- Тип работы:
- Банковское, биржевое дело и страхование
Детальная информация о работе
Выдержка из работы
PLEKHANOV RUSSIAN UNIVERSITY OF ECONOMICS
INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS SCHOOL
Moscow - 2013
The problem of development banking in the world and in Russia in particular is becoming increasingly relevant today. In connection with the state of the Russian economy today, the problem is, I think, requires a thorough study.
Now there are many commercial banks, but not all of them are able to withstand the fierce competition in the market and our goal is, in my opinion, is to help navigate the modern entrepreneur, businessman, and anyone who wants to keep and increase their capital wisely to use their money. Everyone, in one way or another, either permanently or occasionally refers to banking services. Banks, collecting the temporarily idle cash resources, redistribute them among regions and industries, between companies and the public, feed the economy with additional capital, and «energy» resources, creating a framework for augmenting the wealth of society. Russia’s transition to a market economy, improving the efficiency of its operation, providing the necessary infrastructure cannot be achieved without the use and further development of credit relations. Long-term loans play a special role in the economy of the country. They are associated with an investment in the real sector of the economy and can be a major source of raising the technical level of production, and hence competitiveness of our products.
Long-term loans stimulates the development of productive forces, accelerates the formation of sources of capital for the expansion of reproduction on the basis of scientific and technical progress. Long-term loans can have an active influence on the scope and structure of the money supply, payment transactions, the velocity of money. At the same time the loan is required to maintain the continuity of the turnover of assets of existing enterprises, service implementation process of production of goods. The objectives of this work — to try to more fully reveal the theoretical foundations of long-term loans, to understand how to conduct long-term lending to clients, and to determine the basic problem in the credit market.
Chapter 1. Theoretical basis of long-term loans
1.1 The concept of long-term loans
loan credit market financing
Bank has the largest share capital can provide long-term loans. The long-term loans include loans, the terms of repayment exceed 3 years. They serve the need for funds for capital formation, financial assets, as well as certain types of working capital. This is more risky loans, so the bank is going to long-term loans, loans for the development of policies based on their own considerations:
· keep the industry as a client;
· earn extra income.
The objects of long-term loans can be:
· capital investment enterprises in the costs of construction, reconstruction and modernization of industrial and social facilities;
· purchase of machinery, equipment, vehicles and buildings;
· establishment of joint ventures.
Long-term loans are beneficial to small and large businesses. The borrower can use the loan to the long-term, planning to repay it after a few years due to the implementation of the loan, scoring on the difference in interest rates.
The goals of long-term loans are:
· acquisition of equipment necessary for technical re-equipment, modernization, expansion of existing and the creation of new production;
· Construction and installation works related to the construction, reconstruction, technical re-equipment or industrial facilities;
· construction of all types of housing, retail, office, mixed-use complexes, healthcare facilities, education, the arts;
· projects in the field of road construction;
· development of mineral resources with a view to their commercial exploitation;
· acquisition of real estate capital forming in the implementation of investment projects;
· reimbursement of costs previously incurred by the borrower.
Long-term lending is done on the basis of:
· credit agreement;
· Treaty on the non-revolving line of credit, the general agreement on the opening loop line of credit.
The loan agreement with the borrower is subject to a one-time transfer of the loan to the bank or the foreign currency account of the borrower.
Non-revolving credit line is opened for various fees associated with one or more contracts and to cover working capital needs. The contract may be a time schedule for sampling the loan, as payment for the reservation of resources in the event of non-compliance by the borrower graphics resources.
The Framework offers a line of credit to the borrower in the case where the investment project involves several phases of the cost or repeated delivery of the equipment. For the payment of individual shipments under contracts and financing various stages of the project is a separate loan agreement on non-revolving credit line under a general agreement on the opening loop line of credit.
The Bank does not accept credit unprofitable, low-profit and non-profit projects.
The interest rate is set on a contractual basis, which is influenced by the following factors:
· costs of borrowed funds;
· degree of risk;
· repayment period;
· the costs of processing and control;
· rates of other banks;
· bets on the stock market;
· nature of the relationship between banks and borrowers;
· rate of return that can be achieved by investing in other assets.
Issuance of long-term loans can be done at once or in stages as construction and erection works. The specific timing and periodicity of repayment of long-term loans depend on the following factors:
· solvency, financial condition and other indicators of the borrower;
· credit risk;
· the need to accelerate the turnover of credit;
· other factors.
