Social aspects of Stephen King’s novel "Shawshank Redemption"
- Тип работы:
Узнать стоимость новой
Детальная информация о работе
Выдержка из работы
literature shawshank redemption book
The work of Stephen King reminds the mosaic: formed occasionally from absolutely incompatible parts that present the entire picture. The critics and readers consider him as «The King of thrill», the best psychologist and the writer that was able to reach the most unnoticeable corners of the soul of human beings in search of fear. Most of his works differ from the way of life of Americans.
King creates the atmosphere of every day life in order to attract the interest of a reader. He tries to be close to the reader for two purposes: firstly, the writer makes the reader read his creation, or his works really surprise. Secondly, the author creates the many sided image of modern society with all lack and contradictions.
As most works of Stephen King refer to the genres of horror and mystic, or include these two genres, the critics, as a rule, touch upon only this very part of the writer that touches upon the theme of interrelation between man and society. Exactly this problem is revealed fully and obviously in the psychological novel «The Shawshank redemption». This novel is widely known to the public thanks to its film that had already managed to get the prestigious awards.
From the first lines it becomes obvious that the novel is far from typical work for King.
The narrative is lead neither by the author, nor by the main character. This way is chosen not randomly, it serves mostly for the vivid imagination. The narrator is close friend of the main character, Afro — American, Red (red haired), or the human that can get and reach everything.
Here must be paid attention that all figures appear in the novel under their nick names, not with their real names. The author get the novel narrated by Red, and renders his ideas through him. Red plays the important role in the novel. Shaw shank redemption is not a typical novel. Here the literary time completely complies with time physically that passes inside of the prison for imprisons.
The aim of this course paper is to study social aspects of the novel «Shawshank redemption» by Stephen King.
The purpose of this course paper is to introduce and discuss the novel «Shaw shank redemption» by Stephen King. Basically, it will look at the power of human that is rendered in the novel.
The tasks of this course paper are:
— to have a brief historical overview in Stephen King’s impact and role in American literature
— to study Stephen King’s life and main works
— to have a short literal overview in the novel of Stephen King’s «Shawshank redemption»
— to study the social aspects of the novel «Shawshank redemption»
— to analyze the novel «Shawshank redemption»
The course paper consists of: contents, introduction part, two chapters, four subchapters, conclusion and references.
1. American literature after the World War II
The period in time from the end of World War II up until, roughly, the late 1960s and early 1970s saw the publication of some of the most popular works in American history such as To kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee. The last few of the more realistic modernists along with the wildly Romantic Beatniks largely dominated the period, while the direct respondents to America’s involvement in World War II contributed in their notable influence.
From J.D. Salinger’s Nine Stories and The Catcher in the Rye to Sylvia Plath’s The Bell Jar, the perceived madness of the state of affairs in America was brought to the forefront of the nation’s literary expression. Immigrant authors such as Vladimir Nabokov, with Lolita, forged on with the theme, and at almost the same time, the Beatniks took a concerted step away from their Lost Generation predecessors, developing a style and tone of their own by drawing on Eastern theology and experimenting with recreational drugs.
The poetry and fiction of the «Beat Generation», largely born of a circle of intellects formed in New York City around Columbia University and established more officially some time later in San Francisco, came of age. The term Beat referred, all at the same time, to the countercultural rhythm of the Jazz scene, to a sense of rebellion regarding the conservative stress of post war society, and to an interest in new forms of spiritual experience through drugs, alcohol, philosophy and religion and specifically through Zen Buddhism.
Allen Ginsberg set the tone of the movement in his poem Howl, a Whitmanesque work that began: «I saw the best minds of my generation destroyed by madness… «. Among the most representative achievements of the Beats in the novel are Jack Kerouac’s On the Road (1957), the chronicle of a soul — searching travel through the continent, and William S. Burroughs’s Naked Lunch (1959), a more experimental work structured as a series of vignettes relating, among other things, the narrator’s travels and experiments with hard drugs.
