Metaphorical expressions describing emotional state of a person in modern romantic novels

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Part I Metaphor in cognitive studies

1.1 The conceptual metaphors. The types of metaphors

1.2 The conceptual metaphor as a set of mappings

1.3 The role of metaphor and figurative language in the conceptualization of emotion

1.4 Metaphor in literature

Part II Metaphorization of emotions and feelings in the romantic novels

2. 1The metaphorical structure of emotions and feelings in the romantic novels

2.1.1 Love metaphors

2.1.2 Happiness/delight metaphors

2.1.3 Surprise metaphors

2.1.4 Fear metaphors

2.1.5 Anger metaphors

2.1.6 Sadness metaphors

2.1.7 Shame metaphors

2.1.8 Lust metaphors

2.2 The Analysis of main source domains of metaphors describing feelings and emotions

Part III Methodological part: recommendations and set of exercises designed FOR STUDENTS OF INTERMEDIATE AND UPPER-INTERMEDIATE LEVEL




At all times poets and writers have to convey their perception of feelings and emotions. They use metaphorical expressions in order to create a specific image in a novel. Metaphors may help capture the vividness of phenomenal experience.

They serve to paint the richer and more detailed pictures of our individual experience than it may be expressed literally.

Metaphor is one of our most important tools for trying to comprehend partially what cannot be comprehended totally: our feelings, emotions, aesthetic experiences, moral practices, and spiritual awareness.

The impetuous development of language gives a new manifestation of metaphors of emotions and feelings to the cognitive science.

There is a lot of confusion about the difference between feelings and emotions. Emotions are part of the expression of the personality.

Feelings are an expression of the soul.

Feelings in a general sense, are what we may feel in any part of our body. These may be simple body sensations, such as hot or cold, pain, a touch or else they may be feelings associated with emotions.

Emotions, on the other hand, are feelings or reactions about someone or something, and usually involving our ego. We are angry about someone, afraid of something, in love with someone.

In our work we will not distinguish between feelings and emotions we will use them like synonyms, as emotion is viewed here as a particular manifestation of the feeling and feelings are conveyed via emotions.

Unfortunately at school the emotional language and metaphor itself are still neglected.

Thus, the topic of our research paper is «Metaphorical expressions describing emotional state of a person in modern romantic novels. «

Topicality: The topicality of our work lies in the fact that it is always important to know how to create and to understand a poetic language. Conscious feelings are often expressed in feelings shaped by language, and the study of language can reveal a great deal about them.

The topicality is also determined by growing popularity of romantic novels in the last decades and the fact that the language authors use to write them is not studied in the cognitive point of view.

The object of the research: metaphorical expressions used to describe feelings and emotions in modern romantic novels.

Subject of the research: conceptual metaphors used for conceptualization of feelings such as anger, fear, love, happiness, sadness, shame, lust and surprise.

The aim of the research consists in the analysis of frequency of usage of certain metaphorical source domains applied to the emotion concepts in romantic novels. To achieve the aim we have to fulfill certain tasks:

· to study the theoretical literature on this topic;

· to find the examples of metaphors of emotions in romantic novels;

· to analyze metaphorical mappings of emotions such as anger, fear, love, happiness, sadness, shame, lust and surprise;

· to display the variety of metaphorical source domains that are used for conceptualization of feelings and emotions;

· to design a set of exercises for the students of intermediate and upper-intermediate level.

Methods of research:

· the analytical studying of the scientific works on metaphor;

· the method of conceptual analysis of the metaphors;

· analysis of dictionary definitions for the identification of the fixed means of the expression of the emotional state;

· the method of total sampling of emotion metaphors from the romantic novels;

· method of the conceptual analysis in terms of conceptual metaphor for the disclosure of the cognitive mechanisms of the realization of the emotional state of the character;

The scientific novelty of the research lies in substantiation of metaphor’s role in creation romantic novels. This question is not well-discussed in literature, and in our work we give the analysis of the metaphorical manifestation of feelings and emotions.

The material for the linguistic analysis: Susan Wiggs «The Charm School», Sidney Sheldon «Bloodline», Heather Graham «Night, sea and stars». During the research 250 examples of metaphorical expressions have been collected and analyzed.

The practical value of the paper lies in that the results of the research can be used in the courses of stylistics, in studying the emotional plan of the text. Also it can serve as a scientific material for writing a course paper.

Our research paper consists of the introduction, three main parts, the first part consist of four subdivisions; the second part includes two subdivisions and eight diagrams of frequency; the third part with methodological recommendations; the conclusion and the references. Total amount of pages -- 64.

To exemplify or theoretical issues we use the following reference identifications:

S.S.B sands for Sydney Sheldon — «Bloodline».