The Bank carries out monitoring of the construction and the intended use of the loan. In case of violation of the contractual relationship the bank applies economic sanctions.
1.2 Types of long-term loans
The credit market, there are various types of long-term loans, so anyone who need this form of loan without problems suits kind of long-term lending.
The following types of long-term loans:
«In the immediate needs.» Loans are granted for the purchase of vehicles, garages, home appliances, payment of medical services and other objects of the consumer nature of the citizens of the Russian Federation at the age of 18 years, provided that the term of repayment of the loan contract comes before the execution of the borrower 75 years with a permanent source of income. Loan term of 5 years.
The maximum amount the bank is not limited and depends on the borrower’s creditworthiness and provided. Unsecured loans are available for up to 1.5 years at a rate of up to 45,000 rubles.
«In real estate,» «Mortgage». Loans are available for purchase, construction, reconstruction, repair of real estate (apartments, houses, other buildings consumer goods, land). Loan term to 20 years. After the registration of the mortgage acquired property interest rate decreases. The maximum loan amount depends on the borrower’s income (family) and provided, but can not exceed 90% of the value of real estate credited with mandatory investment by the borrower’s own funds in the amount of 10% of its value.
«Young Family». Credit is given to the acquisition, construction of real estate to Russian citizens aged 18 years old, married, provided that one of the couple has not reached 30 years of age, and citizens of single-parent families in which the mother (father) not reached 30 years of age. Loan term 20 years (up to 25 years of delays in the provision for repayment of principal).
After the registration of the mortgage acquired property interest rate decreases. The maximum loan amount depends on the borrower’s creditworthiness and may not exceed 95% of the purchase price of the property for a young family with a child (ren), or 90% of the purchase price of the property for a young family with no children. The rest of the cost is paid from the funds to the loan.
«Credit for the citizens of the leading private farming.» Loans are granted to citizens of Russia in rubles, at the age of 18 years, provided that the term of repayment of the loan contract comes before the execution of the borrower 75 years, either in cash, or by bank transfer.
Loan term is defined earmarked credit:
· up to 2 years for the purchase of fuel and lubricants, spare parts and materials for the repair of agricultural machinery and livestock buildings, fertilizers, plant protection products and other material resources to carry out seasonal work, a list of which is approved by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation;
· up to 5 years for the purchase of small-sized agricultural machinery, livestock, equipment for animal husbandry and agro-processing, reconstruction, modernization and construction of livestock buildings.
The maximum loan amount under the loan agreements entered into with a borrower for two years, must not exceed 300 thousand rubles.
«Car Loan.» Credit is given to citizens of the Russian Federation at the age of 18 years, the place of registration, the purchase of a car or other vehicle (motorcycle, scooter, trailer, boat, boats, etc.), foreign and domestic, new or used (city).
The maximum loan amount the bank is not limited and depends on the solvency of the borrower (the total income of the spouses), but cannot exceed the price of the purchased vehicle (the vehicle).
An additional condition — the borrower is obliged to register the car (vehicle) and give the bank a certificate of registration and certificate of the vehicle insured in favor of the bank to pledge the car (or other vehicle).
«Pension Credit.» Credit is given to citizens of Russia who have reached retirement age (55 for women and 60 for men). Prerequisite is the repayment of a loan to the Borrower’s 75 years old.
Maximum loan amount is determined by the bank based on the borrower’s creditworthiness. The bank may take in calculating the amount of pension credit and / or income in the workplace.