Regarding the war novel specifically, there was a literary explosion in America during the post world war II era. Some of the best known of the works produced included Norman Mailer’s The Naked and the Dead (1948), Joseph Heller’s Catch-22 (1961) and Kurt Vonnegut Jr’s Slaughterhouse Five (1969). The Moviegoer (1962), by Southern author Walker Percy winner of the National Book Award, was his attempt at exploring. «The dislocation of man in the modern age».
In contrast, John Updike approached American life from a more reflective but no less subversive perspective. His 1960 novel Rabbit, Run, the first of four chronicling the rising and falling fortunes of Harry «Rabbit» Angstrom over the course of four decades against the backdrop of the major events of the second half of the 20th century, broke new ground on its release in its characterization and detail of the American middle class and frank discussion of Taboo topics such as adultery. Notable among Updike’s characteristic innovations was his use of present tense narration, his rich stylized language and his attention to sensual detail. His work is also deeply imbued with Christian themes. The two final installments of the Rabbit series, Rabbit is Rich (1981) and Rabbit at Rest (1990) were both awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction. Other notable works include the Henry Bech novels (1970−1998), The Witches of East wick (1984), Roger’s Version (1996) which literary critic Michiko Kakutani called arguably his finest. in the realm of African — American literature Ralph Ellison’s 1952 novel Invisible man was instantly recognized as among the most powerful and important works of the immediate post-war years. Richard Wright was catapulted to fame by the publication in subsequent years of his now studied short story «The Man Who was almost a Man» (1939) and his controversial second novel «The native son» (1940). The most ambitious and challenging post — was writer novelist was William Gaddis, Joseph McElroy, John Hawkes, Thomas Pynchon and Don DeLillo.
1.1 Stephen King’s role in American literature
King has revolutionized the horror genre by making it readable for everyone. His tongue in cheek examination of everyday life, while mixing in dark and unfathomable expressions of loss, death and the unknown make him not only imminently readable but a pop culture wordsmith.
His connections to things we find recognizable and to defining periods of life have made him an author often imitated. His style of gore and horror have been emulated by many modern horror writers all over the world and his contribution to American literature has shown that a book must not be written in perfect grammar or in a proper tone in order to gain fans or respect. The intense character development apparent in each book is a departure from the more over arching and generalized character development methods used before his time. He makes us understand every inch of a character before that character is eaten by a monster or thrown into a bottomless abyss and in doing such creates a bond of understanding that leaves readers horrified.
In November 2003, Stephen King received a lifetime achievement medal from the National Book Foundation for his distinguished contribution to American letters. The foundation’s notion of distinguished contribution is a fairly broad one. The medal has been awarded to Oprah Winfrey as well as to Eudora Welty.
Still, America’s most famous horror writer made the most of it. His acceptance speech commended the judges for having the courage to honor a man many people see as a rich hack, and then attacked the whole world of literary prize giving for its snobbery, its willful ignorance of popular and genre fiction and its tendency to grant itself social or academic brownie points for deliberately staying out of touch with American culture.
It was characteristic performance for King, who has always been at once hungry for literary prestige and scornful of it, self-deprecating about his writing and combative when criticized. He gives the impression of being acutely conscious of his peculiar position in American letters, where he occupies a gray zone between the pulpy authors who can match his sales figures «The Dan Browns and Danielle Steeles and the literary writers whose company he obviously craves, the writers who stand a chance of winning medal, but the National Book Award itself.
Carrie, The Shining, Salem’s Lot, and The Stand in the 1970s together with Pet Sematary are the best of Stephen’s books, the heart of his dark territory and their persistence in the popular imagination ought, at the very least, to give the lie to Harold Bloom’s dyspeptic claim that King is writer of «penny dreadful» whose books do little more for humanity than keep the publishing industry afloat.
In part, King has pulled off this unlikely feat by his steady work as a genre writer, where the relative dimness of the competition makes his talents shine brighter than they otherwise would. Indeed, there’s a sense in which he invented the modern horror novel doing for the form what Agatha Christie did for the murder mystery: taking a genre that was defined by the short story and pulling it off at novel length not once or twice, a Dracula here and a Frankenstein there, but over and over again.