S.W stands for Susan Wiggs — «The Charm School»,

G.N stands for Graham H. — «Night, sea and stars. «

I. Metaphor in cognitive studies

1.1 The conceptual metaphor. The types of metaphors

In the cognitive linguistic view, metaphor is defined as understanding one conceptual domain in terms of another conceptual domain. Examples of this include when we talk and think about life in terms of journeys, about arguments in terms of war, about love also in terms of journeys, about theories in terms of buildings; about ideas in terms of food, about social organizations in terms of plants, and many others. A convenient shorthand way of capturing this view of metaphor is the following: conceptual domain (a) is conceptual domain (b), which is what is called a conceptual metaphor. A conceptual metaphor consists of two conceptual domains, in which one domain is understood in terms of another. A conceptual domain is any coherent organization of experience. Thus, for example, we have «coherently organized knowledge about journeys that we rely on in understanding life.

We thus need to distinguish conceptual metaphor from metaphorical linguistic expressions. The latter are words or other linguistic expressions that come from the language or terminology of the more concrete conceptual domain (i.e., domain в). Thus, all the expressions above that have to do with life and that come from the domain of journey are linguistic metaphorical expressions, whereas the corresponding conceptual metaphor that they make manifest is life is a journey. The use of small capital letters indicates that the particular wording does not occur in language as such, but it underlies conceptually all the metaphorical expressions listed underneath it.

The two domains that participate in conceptual metaphor have special names. The conceptual domain from which we draw metaphorical expressions to understand another conceptual domain is called source domain, while the conceptual domain that is understood this way is the target domain. [11: 5−6]

Thus, life, arguments, love, theory, ideas, social organizations, and others are target domains, while journeys, war, buildings, food, plants, and others arc source domains.

The target domain is the domain that we try to understand through the use of the source domain.

Metaphors can be conceptual and linguistic. Conceptual metaphors involve two concepts and have the form A is B, where concept A is understood in terms of concept B. Linguistic metaphors, or metaphorical linguistic expressions, are linguistic manifestation of conceptual metaphor. [25: 500]

Metaphors can be classified in many ways. Four of these are especially relevant to the cognitive linguistic view of metaphor; classification according to the conventionality, function, nature, and level of generality of metaphor.

Both linguistic and conceptual metaphors may be highly conventionalized or they may be unconventional, or novel. We have seen that a highly conventional conceptual metaphor may receive expression by means of a highly unconventional metaphorical linguistic expression.

According to their cognitive function conceptual metaphors can be of three kinds: structural, orientational, and ontological. Structural metaphors map the structure of the source domain onto the structure of the target and in this way allow speakers to understand one domain in terms of another. Orientational metaphors have primarily an evaluative function. They make large groups of metaphors coherent with each other. Ontological metaphors provide extremely fundamental but very crude, understanding for target concepts. These fundamental but crude understandings often serve as the bases of structural metaphors. Conceptual metaphors may utilize not only (propositional) knowledge but also images of various kinds (including not only visual images). Images that have extremely general schematic structure are called image-schemas. Image-schemas of various sorts, such as the container or force schemas, structure many abstract concepts metaphorically. Images that are not based on recurrent experience with a generic structure but capture a specific experience are called one-shot images. These can also participate in metaphorical understanding.

Conceptual metaphors can also be specific-level and generic-level. Most conceptual metaphors are at the specific level, in that they employ concepts that are at a specific level of generality. Some conceptual metaphors are generic-level, such as events are actions and generic is specific. Generic-level metaphors have special jobs designed for them in the working of our metaphorical conceptual system. [4: 13]

1.2 The conceptual metaphor as a set of mappings

To characterize the relationship between two concepts (a and в) in the metaphorical process, scientists usually say that a is understood in terms of b.

There is a set of systematic correspondences: between the source and the target in the sense that constituent conceptual elements оf b correspond to constituent elements of a. Technically, these conceptual correspondences are often referred to as mappings.

Let us look at some cases where elements of the source domain are mapped onto elements of the target domain. Let’s take the love is a journey conceptual metaphor first. When we use the sentence We aren’t going anywhere, the expression go somewhere indicates traveling to a destination, in this particular sentence, a journey which has no clear destination. The word we obviously refers to the travelers involved. This sentence then gives us three constituent elements of journeys: the travelers, the travel or the journey; as such and the destination. However, when we hear this sentence in the appropriate context, we will interpret it to be about love, and we will know that the speaker of the sentence has in mind not real travelers but lovers, not a physical journey but the events in a love relationship, and not a physical destination at end of the journey but thee goal (s) of the love relationship, The sentence The relationship is foundering suggests that somehow relationships are conceptually equated with the vehicles used in journeys. The sentence It’s been a humpy road is not about the physical obstacles on the way but about the difficulties that the lovers experience in their relationship. Furthermore, talking about love, the speaker of We’ve made a lot of headway will mean that a great deal of progress has been made in the relationship, and not that the travelers traveled far. And the sentence We’re at a crossroads will mean that choices have to be made in the relationship, and not that a traveler has to decide which way to go at a fork in the road. [12: 23−25]

Given these interpretations a scientists can lay out a set of correspondences, or mappings between constituent elements of the source and those of the target. (In giving the correspondences, or mappings, they reverse the target-source order of the conceptual metaphors to yield source-target. This convention is adopted to emphasize the point that understanding typically goes from the more concrete to the more abstract concept.)

