Supremacy of law is in the Ukrainian State

Тип работы:
Государство и право


Детальная информация о работе

Выдержка из работы

Supremacy of law is in the Ukrainian State

Legal life of modern society undergoes cardinal changes due to the processes of globalization of cultures and civilizations, and to greater individualization (personalization) of society. It is difficult in these conditions to count on stability of legislation and former measures of the legal regulation. Swift vital changes suppose finding of new arguments by the law for providing of its effectiveness. The determining factor in these conditions becomes the system of legal values and professional legal culture as its basic transmitter. In the prism of changes in the contents of professional legal culture we can see the possibilities of overcoming the complications in which modern jurisprudence has appeared.

Meantime, the process of forming of professional legal culture takes place not only by means of legal norms and legal terms. Deep and frequently determining role belongs to the varied legal values such as: justice, freedom, formal equality, supremacy of the law and others. In fact, legal values from such image of law which professionals further used in legal life. We should note that legal values do not only exist as the image of law but get the further subject embodiment [1] and by means of professional legal activity are fixed in legal statutes, agreements, law enforcement acts, in the whole system of legal relations.

For ordinary consciousness legal values become valued orientation, when actualization of law for an individual under the influence of the concrete life situation takes place. On the whole legal activity becomes the sphere of embodiment of the valued characteristics of the law. Thus, the variety of existing in the modern world legal cultures is greatly connected with the features of the existing system of legal values of the psychological rigging of their perception and application, which bears the name of legal mentality.

We should note that exactly due to the specificity of legal values and legal mentality on the legal map of the world the Ukrainian law occupies its special place in Eurasian legal community. And although the discussion concerning the name of the legal community to which the Ukrainian law belongs will scarcely find the completion in the nearest years, it becomes clear that at least assertions about including of the Ukrainian law in the Roman-German of the legal community on the most different criteria demonstrates the insolvency. Indeed, «peculiarities» of the Ukrainian law, its originality, can be seen at all levels of its existence. Thus, the Ukrainian law, on the one hand, actively absorbs achieving other legal systems, their legal values, and from on the other hand — applies its legal heredity, its historical legal experience as the developed legal mentality, legal traditions and legal institutes, and the hierarchy of legal values for decision of goals of modern legal development of Ukraine.

Having declared the principle of supremacy of the as the determining legal value, the Constitution of Ukraine has defined the major line of legal development, when the whole hierarchy of legal values of modern Ukraine lines up in accordance with supremacy of law. Thus, hopes about legislative (statute) law as the unique criterion of estimation of legal reality [2] and, in fact, all-embracing source of law. Recognition of pluralism of sources of law, determination of their system and subordination is the major task for modern life of the Ukrainian law, which should be solved in all directions of legal regulation.

We hope that in this situation the principle of supremacy of law opens the road to legal pluralism, allows not only to come to successive application of legal precedent in our legal system but also officially allows professionals to refer to the legal doctrine in the ground of legal decisions, that has already become reality in our legal life, taking into account the value of adopted codes at sanction of concrete legal situations.

The true direction of development of the Ukrainian law is the greater claim of value of legal process, both in traditional and in untraditional varieties. Here we can notice the principal changes of the legal sphere in connection with the forming of constitutional, economic and administrative processes. Thus, the principle of supremacy of law applied to the legal process is expressed in formation and realization of such legal procedures, which provide for the subject of law the real possibility of outcome to the legal sanction of life conflict in accordance with ideas of freedom, justice and formal equality. From the point of view of supremacy of law here can not be an obstacle for the legal decision such legal procedures, which either hamper the subject of the law access to the law and justice or refuse in it.

Such fields of law as civil, criminal, administrative and labour become actual foundamental of the whole system of the Ukrainian law, in the aspiration to fix and confirm principles, statutes and methods at the level of coded laws of Ukraine. In the Ukrainian law the principle of supremacy of law at its realization is expressed in the increase of the role of the specified fields of the law in the mechanism of action of law, as it is connected with bringing in of norms and values of the fundamental industries at the decision of tasks at all levels of hierarchy of the fields of our law including profiling and complex.

In spite of the fact that the legal policy of modern Ukraine is rather contradictory and strategically poorly expressed, the developing legal life, orientated to supremacy of law, should inevitably carry out its co-ordination.

As the major legal value the supremacy of law is called to provide harmonization of legal values, as in fact application of the supremacy of law in legal cultures, differentiating in basic values, provided by the law (legal values) are reflected in the developing legal values.