This achievement alone would probably earn King a certain kind of literary immortality the sort reserved for such genre pioneers as Arthur Conan Doyle and Jules Verne authors whose historical significance may outstrip their creative gifts. But King has the rare distinction of being both created the perfected: he has both the modern horror novel and imbued it with an unexpected literary respectability.
King’s vision of contemporary America is billion footed enough to make Wolfe’s look provincial by comparison. In forty odd novels and an endless stream of short stories, Stephen King the bard of Bangor Maine has given form and substance to almost every dark facet of contemporary American life: AIDS, abortion, rape, rocn’n’roll, child abuse and the cocaine. There are happy marriages divorces and wife beatings: alien abductions and alcoholism, the death penalty and political assassinations, serial killers and cell phones, tabloids journalism and all the endless miseries of childhood. You don’t achieve Stephen King’s sort of Vulcan mind meld with America unless you are in intimate touch with the communal fantasies of the whole culture, John Leonard once wrote and sure enough when the authorities in Paducah, Kentucky searched the locker of the student who gunned down three of his high school classmates in 1997, they found a copy of King’s 1977 school shooting novel Rage written under his Richard Bachman pen name.
It’s American pop culture above all that comes to life in a Stephen’s story in a stream of references and quotations and nods and shout outs a perfect reproduction of our media drenched way of talking and thinking and all of it untouched by the sense of chilly irony with which so many contemporary novelists approach our TV internet age.
King’s stories like human life are replete with examples of the randomness of evil but the worse the monster, the more likely that we have invited it to feed. In The Shining the ghosts in the overlook hotel embody the hotel’s overflow of sins suicides, «new year’s eve» debaucheries mafia killings and they turn Jack Torrance into their willing tool by playing on his private failings his alcoholism and his rage. In the stand King’s magnum opus or at least his best book since he would probably give the magnum opus nod to his bloated interminable seven volume Dark Tower saga the survivors of a global super flu itself is an entirely human creation, a dark thing conjured up by the just doing our job good men in the U/S. military and released into the world by simple human error. This realization gave birth to the paranoid style in American literature Thomas Pynchon, Don DeLillo and all their endless imitators. But even the most complicated conspiracy theories didn’t get at the change in American consciousness quite the way King did when he kicked off his career by having a girl named Carrie destroy her high school with telekinesis and followed it up with vampires devouring a small Maine town.
1.2 Stephen King, a modern sci-fi, fantasy writer
Stephen King is a modern writer who has written many books in his lifetime. In his novel Misery, he discusses the consequences or bad sides of being famous. This normal average man, other than being a world famous author, acts as a regular individual in his daily life. In Stephen King’s Misery, King uses Paul Sheldon, as a doppelganger of himself to describe the horrors of being a famous person in the worst situation, showing readers that it is not so bad to be a regular person.
Born on September 21, 1947 in Portland, Maine, Stephen King was a surprise to his family. Stephen was raised by a mostly single parent. Stephen’s father «left the house to buy a pack of cigarettes… but never returned. Stephen King hasn’t seen his father since» (Biography of Stephen King). Stephen lived from different places in Massachusetts and Maine, moving around with his mom, Nellie King, and his adopted older brother, David. During his childhood, King apparently witnessed one of his friends being struck and killed by a train. King returned from playing with the boy «speechless and seemingly in shock» (Beahm 101). This incident in believed by some critics and readers to have inspired or changed King’s mind to write some scarier or darker stories.
King’s love of writing started in 1959 when he was 12. His brother, David, had a local «newspaper» called «Dave's Rag». Stephen wrote some articles and reviews for shows and movies. With a small amount of people even reading «Dave's Rag», Stephen still found that people liked his writing. Inspired by this he wrote short stories and sold them to people in his neighborhood for thirty cents. He sometimes even sold his work in school until he wasn’t allowed to anymore. Stephen and his brother, along with one of their friends, had their own publishing company. It was called «Triad and Gaslight Books».