Source: journey Target: love

the travelers => the lovers

the vehicle => the love relationship itself

the journey => events in the relationship

the distance covered => the progress made

the obstacles encountered => the difficulties experienced

decisions about which way to go choices about what to do

the destination of the journey => the goal (s) of the relationship

This is the systematic set of correspondences, or mappings, that characterize the love is a journey conceptual metaphor. Constituent elements of conceptual domain a are in systematic correspondence with constituent elements of conceptual domain в. From this discussion it might seem that the elements in the target domain have been there all along and that people came up with this metaphor because there were preexisting similarities between the elements in the two domains. This is not so. The domain of love did not have these elements before it was structured by the domain of journey. It was the application of the journey domain to the love domain that provided the concept of love with this particular structure or set of elements. In a way, it was the concept of journey that «created» the concept of love. [24: 12]

For us to see that this is so, Kхvecses shows an experiment.

«Try to imagine the goal, choice, difficulty, progress, etc. aspects of love without making use of the journey domain. Can you think of the goal of a love relationship without at the same time thinking of trying to reach a destination at the end of a journey? Can you think of the progress made in a love relationship without at the same time imagining the distance covered in a journey? Can you think of the choices made in a love relationship without thinking of choosing a direction in a journey? The difficulty of doing this shows that the target of love is not structured independently of and prior to the domain of journey.» [10: 47]

In talking about the elements that structure a target domain, it is often difficult to name the elements without recourse to the language of the source. In the present example, we talk about the goals associated with love, but this is just a slightly «disguised» way of talking about destinations given in the source; the word goal has an additional literal or physical use--not just a metaphorical one. In the same way, the word progress also has a literal or physical meaning and it comes from a word meaning «step, go.» These examples show that many elements of target concepts come from source domains and are not preexisting. [18: 19]

We can now consider another example of how correspondences, or mappings, make up a conceptual metaphor described by George Lakoff.

social organizations are plants

He works for the local branch of the bank.

Our company is growing.

They had to prune the workforce.

The organization was rooted in the old church.

There is now a flourishing black market in software there.

His business blossomed when the railways put his establishment within reach of the big city.

Employers reaped enormous benefits from cheap foreign labor.

This seems to be characterized by the following set of mappings:

Source: plant

(a) the whole plant

(b) a part of the plant

© growth of the plant

(d) removing a part of the plant

(e) the root of the plant

(f) the flowering

(g) the fruits or crops

Target: social organization

the entire organization

a part of the organization

development of the organization reducing the organization

the origin of the organization

the best stage, the most successful stage

the beneficial consequences

Notice that in this case as well, constituent elements of plants correspond systematically to constituent elements of social organizations, such as companies, and the words that are used about plants are employed systematically in connection with organizations. This correspondence can be seen in all of the mappings, except mapping (a), which is merely assumed by the sentence: «He works for the local branch of the bank.» The mappings (indicated by the letters used above) and the matching expressions that make them manifest in the plants metaphor are listed below: (b) Branch, © is growing, (d) prune, (e) root, (f) blossom, flower, (g) fruits. [ 13: 3−4]

love is war metaphor and its mappings presented by Zoltбn Kхvecses [11: 13]:

1 the battles in the war

2 the belligerents in the war

3 the damage in the war to the belligerents

4 the strategies for the war actions

5 the victory of a belligerent

6 the surrender to a belligerent

the events of the love relationship

the lovers in the love relationship

the damage in love to the lovers

plans for the love relationship

the dominance of a partner

to allow the partner to take control

The linguistic data on which this study was based indicate that to understand what the metaphor means we need to know the systematic mappings between a source and a target. It is not suggested that this happens in a conscious manner. This knowledge is largely unconscious, and it is only for the purposes of analysis, that we bring mappings into awareness. However when we know a conceptual metaphor, we use the linguistic expressions that reflect it in such a way that we do not violate the mappings that are conventionally fixed for the linguistic community. In other words, not any element of в can be mapped onto any element of a. The linguistic expressions used metaphorically must conform to established mappings, or correspondences, between the source and the target.

1.3 The role of metaphor and figurative language in the conceptualization of emotion

When scholars deal with emotion language, many of them assume that this language simply consists of a dozen or so words, such as anger, fear, love, joy, and so forth. But Zoltбn Kхvecses insist that this is just a small fraction of our emotion language.

There are expressive and descriptive emotion words (or terms or expressions). Some emotion words can express emotions. For example the word wow! when you are impressed. It is an open question whether all emotions can be expressed in this way, and which are the ones that cannot and why. Other emotion words can describe the emotions they signify or that «they are about.» Words like anger and angry, joy and happy, sadness and depressed are assumed to be used in such a way. It should be noted that under certain circumstances descriptive emotion terms can also «express» particular emotions. An example is «I love you!» where the descriptive emotion word love is used both to describe and express the emotion of love. [2: 40]

Within the category of descriptive emotion words, the terms can be seen as «more or less basic.» Speakers of a given language appear to feel that some of the emotion words are more basic than others. More basic ones include in English anger, sadness, fear, joy, and love. Less basic ones include annoyance, wrath, rage, and indignation for anger and terror, fright, and horror for fear.

