішить» та «Воля пташці краща від золотої клітки». Indeed, what could be worse for a bird that is born to fly under the arch of heaven than captivity in a small, even gold, gate.
КУРКА is a symbol of motherhood, kindness and care. However, a hen can impersonate distrust and imprudence which is generated in insecurity.
1. «Курям на сміх», «кури засміють"or «кури сміються» is used when a person makes an unfavorable impression of oneself, puts oneself in a ridiculous way. Here HEN is a symbol of weakness and feebleness, weakness in relation to oneself and to others. If they laugh at, then there is helpless to oneself and to others. Such helpless that even henslaugh. The English equivalent is losing animalistic elements: «to become a laughing-stock».
2. «Як курка лапою». By this phraseology Ukrainian call bad handwriting, ugly, awkward, messy written letters. Also used «курячі лапи» and «як сорока по тину». The English term is more neutral: «to write a bad hand».
3. «І кури не клюють». Is used to indicate the person who has a lot of money. The English equivalent was not found.
4. These phraseological units as «і курки ніде випустити», «ніде курці клюнути/ступити/голови простромити» denote small area or a situation where it is very closely. Englishmen also can say «to be a tight squeeze / fit». Ukrainian version is more emotional.
5. «Носитися як курка з яйцем». To show excessive care, pay too much attention to something insignificant. Here"курка" acts as overly careful person who can often exaggerate their duties. The English equivalent has the same structure: «Fussy as a hen with one chick».
An interesting example is the concept of unit animalistic ВОРОНА. It is an ominous bird, which is connected to the world of the dead. However, due to the fact that crows live long, even up to three hundred, he, with considerable experience, has a very important ability — to penetrate into the secret world, provides a variety of events, particularly sad, give advice in difficult situations in particular to soldiers in battle, brings news, however, always tragic (the people say: «Ворон кряче на нещастя!»).
1. «Не каркай, як та ворона». Get on in the conversation as a warning against something undesirable. This sample of folk wisdom has an equivalent in English which lost animalistic elements: «to prophesy ill».
2. «Ворон лічити». Here, «ворон» shows laziness, not to want to work, that is to idle. This phrase has the appropriate phrase in English: «to stand gaping about». There is also a synonymous in the Ukrainian language with the term «ловити гав».
3. «Біла ворона». It is a symbol of something rare, unusual, which in principle should not be, but from some amazing and no understandable reasons it exists. Also it can be a person who stands out among other unusual, not like the others. The English equivalent of the phraseological retained its Latin origin: «raraavis».
4. «Лякана ворона куща боїться». This sample of folk wisdom is an equivalent to English, which does not include animalism, but not lost with their emotional: «A burnt child dreads the fire».
5. «Наче пава». It is used for image rights, especially women, in bright, colorful and rich costumes. The British called these women «a dolly bird». Also, this expression can denote a person with overly identified dignity that haughty, arrogant, patronizing kept to the other. Synonyms to the Ukrainian phrase are «ходити павичем», «ходити півнем» and «яка пава».
Animalism, revealing analogy and similarity of objects of the animal world and the world, feelings and emotions, identifies system caused by ethnic associations and evaluations. It appears as a certain lens, which in each language in different ways reflecting the views of ethnicity in the animal kingdom. So we found that despite the different history, culture and customs, the concept BIRD like in English and in Ukrainian languages?? is equal and to a greater extent has a positive value.
CONCLUSIONS TO PART II
The culture of the people verbalizes in the language and the language is an accumulating key concept of culture. Established language picture of the world is a subjective image of the objective world and it has the features of human perception of the world, i.e. anthropocentrism, which permeates the whole language.
Then the concepts are like clumps of national and cultural meanings, «link culture». Their study helps to identify a particular worldview of the people and present a conceptual and a national picture of the world.
Depending on the sphereof its functioning we can divide concepts into art, everyday and scientific concepts. The architectonics of the concepts as components of the national scientific picture form the conceptual and evaluative components, in art and everyday conceptsalso shaped semantic component is present.
The concept BIRD which verbalized by means of the English language shall be determined in an undergraduate thesis as a mental unit of an abstract nature that reproduces in the linguistic consciousness the experience of centuries as universal and etnospecific ideas about this animal.
When comparing the linguistic forms that are inherent in the British and Ukrainian culture, these factors do not get much relief, for example, if you compare the American and Japanese culture. The leitmotif of philosophy of the life of the average American or British is a human activity in the construction of their own destiny. Initiative, hard work closely connected with such traits as individualism, focus on your own «I».
In English sentences prevailing definition, specific and active, and Ukrainian are largely impersonal and passive («Не так сталося, як гадалося» / «Man proposes, God disposes»).
Another feature of the British mentality is the tendency to a positive assessment and they usually avoid the negative particle «not» (as opposed to Ukrainian phraseology):ПоказатьСвернуть