More generally, science fiction is a broad genre of fiction that often involves speculations based on current or future science or technology. Science fiction is found in books, art, television, films, games, theater and other media. Science fiction differs from fantasy in that, within the context of the story, its imaginary elements are largely possible within scientifically established or scientifically postulated laws of nature (though some elements in the story might still be pure imaginative speculation).
Settings may include the future or alternative time lines and stories may depict new or speculative scientific principles, such as time travel or psionics or new technology, such as nanotechnology, faster than light travel or robots. Exploring the consequences of such differences is the traditional purpose of science fiction, making it a literature of ideas.
Some science fiction authors construct a postulated history of the future called a «future history» that provides a common background for their fiction. Sometimes the author publishes a timeline of events in their history, while other times the reader can reconstruct the order of the stories from information in the books.
Some published works constitute «future history» in a more literal sense i.e., stories or whole books written in the style of a history book but describing events in the future. For example: H.G. Wells' The Shape of things to come (1933), which was written in the form of a history book published in the year 2106 and in the manner of a real history book with numerous footnotes and references to the works of prominent historians of the 20th and 21st centuries.
2. Literary overview
2.1 Social aspects of Stephen King’s novel «Shawshank redemption»
When a book industry addresses sociological concerns, it sometimes presents an incomplete and unfamiliar image. This is not to say that these industries which deal with sociology, always misinterpret substantive matters, however many do not present all the issues. In particular, books that deal with prisons often disregard the human factor housed within. To a certain extent, they nay ignore specific factors because some would be uninterested in a book that offers the premise that convicts who spends their lives in prison loose their humanity and hope. The Shawshank redemption is the exception.
The story portrays a prison as an institution which does nothing more than store individuals. Similarly, several sociological themes are addressed in the book, such as, rehabilitation and reintegration. This work briefly analyzes the book, while focusing specifically on the substantive aspects in terms of sociology.
The Shawshank redemption opens in 1947, as banker Andy Durfresne is being wrongly convicted and punished with a double life sentence for the murder of his wife and her lover. He is incarcerated in Maine’s Shawshank prison facility where his distant and slightly superior manner prevents good relations with the guards and his fellow convicts. However, Andy gradually develops a friendship with a well respected lifer named «Red» Redding the prison’s self-proclaimed «Sears and Roebuck» who is known to locate certain items from time to time. He also gets on the better side of Shawshank’s Bible thumping warden by doing some financial consulting, but Andy is not merely a stooge for the warden and his goons.
As a smart man, he is constantly working towards his ultimate goal of getting out of prison one way or another. His methods win him many friends and admires in prison, but it is the friendship of Red that he values most. After thirty long years behind bars, Andy Durfresne makes use of his superior intelligence…
Each of the inmates inside Shawshank prison is locked up metaphorically as well as literally, hiding from himself or unable to function in the unregulated world that extends beyond the prison walls. There are many levels of isolation inside Shawshank from the large enclosed recreation yard to the smaller work crews down to the cellblock, cells and finally solitary confinement. The prison is thus a multilayered world, a microcosm of the world outside that the prisoners have been forcibly removed from. The bars, strict schedules sadistic keepers and predatory sisters only add a sense of entrapment and suffocation to these layers of isolation.
Shawshank’s confines however, also highlight the extent to which the prisoners have isolated themselves and compromised their sense of identity. Beneath the hardened criminals lie insecure, maladjusted outcasts, many of whom believe they cant function outside the prison system. Elwood Blatch for example ia braggart and an egomaniac whose exaggerated accounts of his exploits fool none of his listeners into believing that he is the master criminal whom he makes himself out to be. Red, meanwhile, identifies Andy as the idea of freedom. Freedom is a frightening concept for Red, who dreams of being paroled but eventually struggles to find his place in society after almost forty years in prison. Recounting Andy’s escape, therefore, allows Red to face his fears and find the psychological freedom.
Hope, more than anything else, drives the inmates at Shawshank and gives them the will to live. Andy’s sheer determination to maintain his own sense of self-worth and escape keeps him from dying of frustration and anger in solitary confinement. Hope is an abstract, passive emotion, akin to the passive, immobile and inert lives of the prisoners. Andy sets about making hope a reality in the form of the agonizing progress he makes each year tunneling his way through his concrete cell wall. Even Andy’s even-keeled and well-balanced temperament, however, eventually succumb to the bleakness of prison life.