Chapter 2. Long-term loans customers
2.1 Characteristics of the branch of Sberbank of Russia
Far East Bank of Sberbank of Russia is a branch of the Savings Bank of the Russian Federation (Open Joint Stock Company) — the largest national bank, the leader of the banking system. Far East Bank of Sberbank of Russia was created January 1, 2001, it was composed of regional banks Sberbank working in the five regions of the Federation — Primorsky and Khabarovsk, Amur and Jewish Autonomous and Sakhalin regions. The central office is located in the city of Khabarovsk — the capital of the Far Eastern Federal District. The Bank combines 23 branches, 451 internal division, including 285 additional offices located on the North-Kurilsk to Blagoveshchensk and from Nakhodka to Okhotsk. It employs more than 8.5 million people. Today, Far East Bank of Sberbank of Russia — the largest bank in the Far East in terms of equity, total assets, loans, other indicators. Assets of the large regional banks gives leeway significant cash resources, enables us to provide substantial financial support to the real sector of the economy of the region. Branches of the Far Eastern Russian bank Sberbank, combined into a single network, providing a full range of banking services at the present level, not only in the largest cities of the region, but also in remote areas of Eastern Russia. High Commissioners of the bank, membership in international financial institutions, private settlement system linking more than 20 thousand institutions of Sberbank of Russia, can carry out a wide range of banking operations in the shortest possible time. Far Eastern Bank, established January 1, 2001 on the basis of Primorye, Khabarovsk and Amur regional banks Sberbank of Russia, was not just a follower established good traditions of banking experience, but also demonstrated a high rate of development. As of May 1, 2006 balance sheet of Far East Bank of Sberbank of Russia exceeded 90 billion rubles., The loan portfolio of 41.9 billion rubles., The bank received a profit 660 million rub. Rost indicators directly related to the expansion of the range and improving the quality of services provided by increasing the number of transactions, the growing number of customers who have made their choice in favor of Sberbank. Far East Bank of Sberbank of Russia — a universal commercial bank offering a wide range of quality banking services to businesses and individuals. The Bank provides cash management services to corporate clients in the national foreign currency services to participants of foreign economic activity, lending, depository operations and conducts brokerage in the stock market, dealing with international plastic cards and card speaker Sberkart. Complex service, reasonable prices, advanced technology, professional bank staff, stability, and reliability — these are the benefits that receive corporate clients in the Savings Bank. Maintenance of the population — one of the top priorities of the bank. Probably not in the adult citizen of Russia, who at least once not taken advantage of service Sberbank — so vast their range. It’s contributions to the various categories of the population from young people to seniors, receiving all kinds of payments, money transfers in Russia and abroad, settlement and traveler’s checks, bills of exchange, and the Savings Bank. The Bank is actively involved in the implementation of social programs administered by the state. Far East Bank of Sberbank of Russia is committed to providing each customer’s needs, including private, corporate and government, banking services of high quality and reliability, effectively placing attracted from individuals and legal entities investing money in the real sector, contributing to the economic development of the Far East. Savings Bank of the Russian Federation (open joint stock company), registration number 1481 to the State Register of credit institutions included in the list of banks — participants of the deposit insurance system January 11, 2005 under the number 417.
Sberbank of Russia is commissioned by the Government of the Russian Federation on the implementation of government programs.
At the end of the contest «Amurchane choose popular brand in 2006» to be held in 2000 the program «ABC consumer» and the newspaper «Two plus two» branch of Sberbank of Russia won the gold award in the category «Bank offering better credit system. «
Sberbank of Russia today passed more than 165 — year-old way of formation and development — from the first savings banks to the largest universal bank. Overcoming this is a complex and difficult time, Sberbank of Russia retained the financial stability, high reliability, won the leadership and authority in the banking world and became a truly national bank.
2.2 Terms and conditions of lending to households in `Sberbank' of Russia
Credit transactions are relations between the lender and the borrower to provide last a certain amount of cash on the terms of repayment, maturity and payment.
Savings Bank of the Russian Federation shall issue loans to individuals within its available credit. Loans are granted in rubles and foreign currency. Sberbank of Russia perform their lending to Russian citizens who have permanent registration (residence permit) and a steady income. With the exception of military personnel who have a temporary residence permit. Credit is given to citizens aged 18 to 70 years, provided that the term of repayment of the loan contract comes before the execution of the borrower 75 years.
To obtain a loan the borrower must provide the following documents:
· Passport or document
· Certificate of employment of the borrower and guarantors of income and the amount of deductions made
· Passport guarantors and mortgagors
Making loans in rubles is in any institution Sberbank of Russia. Registration of foreign currency loans carry departments (sectors) lending branches of the Savings Bank of Russia on the place, where the borrower. Issuance of loans are based on credit agreements concluded between the bank and individual borrowers.
The decision to grant the loan is taken:
· on loans for the purchase of real estate — Credit Committee
· loans for urgent needs:
· Branch Manager, Director of Operations Department (Chief of the Opera) — with the amount of the loan up to 3 million dollar or its equivalent at the time of treatment of the borrower to the bank.