Basicness can mean two things: one is that these words (the concepts corresponding to them) occupy a middle level in a vertical hierarchy of concepts. In this sense, say, anger is more basic than, for example, annoyance or emotion. Anger, because it is a «basic-level» emotion category, lies between the superordinate-level category emotion and the subordinate-level category of annoyance. This is depicted in Figure 1.1.

The other sense of ''basicness" is that a particular emotion category can be judged to be more «prototypical» (i.e., a better example) of emotion than another at the same horizontal level. This horizontal level coincides with the basic level of the vertical organization of concepts. For example, anger is more basic in this sense than, say, hope or pride, which, in the previous sense, are on the same level (see Figure 1. 2).

These organizations of emotion terms have been extensively studied in the past decade for English.

superordinate level: emotion

middle (basic) level: anger

subordinate level: annoyance

Figure 1.1 Levels of emotion terms in a vertical hierarchy


basic level: hope pride (anger fear sadness) lust surprise


Figure 1.2. Prototypical vs. nonprototypical emotion terms on the horizontal level of conceptual organization. (The circle indicates that, e.g., anger, fear, and sadness are better examples of emotion terms than hope, pride, surprise, and lust.)

According to Ekman and Davidson there are five general and possibly universal categories of emotion. These basic emotion categories include happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and love. [5: 87−88]

There is another kind of emotion-related term, the group of figurative terms and expressions. Since figurative terms also describe (and do not primarily express) emotions, this is a subgroup within descriptive terms. This subgroup may be larger than the other two groups combined. Here, unlike the previous group, the words and expressions do not literally «name» particular kinds of emotions, and the issue is not how basic or prototypical the word or expression is. The figurative words and expressions that belong in this group denote various aspects of emotion concepts, such as intensity, cause, control, and so forth. They can be metaphorical and metonymical. The metaphorical expressions are manifestations of conceptual metaphors in the sense of Lakoff and Johnson (1980). Conceptual metaphors bring two distant domains (or concepts) into correspondence with each other. One of the domains is typically more physical or concrete than the other (which is thus more abstract). The correspondence is established for the purpose of understanding the more abstract in terms of the more concrete. [14: 5−6]

We can represent the three types of emotion language in Figure 1.3. Of the three groups identified (expressive terms, terms literally denoting particular kinds of emotions, and figurative expressions denoting particular aspects of emotions), the group of figurative expressions is the largest by far, and yet it has received the least attention in the study of emotion language. Figurative expressions are deemed completely uninteresting and irrelevant by most researchers, who tend to see them as epiphenomena, fancier ways of saying some things that could be said in literal, simple ways.

Further, the expressions in group one are usually considered literal. Given this, we can understand better why the expressions in group three received scant attention. If one holds the view that only literal expressions can be the bearers of truth and that figurative expressions have nothing to do with how our (emotional) reality is constituted, there is also an increasing number of scholars who do not accept this view of the function of language in how human beings create their emotional realities. [20: 3−4]

Emotion language

Expressive Descriptive

Literal Figurative

Basic nonbasic metaphor metonymy

Figure 1.3. Summary of types of emotion language

1.4 Metaphor in literature

What is the relationship between the metaphors used in ordinary language and those used in literature, including poetry? Do literary metaphors constitute a distinct and independent category from ordinary metaphors? There is a widespread notion among lay people and scholars alike that the «real» source of metaphor is in literature and the arts. It is believed that it is the creative genius of the poet and the artist that creates the most authentic examples of metaphor. When we examine this notion from the point of view of cognitive linguistics, we will find that the idea is only partially true, and that everyday language and the everyday conceptual system contribute a great deal to the working of the artistic genius.

This is not to claim, however, that poets and writers never create new, original metaphors. They obviously do. And when they produce new metaphors, these often «jump out» from the text; they have a tendency to be noteworthy by virtue of their frequently anomalous character. Consider the following example from Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s novel Love in the Time of Cholera" as analyzed by Ray Gibbs:

Once he tasted some chamomile tea and sent it back, saying only, «This tea tastes of window.» Both she and the servants were surprised because they had never heard of anyone who had drunk boiled window, but when they tried the tea in an effort to understand, they understood: It did taste of window. [10: 14]

This is obviously an unconventional metaphor that was created by the author in order to offer a new and different perspective on aspect of reality. Original, creative literary metaphors such as this are typically less clear but richer in meaning than either everyday metaphors and metaphors in science.

But original, creative literary metaphors of the structural kind seem to be less frequent in literature than those metaphors that are based on our everyday, ordinary conceptual system. One of the startling discoveries of work on poetic language by cognitive linguists is the recognition that most poetic language is based on conventional, ordinary conceptual metaphors. [24: 501]

George Lakoff, Mark Turner, and Ray Gibbs have pointed out that poets regularly employ several devices to create novel unconventional language and «images» from the conventional materials of everyday language and thought.