Red notes that Tommy William’s revelation that he could prove Andy’s innocence was like a key unlocking a released a tiger called Hope. This hope reinvigorates Andy and spreads too many of the other inmates in the prison. In his letter addressed to Red, Andy writes that hope is a good thing, which in the end is all that Red has left. Red’s decision to go to Mexico to find Andy is the ultimate proof of Red’s own redemption, not from his life as a criminal but from his compromised state, bereft of hope and with no reason to embrace life or the future. Red’s closing words, as he embarks tentatively onto a new path; show that hope is a difficult concept to sustain both inside the prison and out.
Shawshank blurs the line between right and wrong and challenges the notion that isolating and reforming criminals will turn them into law abiding citizens. Instead, the prison is a den of corruption, greed, bribery and money laundering. Everyone exploits the system for their own gain, from Red, who can smuggle anything into the prison, all the way up to the wardens, who profit from forced prison labor. Andy’s willingness to launder Warden Norton’s slush money initially serves as a survival technique, a means of protecting himself by extending his good will to the administration. His complicity and knowledge of the warden’s illegal enterprises, however, keep Norton from ever releasing him for fear that Andy would reveal the warden’s secret. The fact that Shawshank is as corrupt and tainted as the outside world further justifies Andy’s escape from a hypocritical, exploitative system that cares little for the prisoners' lives or rehabilitation.
Time serves as both a source of torment as well as the backdrop for the slow eventual achievement of Andy’s escape, his seemingly impossible goal for nearly twenty eight years. Shawshank redefines the passage of time for the inmates, especially for the lifers like Andy and Red, who can only lokk forward to death. Hours can seem like a lifetime, and every day seems indistinguishable from the next, adding to the loneliness and burden of imprisonment. Ironically, however, time also proves to be the means of Andy’s escape and salvation and gives him hope throughout his quarter century in Shawshank. An amateur geologist, Andy realizes that dripping water can be erode stone over the span of several million years and that with his small rock hammer and a lot of patience, he too can break through concrete. His devotion to chipping away at the concrete not only allows him to measure the passage of time but also gives him sense of hope that the other inmates lack.
The pinup posters of Rita Hayworth and the other women represent the outside world, hope and every inmate’s desire to escape to a normal life. Andy admits as much when he tells Red that sometimes he imagines stepping right through the photograph and into another life. More literary Rita really does remind Andy of his desire to actually break out of Shawshank because of the chiseled hole in the concrete that the posters conceal. As a result, Rita embodies the sense of hope that keeps Andy alive and sane and distinguishes him from the other inmates. Even though it takes Andy mare than twenty five years to hammer his way through the wall the mere fact that he has something to work for keeps him from lapsing into bouts of self pity as the other inmates do. Having a mission and something to look forward to even before he knew he would use the hole to break out kept Andy alive and gave him his inner light.
The rocks Andy sculpts serve as a cover to justify owning a rock hammer but they also represent the spirit of hope that he exudes. As an amateur geologist, Andy is undoubtedly distracted from the doldrums of daily prison life by the rocks. Continuing to pursue his hobby gives him a sense of normality and controls over his life that many other inmates lack.
Displaying his collection of polished rocks on the windowsill of his cell also gives Andy a sense of accomplishment and means to measure the passage of time. More important however sculpting the pebbles give Andy hope and a means to fend off despair. Giving these sculptures away to Red and other inmates also represents Andy’s ability to transfer his sense of hope his inner light as Red calls it to some of the other inmates.
2. 2 «Shawshank redemption«: Film and Book analysis
The novella doesn’t contain any of the typical supernatural, gothic or horror elements that readers usually associate with King. The only thing that haunts Andy is his past, and the only monsters in the tale appear in human form. Shawshank is a story about the power of the human mind to overcome even the most impossible barriers. The story is simply written and that is all the story needs because the clever twists and nuances throughout the novella carry the reader along without any need for complex narrative devices.