· credit committee of separation — if the loan amount of more than 3 million rubles, or the dollar equivalent of that amount at the time of treatment of the borrower to the bank.
Time for consideration of the issue of the loan should not exceed from the date of the full package of documents before making a decision 15 days — on loans for urgent needs, and 1 month — on loans for the purchase of real estate.
On the loan the borrower pays interest. Payment of interest on a monthly basis, along with the repayment of the loan, starting from the 1st of the month following the month of the loan agreement (if the contract is concluded at the end of the month may be defined in the contract to begin repaying the loan and interest a month later). The interest rate is set by the Committee of Sberbank of Russia on interest rates and limits.
In establishing the new interest rate of the credit agreement shall be amended accordingly.
In the case of reducing the interest rate the bank to amend the Agreement to unilaterally from the date on which the new rate. In the case of the interest rate the bank within three working days of receiving written notice of it shall notify the guarantor and the borrower to change the terms of the loan agreement telegrams or registered mail, return receipt requested. Changing the terms of the agreement shall enter into force two months after sending the notice. In this case, the borrower has the right to repay the entire amount of the loan on the terms of charging the same interest rate for three months from the date of sending the notice.
Savings Bank provides loans for the purchase of real estate. It must be remembered that the acquired property is made as collateral, but the property remains in the possession of the borrower and use.
Sberbank offers a choice of mortgages, «Mortgage loan» shall be issued for the purchase of a house or apartment, and the property may be under construction or ready. «Mortgage». This type of loan is issued for the acquisition of real estate, construction, reconstruction, repair of other properties that are built or being built without the participation of credit funds of the Savings Bank of Russia or its affiliates. «Young Family». Age of potential clients of Sberbank under this program must be between 18 and 30 years.
In 2005, the highest rate of developing long-term operations of housing loans, which shows the growing interest of the population in the targeted credit program Sberbank. The portfolio of housing loans increased during the year by 2.1 times — up to 71.6 billion rubles. Its share in the loan portfolios of private clients of the Bank increased to 15. 2%. The most dynamic development of the program «Mortgage loan», the balance of which the end of the year exceeded 3 billion rubles, «Young Family» — the balance was 17.0 billion rubles.
Along with the standard of housing programs to address the housing problems of the private bank offers customers numerous individual schemes within the framework of agreements concluded with the administrations of different levels. To date, in 29 subjects of the Russian Federation, in conjunction with the Bank sold 75 regional housing programs, in which borrowers in 2005 granted about 16,000 loans amounting to 3.0 billion rubles.
As part of long-term loans Bank continued to actively cooperate with the companies to finance projects in housing, construction of shopping malls, the development of trade networks, the construction of multipurpose and office complexes, lending to construction industry and provided the preconditions for further market promotion fund construction projects. On January 1, 2006 balance of debt on loans to Sberbank of Russia to finance construction projects amounted to 91.4 billion rubles, which exceeds the previous year by more than 80%. The total area of the construction of which is financed by Bank lending has increased in the reporting period by 48. 9% - to 14.5 million square meters.
Thus, the Bank provides long-term loans for the purchase, renovation and repair of the property. For the rest of 2006 provided long-term loans increased from 5.4 billion rubles to 9.4 million rubles.
But there is trouble for the Savings Bank. Over the past year, Sberbank lost more than 5% of the market of long-term ruble-denominated loans — one of the most promising areas of lending. Such data are the agency «Rus-Rating» in the next review of the «Russian banks in the retail business.» Analysts believe that Sberbank’s share in this segment will continue to decline — its competitors are better positioned loans to buy cars and homes. According to estimates, «Rus-Rating», on July 1, 2005, banks issued a population of just over 700 billion rubles. loans. Of these short-term loans (up to one year) accounted for 16%, for medium-term (one to three years) — 27% and long-term loans (over three years) — 57%. The majority of long-term loans (84%) was issued in rubles. In the long-term lending Sberbank — the undisputed leader. According to estimates, «Rus-Rating», its market share of long-term foreign currency loans — 48. 3%. And in terms of long-term loans in rubles bank until recently was almost a monopoly: in the middle of 2004 it owned 93% of the market. However, over the years the competitors managed to move the Savings Bank, reducing its stake by more than 5%. This segment is the most attractive for the banks: this includes mortgages, car loans and long, providing quality collateral. In the segment of long-term loans in rubles Sberbank’s share really started to decline.