These include: extending, elaboration, questioning, and combining.


In extending, a conventional conceptual metaphor associated with certain conventionalized linguistic expressions is expressed by new linguistic means that is based on introducing a new conceptual element in the source domain. Elaboration

Elaboration is different from extension, in that it elaborates on an existing element of the source in an unusual way. Instead of adding a new element to the source domain, it captures an already existing one in a new, unconventional way.


In the poetic device of questioning, poets can call into question the very appropriateness of our common everyday metaphors. Thus, the cognitive mechanism of questioning the validity of accepted metaphors may be part of the principal of an artist.


Combining is perhaps the most powerful mechanism to go beyond our everyday conceptual system (but still using the materials of everyday conventional thought).

The process of combining can activate, and thus be based on, several everyday metaphors at the same time.


Personification is a metaphorical device that is also used commonly in literature. This aspect of poetic language has been studied extensively from a cognitive linguistic view by George Lakoff and Mark Turner. One of the abstract concepts that is frequently personified in literature is time: Time is a thief, Time is a devourer etc.

Personification permits us to use knowledge about ourselves to comprehend other aspects of the world, such as time, death, natural forces inanimate objects, etc.

Image Metaphors

Poetry abounds in image-based metaphors that are rich in imagistic detail.

These conceptual metaphors do not employ image-schemas but rich images. Consider the following example Zoltбn Kхvecses found in the poetry:

My wife … whose waist is an hourglass.

Two detailed images: one for the body of a woman and one for ни hourglass. The images are based on the shape of the two «objects.» According to the metaphor, we take the image of the detailed shape of the hourglass and map it onto the detailed shape of the woman’s body.


Some metaphors, conventional or novel, may run through entire literary texts without necessarily «surfacing.» What one sometimes finds at the surface level of a literary text are specific micrometaphors but «underlying» these metaphors is a megametaphor that makes these surface micrornetaphors coherent. in the texts at all but tend to appear in the form of what scientists call micrometaphors. [12: 35−40]

In this paragraph we have looked upon metaphor in literature and we found out that most of the time poets and writers use the same conceptual metaphors that ordinary because ordinary conceptual metaphors are regularly transformed by poets and writers in a number of ways: by extending, elaboration, questioning, and combining.

Personification is another common device used in literary texts. We showed why the abstract concept of time is personified the way it is.

Literary texts also abound in image-based metaphors. These are one-shot images that require the mapping of several elements of one image onto another. Although people are not explicitly instructed about which element of one image maps onto which element of another, they can perform the mappings successfully in the process of interpreting literary texts. Some metaphors extend through entire literary texts or large portions of them. These are called extended metaphors or megametaphors. They may not be widely met in the texts at all but tend to appear in the form of what scientists call micrometaphors.

metaphor romantic novel emotion


2.1 The metaphorical structure of emotions and feelings in the romantic novels

In this chapter we will present lists of metaphorical expressions of emotions with one or more linguistic examples illustrating each conceptual metaphor (consisting of a target and a source domain), which represent main human feelings and emotions such as: love, happiness/delight, surprise, anger, sadness, lust, fear, shame in the romantic novels. And we are to make generalizations about the frequency of usage of certain source domains.

2.1.1 Love metaphors

The conceptual metaphors for love that we can meet in romantic novels are the following (the examples are given in the order from the most frequently used to the least):

love is a disease/an illness: «I'm still madly in love with your son.» Horrified at a thought she bit back the words. (G.N. p. 13)

He was heart-sick after dinner with her. (S.W. p. 18)

The first metaphor is used to describe love as being insane. The main heroine was so much in love that she felt like insane, because when a person is in love she acts and feels differently, like being ill, that is the reason for occurrence of the metaphor love is a disease.

In the second metaphor love is associated with a heart disease. The man was in love and felt it like a pain in his heart.

love is a food: Rhys starved for love. (S.S.B. p. 28)

Rhys wanted to love and to be loved so much that he was hungry for this feeling. We can see that the source domain hunger/eating/food, which are of vital importance for human beings.

love is a fluid in a container: Isadora was overflowing with love to Chad, so she couldn’t wait to see him. (S.W. p. 78)

Elizabeth was filled with love. (S.S.B. p. 76)

In these examples love expressed as a fluid that fills any container so that nothing else can be put in it. Isadora and Elizabeth were so much in love that they couldn’t think about anything else.

love is music: «Interested in getting married?» For one quick instant her heart missed a beat. (G.N. p. 180)

Elizabeth was in love with Rhys and now he is asking her if she is interested in marriage with him, she was so excited that her heart seemed to stop beating for a second just like it missed a beat in a symphony.