The book is beautifully written and is not one of King’s trademark horror stories. The characters are vintage King likable, memorable and entirely worthy of the time spent with them. Andy and Red are the most fully developed but even in a short novella King manages to bring the era (1920s — 1960s) to life with remarkable skill.
This is a great novella with a great ending.
The story chronicles his time there through the eyes of his friend Red. Andy was a banker before he was a prisoner and quietly changes the prison his fellow inmates and even some of the toughest guards to ever patrol the lonely hopleless grounds of the toughest prison in Maine.
The film version doesn’t alter much of the original plot. The most obvious change is that Red is Irish redhead in the book, while the film has Morgan Freeman in the role. Either way, it works. The movie tells a story of prison life centering on the camaderie and growth prisoners experience and the survival of an onslaught of indignities to human life in Maine’s Shawshank prison.
The movie was released in 1994 with the understandably shortened title The Shawshank redemption. King’s books had been notoriously difficult to bring to the screen: they are usually long and so full of characters and plot that no 2 hour movie could do them justice. It wasn’t until filmmakers started adapting his shorter works that they found any success at all. Director Frank Darabont tok this to heart and set about bringing the characters, setting and remarkable story of Andy to life and the result is stunning. This film also marked the beginning of Morgan Freeman’s long and deservedly successful career as the best provider of voice over narration in Hollywood. It is a gorgeous adaptation of a piece of writing.
The movie spans the nearly 20 year friendship between two prisoners, Andy and Red, and portrays Andy’s prisonization experience and how he gradually adjusts to life behind bars. In this life Andy begins to use his knowledge of investment strategies to ingratiate himself with the warden and head guard gain protection from a gang of rapists and conduct a tutoring service within the prison. These creative activities allows him to retain a sense of his past life which 24 hour a day enforced cohabitation often denies.
There are two sequences that are particularly powerful in presenting the film’s message that rehabilitation is nonexistent and reintegration within the prison unaddressed. First, an old convict, having just been paroled cracks and suffers a breakdown where he is pushed to the point of almost killing another prisoner just so he can stay in prison and not enter the real world. Andy is headed to Shawshank prison for a murder he is sure he did not commit, though the evidence is not in his favor.
Finally, the film identifies how prison life requires a need to feel human in order to escape institutionalization by focusing on hope as the guiding principle for survival in and out of prison. This hope takes several forms each of which are attempts by prisoners to overcome the shortcomings of an inefficient prison.
Since no prison policy was designed to prepare an inmate for release or any rehabilitation program designed to assist the inmate each prisoner was forced to become his own change agent. The movie subtly demonstrates the need for prisons to be more than an incarcerate tool. Moreover, it also points out that the presence of hope can overcome a failed prison system, while the absence of it leads to failure and a degenerative life after prison.
The Shawshank redemption both film and novel from which it came presents an incredibly well-crafted argument, a solid example of problem solving in motion. To understand why this film works so well requires a understanding of story more holistic in nature, an understanding that appreciates the various perspectives at conflict and brings them together into one seamless and purposeful model of human psychology.
The emerging field of narrative science lifts the veil of mystery shrouding this film and begins to improve the quality of discussion surrounding what makes great stories so great.
Removing religious attribution or the belief in the cultural trappings of mythology in story allows one to see the real process behind great stories. Spiritually need not be discounted in the final analysis, but should not be seen as a requirement for great success.
Those still saddled with the prerequisite of spiritual or mythological motive see stories as a method for understanding who we are and how the world works. Their templates of innermost caves and helpless cats make sense as a means to appreciate ourselves and our human experience.
Clear away the aforementioned baggage, however and reality shines through: Stories employ a structure based on how we see and make sense of our world, not the other way around. In other words, stories exist as projections of how we solve our problems.
When one asks why the strong attraction to the Shawshank redemption, the answer lies in how accurately the story projects the mind’s own problem solving process. Beginning with a clear delineation of perspective and ending with a meaningful dissonance of both subjective and objective appreciations, the story of Red and Andy works because it follows a system to all of us.