2.3 Financing of investment projects
Organizations are turning to the bank in order to obtain long-term loans to finance investment nature.
Investment loans — financing of the investment project in the form of credit (issuing guarantees, the organization of lease financing) in which the source of repayment of liabilities is the whole economic and financial activities of the borrower, including income derived from the sale of the financed project.
The investment project — a comprehensive program of cash invested in the production facility in order to generate revenue in the future.
Depending on the parameters of the investment project in the contracts the schedule of repayment, which means the sample period during which the borrower can use the open credit line limit, and the fee for reservation of resources, in cases of non-compliance by the borrower sampling schedule resources.
When financing of investment projects the bank will charge a fee from the borrower:
· for the opening of the credit line;
· opening credit accounts;
· use of credit line limit;
· resource reservation;
· arranging finance and project evaluation;
· partial fulfillment of the conditions of the loan agreement to the requirements for its security and more.
The fee is charged depending on the species, the nature of the complexity of the operations.
When you call the bank a potential borrower submits an application for funding stating the purpose, amount, timing and possible support. Credit department asks the borrower the necessary documents for assessing the project, and after analyzing the documents of pre-trial detention.
Analysis of the project and its participants include verification of:
· the financial condition of a potential borrower on the basis of financial statements;
· credit history;
· organizational structure of the borrower (organizational — legal form of the founders, their share in the authorized capital, the degree of protection of the interests of banks in the project);
· parameters and structure of the project.
Providing a loan is considered:
· legal department — in terms of the legal capacity of the borrower, guarantor, the guarantor and the mortgagor;
· security services — in terms of the presence or absence of negative information about the activities and reputation of the borrower and other project participants and checking their credit history;
· Department of risks — to assign to a particular category of borrower credit risk and limit the size of the risk to the borrower.
The activities of banks that provide investment loans must meet certain requirements:
· to have an investment strategy;
· determine the amount of long-term resources necessary to ensure their mobilization;
· use of modern information technology in the evaluation of investment projects;
· create a specialized investment bank unit carrying out the analysis of investment projects, their selection and implementation.
Investment lending requires a team of highly qualified specialists in the field of investment, in addition, it involves high costs — higher than the average for all other banking operations.
The largest commercial banks link their investment strategy with leading industry companies, trying to acquire controlling stakes in the most promising enterprises or create a holding company, entering the advice on the management of this company.
Sberbank is consistently implementing a strategy for increasing the volume of long-term lending operations of enterprises in various sectors of the economy, by increasing the flexibility of lending conditions, the expansion of the product range, taking into account the individual needs of the client.
Over 2005 companies and organizations were given loans for investment purposes in at 175.1 billion rubles. Started to finance new investment projects in various sectors of the economy: communications, aluminum production, oil exploration, construction of port facilities for the transshipment of oil, as well as financing and leasing of aircraft and more.
Bank’s loan portfolio in terms of investment financing for January 1, 2006 totaled 305, 5 billion rubles (including debt in rubles is 65. 0%).
Bank credit to the work places special emphasis on accelerating the development of investment lending operations, carrying out the modernization, renovation, expansion and creation of new industries that will produce competitive products.
Chapter 3. Risk — the main problem in the credit market
To expand lending to the real sector of the economy is necessary to solve the problem of credit risk. Credit quality improved after a long period, which began in mid-1999, has stabilized at historically high levels. The share of doubtful loans in the loan portfolio of banks is at 5. 4%, which is almost two times lower than before the crisis.
At the same time, of the magnitude of credit risk can be measured by economic indicators such as the volume of overdue loans (in 2005 it amounted to 33 736 million), the average percentage of bad loans (in 2005 it was 8%), the proportion of enterprises debtors and businesses with a «bad» credit history. High credit risks holding back supply of loans from banks.
It is also necessary to note a number of factors, due to which many banks are still quite high to assess the risks of lending. First of all, we should distinguish between the credit risks caused by the activities of the borrowing enterprises, and credit risks that arise in the commercial banks.