The metaphor love is music is not frequently used in literature. It is the individually author’s perception of feelings.

love is a human being: There were two male clerks, superior beings both and a female clerk, who made the young Welsh boy’s heart sing every time he looked at her. (Sidney Sheldon «Bloodline» p. 23)

Here we can see personification of the heart which stands for the most romantic feeling. When people are happy or in love they can sing, so when Sam was in love his heart sang.

love is war: Donatella conquered him, and she was his master since then. (S.S.B. p. 57)

Analyzing this metaphor we can see that people in love behave as in the war. For instance, the victory of a belligerent means the dominance of a partner, to surrender to a belligerent means to allow the partner to take control. So Donatella has captured Ivo’s attention and won his love.

love is fire: Her face was exquisite and her green, smoldering eyes set Ivo aflame. (S.S. B p. 55)

He was burning with love. (S.W. p. 98)

In the first example we can see the description of love through the qualities of fire, the momentary action of being aflame. Here the action of being aflame is a sudden reaction of Ivo on the person whom he loved.

In the second example we can see steadily a penetrating revelation of love. Fire is shown in a long-term action.

love is movement: Elizabeth felt a sudden, urgent impulse of love, she wanted to see him, to tell him her decision about the company. (S.S.B p. 229).

When she entered the room Ryan felt stirring in him, that feeling made him stand up. He thought: «Oh, God! How much I love her!» (S.W. p. 187)

The first sample shows manifestation of love through a quick movement. Elizabeth knew that it was impossible to see Rhys now, but she wanted it very much and felt the impulse of love.

The second linguistic expression of love illustrates the association of a strong feeling with a liquid which can be moved with a spoon or a stick in order to mix it together.

love is a natural force: Alysia swept him off his feet when she passed through the door. (S.W. p. 15)

He was looking for his beloved Lisa… It seemed that waterfall crashed on him when he saw her dancing. (S.W. p. 202)

These two samples of metaphors reveal us an unexpected action of nature, and its reflection on love. Alyasia made Journey stun by her sudden appearance, the feeling of unexpectedness just like hurricane swept everything on its way.

In the second example an unexpected feeling is compared to a waterfall, with tons of water crushing, so Journey was stunned by a sudden notice of Alyasia.

love is a social superior: She is completely ruled by love, not by mind like other members of the board. (G.N. p. 114)

The love here is a social superior of her and it dictates what to do or what to think about. It’s a personification of love. Elizabeth could not use her mind to think clear, because she was in love and it completely dominated over her mind.

love is diving: He saw his beloved Terenia three times a week and each time Samuel saw her, he loved her more deeply. (S.S.B. p. 147)

This is the example of an orientational metaphor, the cognition is depth and the lack of knowledge is a surface of water. When people fall in love more and more they like dive deeper and deeper. So as Sam was seeing her more, each time he was diving deeper in his feelings.

love is closeness: In their relationships they’re very close, so she could tell him everything. (S.W. p. 56)

We noticed that this source domain can be applied to this target domain only. This can be explained by the fact that love is a feeling when people are the most close to each other physically and mentally. Correspondingly their love relationships can be metaphorically described as closeness.

As total sampling has reported the most frequently used metaphors of love in the novels are: love is a disease/ illness — 17%, love is food — 13% and love is a fluid in a container — 10% and the least frequently used are: love is diving and love is closeness they both have — 2%.

Having analyzed linguistic expressions of love we can admit that the concept of love is perhaps the most highly «metaphorized» emotion concept. This is probably due to the fact that it is not only a feeling, but a relationship as well. As such, it also partakes of metaphorical source domains that typically characterize human relationships.

2.1.2 Happiness/delight metaphors

The conceptual metaphors for happiness used in the romantic novels are the following:

happiness is a fluid in a container: He pressed the ring into her hand. «Oh Chad.» Her heart brimmed over with happiness. (S.W. p. 20).

Simonetta announced to Ivo that she was pregnant, Ivo was filled with indescribable happiness. (S.S.B. p. 56)

These samples show us the most frequently used source domain for describing emotions, it is body is a container for the emotions. Happiness here is an occurrence inside the human mind and body, so as the liquid can brim over the glass or another container the person can experience this feeling in a great amount or be overbrimmed with it. In the second example, as a fluid fills any container so that nothing else can be put in it, Ivo felt happiness and joy so deeply that it filled him as a container.

happy is up: Elizabeth looked at him, and her heart soared. (S.S.B. p. 393)

This source domain is often applied to sadness and happiness. This is an orientational metaphor. The direction is up when something is good or someone is happy, and it is down when something is wrong or unpleasant happens. In this example we can see that Elizabeth’s heart soared, to soar means to fly up, so the direction is up. It shows us that she was happy.

happiness is illness: He bumped into her in the kitchen, and his heart began to pound so hard that he thought he would faint. (G.N. p. 124)

She was going to join him the villa in Sardinia for Christmas, and as the time drew nearer, the waiting became unbearable. She was sick with excitement. (S.S.B. p. 134)

These examples suggest that happiness can be seen as an illness. It is probably because of the huge impact the feeling has on people.