As against for the western values the determining values of legal culture are personality, honour, order, normativeness, public benefit, the domestic legal culture is based on collectivity, dignity, justice, duty. So it is clear, why application of the principle of supremacy of law can not change originality of hierarchy of legal values in our legal culture. For example, an attempt at the constitutional level to recognize the personality the supreme value of the Ukrainian law (Article 3 of the Constitution of Ukraine) does not find the further confirmation at the level of the branch regulation, in particular, the Criminal Code of Ukraine. Public safety in legal mentality of people of Ukraine remains determining in comparison with safety of an individual. In spite of numerous attempts in the legislation to line up legal values on the basis of the equitable law, as well as before, it is noticeable the priority of legal duty which still remains the leading legal value of our legal culture.

We think that modern jurisprudence, insisting on the supremacy of law as the major legal value, just allows applicably to each legal culture to show out the sodium to legal harmony, providing not only the hierarchy of legal values but also the choice of legal decisions on the basis of existence of legal mentality, legal traditions and legal institutes.

And the principle value has also distinction of values of law (i.e. the values which are confirmed and saved by the law) and legal values (i.e. the values carried out through ages and generations law, legal culture).

The basis of the law is such absolute values as saving of life, family, property, maintenance of safety, getting knowledge, decision-making and etc. Thus, office or instrumental value of law is expressed, in particular, how to make the border between values and antivalues. At the same time the special purpose of right law is in saving of existent values and their recognition as values of law, showed up in such directions as: fixing of values, informing about values, creation of hierarchy of values, redistribution of values, and, finally, protection of values. [3]

The instrumental value of law is its valued sense as the certain regulative, in accordance with rules and requirements of which people line up the conduct. Distinction of the existing legal cultures determines the distinction in the volume of normativeness, forms of its existence, procedures and methods of maintenance. Thus if normative insufficiency of legal culture can cause disorganization of relations, raise of criminality, etc., normative surplus, creating firmness and monolithic nature of order, limits freedom and initiative of the personality, it frequently becomes the obstacle for its personification. Consequently, achieving of optimum normativeness of legal culture, promotes the valued sense of regulatives. The instrumental value of law is the higher, when the volume of the legal regulation at the greater degree conforms the requirements of life.

The special discussion should be deserved to the question about the possibility to carry out ranging of values, and to line up their hierarchy with the help of law. And the two positions should deserve special discussion. Foremost, the thesis about impossibility of the social ranging of the different understandings of blessing, as there is not comparableness of the individual understandings of blessing, and, consequently, such social (including legal) ranging the essence of trampling of the ideal of the free personality. And, secondly, all social blessings (welfare, safety, position, education, calling etc.) are divided into spheres, guided by different principles. Besides in different cultures different social significance is attached to these social blessings. Therefore the thesis of uncomparableness, asserting absence of acceptable method of ranging of blessings, products of culture, i.e. blessings (values) between the cultures are uncomparative as these blessings (values) are uncomparative among themselves. Evidently, the uncomparableness of the individual understandings of blessing can not serve as the ground for the refusal from forming in the proper culture of steady directions at advance of personality in the world of values.

Indeed, other values are not created in law except for legal values, but their hierarchy, is inevitably lined up corresponding to grades of values, widespread in the society. As for the thesis of uncomparableness of values of different cultures, it should be aimed at the care of selection of values of other legal cultures, for their application in the conditions of the own legal culture.

In modern legal literature we can find attempts of recognition of identical supreme value both for the person and for the nature. [4] Logically the socium and the state can also be considered as the supreme values. Meanwhile, in all these cases the hierarchy of these supreme values is inevitable. We think that in our legal culture and according to our legal mentality this hierarchy is the following: the state, the socium, the person, the nature.

Alongside with the instrumental (official) value the law possesses its own value. Being the achievement of culture and civilization, the law resists the tyranny, it is the symbol of freedom, justice, and formal equality. Finally, the contradiction between the order and disorder can scarcely be possible to overcome successfully without the law. From this point of view the law is not only the means of overcoming the chaos and personification of the order but also the value providing development and law enforcement, and its co-operating with disorder.

The own value of the law gets the expression in such directions as socium (the social value of the law) and the personality (the personal value of the law). Thus, in the contents of the specific value of the law we can select the specific values which unlike the values of the law (values provided by the law) are named legal values (human rights, equitable rights, legal duties, law enforcement, etc.).

The social value of the law is determined by its ability to solve out the problems arising up in the society with application of legal facilities in government activity, by volume of the necessary legal regulation, by maintenance of stability in relations, by reliability of protection of social integrity. The existence of the legal state is the recognition of the social value of the law.

The personal value of the law is, foremost, considered in the law being the source of individual freedom of the personality, included in the certain social community. With the help of the law the sanction of contradiction between the personal freedom and general blessing is possible. Thus the law shows the subject the way to the different values, giving the developing public relations such features as availability, operativeness, reliability, identicalness, safety.