Unfortunately, the majority of industries in recent years are experiencing severe financial difficulties and losses arising from their performance is almost not reduced. Lack of ability to pay — the factor that determines the high level of risk when lending to such enterprises. In addition, the tax burden often forces companies to conduct «double» accounts that do not allow the bank to properly assess how its financial position, and calculate the level of credit risk.
High credit risks caused not only by the financial condition of enterprises (low profitability and unprofitability), but also their technical equipment. Much of the industry is unable to produce competitive products, the implementation of which will allow to repay the loan.
A significant factor of credit risk — the lack of a credit history of borrowers. It should be noted that many businesses, borrowers have not actually returned their loans, the repayment term loans of many more to come, or are prolonged.
At present, we can say that increased competition in the credit market leads to lower their demands by some banks to the borrower. Not possible to assess the real risks today. It is estimated that 20 to 60% of the loans can be «bad». If you do not provide for the possibility of adverse developments do not lay it to the bank’s strategy and to continue lending policy, based on the expectations of different market conditions, the quality of the loan portfolio may decline for a long time without distorting the formal indicators of reliability.
Plays an important role methodical and normative basis for the organization of the credit process. The situation is that each commercial bank, based on their experience, developing attitudes and lending system. This is despite the fact that although there are immutable general organizational framework, reflecting international and domestic experience, which would help banks to significantly streamline credit relationship with the customer and improve the repayment of loans. In foreign banks the main factor in creating an effective credit risk management system was the development of a common credit culture through the implementation of comprehensive guidelines for the initiation, analysis, decision making and monitoring of individual loans.
Currently, most commercial banks are limited to the presence of the credit department, the activity of which is reduced to the conclusion and execution of the loan agreements. The task of strategic planning, methodological support and guidance, analysis and monitoring of the conditions of the credit transaction are not solved. As a result, the level of organization of the credit at many banks is very low, which increases their credit risks.
Separation of powers of credit at commercial banks is intended to improve the efficiency of their credit departments, to determine the degree of competence of the employees at every level of the hierarchical structure of the bank, giving them certain rights and strictly controlling the responsibility of every employee.
To improve the process of lending to commercial banks should establish quality information and analytical support. No the most advanced method of analysis or risk assessment of the borrower does not give reliable results if the original information is not complete or unreliable.
Who can provide the workers with credit departments with quality information to make informed decisions in the lending process? Today it is an open question for the vast majority of Russian banks. There are many sources of information: the very applicant, the project, the financial statements, credit information agencies, competitors, employees, bank history, public information, appraisers, insurance agent client. A very promising in the absence of Credit Bureau of cooperation in the field of database storage for insolvent or is not fulfilling its obligations to customers. In particular, the Savings Bank could provide a wealth of information, as its branch network covers all regions of the country.
In the West, there are independent credit agencies that provide information about the financial position of both the bank and the borrower firm. In the U.S. alone, there are about 3 million credit agencies possessing credit histories of most individuals and many entities who have ever applied for a loan. Association «Robert Morris» prepares an annual report on the borrowers on the basis of information provided by loan officers who work in banks — members of the Association.
In the U.S., widespread exchange of information on lending. Under the auspices of the National Association of credit control thousands of credit managers constantly meet to exchange views and experiences.
The creation of credit bureaus in Russia — recurring theme. The main difficulty is due to the high cost of data collection, legislative restrictions, as well as the reluctance of most of the major lending institutions to share information about their customers: such information is reasonably considered to be an important competitive advantage for its collection and analysis already been spent significant financial and other resources. Thus, there are serious obstacles to the formation of full-fledged credit bureau — regardless of whether they are based on the principles of voluntary or mandatory.
That is why one credit bureau must stages, and as a first step should be to establish on the basis of the Central Bank of open information system containing data on unscrupulous borrowers. Bank of Russia may collect and store such information, and to notify the credit institution at its request information on enrollment in the «black list». Important to ensure that this kind of exchange of information is not violated the secrecy.
Analysis of the current practice of the Russian loan customers has shown that the best way to assess the credit worthiness can be determined only on the basis of the specific circumstances of each transaction. It is obvious that a single unified methodology for analyzing the creditworthiness of customers can not be due to different regional conditions, credit policies of banks, their priorities and constraints, demographic characteristics of the region, the level of competition and other factors. Therefore, every Russian commercial bank in its credit policy should develop its own methodology for analyzing the creditworthiness of customers and with changes in operating conditions, market conditions and priorities of monetary policy to make the necessary adjustments.