These four distinct well — balanced perspectives exist for a reason. As mentioned before the prison of our minds prevents us from experiencing a subjective point of view at the same time we experience the objective point of view too. We can not simultaneously be inside of ourselves and out. Stories grant us this rare opportunity to see a problem resolved from all different points of view.
The Shawshank redemption offers up the argument that standing up and speaking out brings triumph both universally and personally. The juxtaposition of this solution both from an objective view and a subjective view transcends a simple message into a concrete argument. Rounding it with a look at the actions of a life steeped in control and the inability of two to come together without a second glance at preconceived notions solidifies the Author’s position within the minds of the audience.
An act of telepathy from writer to reader, an argument effectively crafted and transmitted to be received years later by an open and willing mind. This defines the purpose of story. To the extent a narrative mimics the psychological processes present within the minds of a reader or audience a story’s power and ultimate effectiveness.
The problem of towing the line, the first of four lays within Red, the only guilty man in Shawshank. From his point of view we get to experience what it is like to personally have this problem we follow him the parole board hearing, we are there. We experience the shock of disbelief when we discover what’s really been going on in Andy’s cell. We experience the story through Red’s eyes.
This novel include itself traditional and social aspects, psychology of the characters, giving everything in details, the most perfect and understandable narrative, showing social issues and being against the society, also not a typical chronicle matters not only inside but also outside. The Shawshank is fulfilled with irony and bitter mockery. The author with all means tries to show that the human being’s problems are only their faults.
Drama effectively narrows down the model of the human mind to one singular story form a combination of structural and dynamic appreciations that holds the meaning of a particular piece o narrative fiction.
Here we have got acquainted with the American literature after the World War II, with this time’s popular authors, trends, Stephen’s role, his contribution to American literature, with his creations, writing, with his great novel The Shawshank redemption. We have analyzed the novel, studied the social aspects of it, and also looked through the difference between book and film of the novel.
Together with, we have read the author’s opinion about his novel, and also we have analyzed the author’s following values that charge our mind.
4. Option Lock
6. Being Good
1. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e King, Tabitha; DeFilippo, Marsha. «Stephen King. com: Biography». Retrieved December 8, 2013.
2. Jump up^ Morgan, Robert. Stephen King, Newsnight, BBC, November 22, 2006
3. Jump up^ The Nebula Awards, Fantastic Fiction. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
4. ^ Jump up to: a b «CDistinguished Contribution to American Letters», National Book Foundation. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
5. Jump up^ «FORUMS du CLUB STEPHEN KING (CSK)». Forum Stephen King. Retrieved March 8, 2012.
6. ^ Jump up to: a b c Ancestry of Stephen King at Geneaology. com. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
7. Jump up^ «Frequently Asked Questions». StephenKing. com. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
8. Jump up^ Beahm, George The Stephen King Story: A Literary ProfileAndrews and McMeel. 1991. ISBN 0−8362−7989−1: pp. 101
9. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f King, Stephen (2000). On Writing. Scribner. ISBN 0−684−85 352−3.
10. Jump up^ «Stephen King — Meet the Writers (5: 45 into the video)». YouTube. November 3, 2009. Retrieved November 14, 2011.
11. Jump up^ Wood, Rocky et al. Stephen King: Uncollected, Unpublished. Abingdon, Maryland 2006 ISBN 1−58 767−130−1
12. ^ Jump up to: a b Anstead, Alicia (January 23, 2008). «UM scholar Hatlen, mentor to Stephen King, dies at 71». Bangor Daily News. Archived from the original on March 2, 2008.
13. Jump up^ Adams, Tim (September 14, 2000). «The Stephen King interview, uncut and unpublished». The Guardian. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
14. ^ Jump up to: a b David, Leafe (May 12, 2009). «Stephen King’s Real Horror Story: How the novelist’s addiction to drink and drugs nearly killed him». Daily Mail. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
15. Jump up^ King, Stephen (2000). On Writing. Scribner. pp. 76−77. ISBN 0−684−85 352−3.Показать Свернуть