First example shows a sudden action of happiness, Sam didn’t expected to meet her and this feeling of unexpected happiness made him feel like he is going to faint. In the second example we can see that happiness is associated with sickness, when the person feels not well. Elizabeth was excited to meet Rhys for so long, that she felt sick with this feeling.

happiness (relief) is movement: Elizabeth could feel an excitement stirring in her.(S.S.B. p. 247)

She felt a rush of relief and she realized how much she had been counting on him. (S.S.B. p. 218)

Here we can see metaphorization of happiness via movement.

In the first example it’s stirring, so round movements that can be made by physical force. The feeling of excitement or happiness can be described as if something is slowly moving or stirring inside your body. The first example is manifestation of happiness as a slow movement and the second one as a quick movement — rush of relief.

happiness is music: So this is what it feels like, she thought, letting the melody enter her veins like fine wine. (S.W.p. 19)

This source domain is considered to be the author’s elaboration. The feeling of happiness is expressed as a good song that you can hear when you are happy. In this example Isadora felt so happy that she wanted to prolong this feeling and was enjoying it like a piece of good music.

happy is light: A few moments later he walked into Elizabeth’s office and her eyes brightened. (S.S.B. p. 412)

This metaphor has very much in common with happiness is up metaphor, because it can be also met only with happiness and sadness. And it is an oriental metaphor. So logically everything that is light/bright — is good, happy, and pleasant, but everything that is sad, dull, and unpleasant is dark. So Elizabeth felt happy that moment, because her eyes brightened.

happiness is being off the ground: Sam was so happy his feet barely touched the ground. (S.S.B. p. 130)

This is again the demonstration of orientational metaphor of feelings and emotions. So as we mentioned before being up or being off the ground means to be happy. And also this source domain can be understood as feeling of lightness while you are happy. In our example Sam was so happy that he did not feel his own weight and so metaphorically he was off the ground. We should notice that this source domain can apply only to this emotion.

happiness is a natural force: Ryan felt a peculiar thickness in his throat. He’d succeeded. He wished he could freeze this moment in his heart and keep it there forever. (S.W. p. 27−28)

Elizabeth leaned back in her chair, trying to conceal the feeling of happiness flooding through her.(S.S.B. p. 278)

Since the creation of the world a human tried to explain everything through the nature. This can be referred to feelings and emotions as well. In the first example we can see the metaphorization of the feeling via water condition. Ryan felt that he had succeeded and he wanted this pleasant feeling of his successfulness to be always in his heart, so he wanted to freeze it, to make it stay forever.

The second example shows us another natural force — flood, which is also applied to happiness as an overwhelming feeling that spreads fast inside the body.

happiness is a human being: Once the phone rang, and her heart leaped and she reached for it, thinking, It’s Sam! (S.S.B. p. 100)

Here we can see personification of the heart that can leap as a human being when person is happy. Also we can see the trace of orientational metaphor here, because to leap means to jump up, and up — is always positive emotions. Elizabeth was expecting his call and when the telephone rang she felt short moment of happiness.

happiness is explosive Samuel sneaked a glance to Terenia, and she smiled at him and he almost burst with happiness. (S.S.B. p. 143)

This extract is an example of the author’s poetic reworking of the conceptual metaphor. Here we can see the source domain of a chemical substance that can cause an explosion and it can burst. When happiness overwhelmed Sam, he felt like there is an explosive inside him and it is going to burst.

happy is warm: As he lowered himself up and bowed, his smile, framed by silver sidewhiskers, radiated warmth. (S.W. p. 13)

This sample shows us a very interesting metaphorization of the emotion. It is connected with human’s perception of warmth, as the comfortable temperature for body and as friendliness and happiness. As a man’s smile was pleasant it brought the feeling of happiness and warmth.

happiness (relief) is a burden: And Elizabeth had suddenly felt as though a heavy burden had been lifted from her. (S.S.B. p. 390)

Metaphorical source domain burden is something difficult or worrying that you are responsible for. And when Elizabeth solved her problems, she felt relief or happiness.

happiness is death: Anna turned to Walther and his eyes were filled with tears. And she could have died right then of happiness. (S.S.B. p. 40)

This example shows us that the emotion of happiness can be associated with such negative source domain as death, but here it is used in order to say that Walther felt very happy and it was a sudden and very deep feeling.

happiness is a weapon: A bullet of happiness shot down her spine. If Abel agreed to her plan, she could finally win Chad’s esteem.(S.W. p. 69)

In this metaphor we can see the momentary action of the weapon, applied to a sudden action of the emotion which the main heroine experienced.

happiness is a devourer: So engrossed was Samuel in his daydream that he loosened his grip and began to fall into space. (S.S.B. p. 121)

To be devoured by something means that a person feels a strong feeling that seems to control him/her. Here Sam was engrossed by his happiness, because his dream came true and it interested him so much that he did not notice anything else.

happiness (relief) is diving: The moment she made the decision, she felt a deep sense of relief. (G.N. p. 224)

This is an example of orientational metaphor, the cognition is depth and the lack of knowledge is a surface of water. So the degree of emotion can be measured like the depth of the water, during diving the deeper you dive the stronger emotion is.