Credit workers often pay too much attention to the analysis software. However, the decision to grant the loan must be based on an analysis of fact-funded activities, and not on the attractiveness of software. The issue of securing should already be solved after the credit transaction is deemed acceptable in terms of risk and return of assets as a result of the credit facility.
In the Russian context is necessary to apply modern financial instruments, in particular:
· complex financial transactions that reduce the real interest rate for the loan (it should be available for the benefit of the borrower and the lender) by optimal combination available to the bank’s financial products. The accessible resource, the higher the demand for it, and the more fully can be used by the existing loan and investment potential;
· promising new types of credit transactions (overdraft, leasing, factoring, forfeiting, etc.).
It is essential to the development of concepts and methods of strategic planning and management of the bank.
The risk of credit investments in the real sector increases due to complex and unpredictable litigation procedure in the event of borrower’s default under the credit agreement. As the Russian practice, the decision of the Court of First Instance, as a rule, challenged one of the parties (in the majority of cases — the bank) to a higher court, and so on until the Supreme Arbitration Court. As a result, the trial could be delayed more than a year, during which the bank is forced to somehow compensate for liquidity due to loan default. Therefore, banks are trying to deal mainly with those companies with which they are somehow institutionally linked. Lending company in the framework of the same financial and industrial obedineim «, in contrast to other types of loans is almost risk-free.
It should be noted that the actual practice of the lack of application of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation in terms of economic crime and the lack of mechanisms for tracing the debtor under the Law on Enforcement Proceedings forced banks to follow a conservative credit policy, significantly reduce the potential development of credit operations in Russia. In addition, and in fact there is no legal mechanism to identify deliberately fictitious loans. However, even if it is proved that the lender and the borrower initially made aware of the following non-repayment of the loan for any of the participants in such fictitious transactions existing legislation does not provide for any liability.
Also, in accordance with international practice, in case of bankruptcy of the borrower pledged property must be derived from the bankruptcy estate. And the need to improve the technique itself foreclosure on the collateral, initiating appropriate procedures for this: to create a registration system for mortgages and property rights, to provide the mortgagee the right to introduce temporary control of the mortgaged property by assigning them to the selected control and so on.
The absence of the above civilized norms significantly impairs the possibility of lending. Bankers are justifiably believe that prime borrowers in the country until a little bit, and to work with others, they have to take into account the risks, increasing the value of money and eventually narrowing the field of lending. Addressing the legal protection of creditors' rights will significantly reduce the risks (and hence interest rates), and the banks will be able to actively stimulate an economic growth of the country.
Summing up the above, we emphasize again: the development of credit relations of commercial banks with the real sector of the economy depends on government policy and on the work and efforts of commercial banks and the borrowing enterprises. Among the most important activities that contribute to the development of these relations, it is necessary to distinguish three: the creation of a perfect legal framework organization lending to commercial banks, raising the level of capitalization and the creation of long-term resource base of commercial banks, reducing credit risk.
Through long-term lending is a faster process of capitalization of profits, and hence the concentration of production. He can play a significant role in the implementation of the program of privatization of state and municipal property on the basis of shareholding enterprises. The condition for placement on the market is the accumulation of significant monetary and capital concentration in the credit system. Credit system in the face of banks is also actively involved in the issue and offering of shares. Long-term credit stimulates the development of productive forces, accelerates the formation of sources of capital for the expansion of reproduction on the basis of scientific and technical progress.
Regulating access to the borrowers loan market by providing government guarantees and benefits, the state directs banks to preferential lending those businesses and industries, the activity of which is within the scope of the national socio-economic development. The state can use long-term loan to stimulate capital investment, housing, exports, development of backward regions.
So, long-term loans — are loans offered bank, a period of over three years. Savings Bank of Russia provides long-term loans to individuals within its available credit. We select some of the benefits of long-term bank loans:
· a longer period of the loan;
· lower interest rate;
· more than the loan amount.
Long-term loans are used for investment purposes. They serve the movement of fixed assets, differing large volumes transferred credit. Apply for loans reconstruction, modernization, new construction enterprises of all spheres of activity. Special development long-term loans received in capital construction, fuel and energy complex.
12. Поред В.В.и другие… «Деньги, кредит, банки». — М.
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