From the diagramme we can clearly see that the most frequently used happiness metaphors are: happiness is a fluid in a container and happy is up — 14%, and the least frequently used examples are: happiness is a weapon happiness is a devourer and happiness (relief) is diving — 2%.

2.1.3 Surprise metaphors

According to our research the understanding of surprise in literature comes from the following domains:

surprise is a fluid in a container: She stared at him in silence, her dark eyes filled with surprise. (G.N. p. 70)

This is the most popular source domain and it can be explained via the perception of a human body as a container for the emotions. So as a fluid fills the container surprise can fill a human body. Here the eyes were filled with surprise and as the eyes stand for of the body they also can be viewed as containers for emotions.

surprise is illness/disease: She felt faint with amazement. «You're addressing to me?» (S.W. p. 19)

This example shows how a quick, unexpected malady occupied her and she was very surprised by his addressing her.

surprise is a natural force: Chad was overwhelmed by surprise. (S.W. p. 65)

Surprise here is associated with a natural force, if water overwhelms an area of land, it covers it completely and suddenly. Here we can see that if someone is overwhelmed by an emotion, they feel it so strongly that they cannot think clearly. So Chad was surprised so much, that he did not know how to react.

surprise is a human being: When he, suddenly saw her, his smile died and he walked away. (S.S.B. p. 283)

In this example smile is personified and it stands for surprise. Death can be interpreted as the permanent end of something, in this context feeling of surprise has made the smile to disappear from man’s face.

The diagramme indicates that the most frequently used metaphors of surprise are: surprise is a fluid in a container — 36% and the least frequently used is surprise is death — 12%.

2.1.4 Fear metaphors

In romantic literature we can come across such conceptual metaphors for fear:

fear is a fluid in a container: She shook her head from side to side, too filled with terror to speak. (S.S.B. p. 46)

He was filled with a fear such as he never known. (G.N. p. 80)

body is a container for the emotions tend to be the most frequently used source domain in romantic novels. It is believed that emotions fill human body as a liquid. So as liquid fills the container fear/terror can be inside human body. Both examples share this explanation.

fear is a human being: She dropped the receiver, her head spinning, fighting with horror that was starting to engulf her (S.S. B p. 427)

In this example we can see personification of horror, that has human abilities as here Elizabeth was fighting with it.

fear is a natural force: Her first thought was of the children and terror swept through her (S. S. B. p. 290)

The sample of metaphor reveals that fear can sweep through somebody’s body as winds, waves, fire sweep through a place, they move quickly and with a lot of force. So the feeling is very strong and quick, and Anna could not think of anything else except for her children.

fear is an illness: His voice choked with terror. (S.S.B. p. 153)

Aram stood there on his feet, like some blind monster. Samuel looked at him sick with fear unable to hit him again. (S.S.B. p. 156)

In the first example we can see that fear is associated with a sign of illness — choking. Here he was unable to talk clearly because he was feeling a strong emotion — terror.

In the second example of metaphor we can see another sign of illness — sickness, the feeling as if you are going to vomit. This feeling resembles the feeling when you are terribly frightened, as Samuel was when he killed Aram.

fear is a burden: When the study became dark, she switched on a lamp and continued to read, the horror pied on horror. (S.S.B. p. 233)

Her head felt heavy with fear. (S. S. B. p. 448)

This metaphor shows us horror as a thing that is heavy and as another heavy thing piles on the first one, the fear is growing more and more.

Another example illustrates fear as something heavy that is put on her head.

fear is explosive: He began to run, pushing the heavy cart ahead of him, his heart pounding until it felt ready to burst from fear. (S.S.B. p. 152)

Here we can see a source domain of a chemical substance that can cause an explosion and it can burst. When fear has overwhelmed Samuel, he felt as if there is an explosion inside him and it burst.

fear is a social superior: His actions were dictated by fear. (S.W. p. 167)

The fear here is a social superior of him and it orders what to do or what to think about, emotion is expressed as someone who has a higher position than the hero.

fear is a fire: Then Walther said, «I don’t understand Elizabeth.» His face ashen with fear.

In this case fear is expressed as fire as a very strong emotion that heroine could not think about anything else. Walther was looking very pale because he was frightened.

fear is a trap: Elizabeth felt as though she were trapped with fear. (S. S. B. p. 251)

This is Sydney Sheldon’s creative elaboration of metaphors. To feel fear is to be trapped or to be in a bad situation from which you cannot escape from. Elizabeth could not cope with her fear so she was trapped with it.

fear is a sense: She could smell his fear. (S.S.B. p. 303)

This is an absolutely unique source domain that is used with this emotion only. The ability to notice that person is frightened is described like one of the five natural senses of a person. So she noticed that he was scared.

The diagramme shows that the most frequently used metaphors of fear are: fear is a fluid in a container — 28% and fear is a human — 23% and the least frequently used is fear has smell — 2%.

2.1.5 Anger metaphors

The following conceptual metaphors for anger can be met in romantic novels:

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