The world of values in the law comprises values, estimations, valued orientations, and the corresponding to them hierarchical constructions in the system of legal values. The most meaningful legal values are justice, absolute law, constitution, law, court, etc. Such legal values as the legal state, the division of authorities, human rights have got universal recognition. It is necessary to note that advancement of freedom in the center of modern political thought has influenced noticeable increase of the status of legal values in the system of modern social and personal values.

As significance of the law for the person and the society is, foremost, in differentiating of spheres of freedom and tyranny, it is necessary to specify that legitimate and illegal, the same as good and evil for the moral, serve the law as the categories, determining maximumness of legal values. Thus the legitimate — limits the sphere of basic legal values, and the illegal — selects the sphere of legal antivalues.

Existence of such legal values as, the legitimate and illegal makes it possible to exist such legal value with the help of which the estimation of legitimacy of actions of participants of legal relations can be given — it is legality. And the category of justice is the basis of the correct application of estimations, shown in the categories of blessing, good and evil, and the category of legality is the basis of correct application of estimations, shown in the categories of formal equality, legitimate and illegal.

We will note that in the legal sphere freedom is not the legal value — it is the value of law that is materialized through the principle of formal equality by means of such legal values as equitable rights and legal duties. Exactly equitable rights and legal duties make contents of freedom in legal sense and act as fundamental legal values. It is necessary to specify that such legal value as legality is concretized in equitable rights and legal duties.

Realization of equitable rights and execution of legal duties is provided by such legal value as legal responsibility. Such legal value as legal responsibility determines lawful behaviour of people.

Legal values exist for the society and the person as the «prepared formulas» which become guide lines in social life, influencing the choice of the variant of conduct in the field of action of law.

We will note that understanding of weak compatibility of dominating in different legal cultures motivating components [5] should be the basis at the legal borrowings, carried out both at the level of law-making, and at the level of legal theory and legal education.

In the prism of supremacy of law there is shown its own value as the value of well-organized freedom of the person, justice, consensus, eliminating tyranny and self-will [6]. Realization of the principle of supremacy of law is reflected in existence of the system of requirements incarnated in legal reality. The given requirements, corresponding to the ideology of civil society, are shown in the category (legal value) of law enforcement. It is necessary to pay attention to distinctions in existence of two copulas in the legal sphere: supremacy of law is legality, supremacy of law is law enforcement.

The low quality of constitutional positions and numerous blanks in the constitutional regulation in Ukraine specified in legal literature [7] can be the ground for the cardinal revision of the question about the application of legal values along with the norms of Constitution, laws and sub lawful acts. Till present the existent position about the additional address to the legal values at absence of concrete norms, or contradictions between them should be changed, and legal values should become the determining guideline at making legal decisions. In particular, the principle of supremacy of law in the legal regulation should be considered as the fundamental position, determining in all legal situations not only the character and volume of the applied normativeness but also the contents of requital, i.e. of justice of the legal decision.

Defending the determining role of supremacy of law in the hierarchy of legal values of Ukraine, we should specify that the Constitutional Court of Ukraine unlike the European Court on Human Rights acts in the former logic of supremacy of law, when it gives the definition of the concept of supremacy of law setting the formalized limits of distribution of supremacy of law in the Ukrainian law. Meanwhile the European Court on Human Rights does not give the definition of supremacy of r law insisting on recognition of situation of application of the principle of supremacy of law. The given position specified by P.M. Rabinovich [8], states the fact that even the Constitutional Court of Ukraine continues to act in the spirit supremacy of law.

Supremacy of law in this connection should become the basis of its realization but not only forming of the legislative policy. Thus, references to the fact that some normative position has been reflected in the law and therefore the supremacy of law should not be taken into account are inadmissible as in the system of norms there have been fixed the priorities of the Constitution of Ukraine establishing that the legal order should be based on recognition of supremacy of law [9]. Any formula of law should be perceived, interpreted, applied in accordance with the changes of social reality and legal reality, and determined by the legal mentality and legal traditions. And all this is reflected in the principle of supremacy of law that provides the corresponding correlation of the legal regulation. The great increase of amount of legislative acts in the legal system of Ukraine, on the one hand, testifies to misunderstanding by the legislator, of existence of critical limits of the legislative mass, and, on the other hand, it is the fact of mistrust to the professional legal environment and misrecognition for the lawyers of the right to application of their professional legal culture for the sanction of questions of the legal regulation.

The constitutional proclamation, and real providing of supremacy of law is the way out from state monopolism to the law traditional for our culture that breaks in Ukraine through both executive and legislative power and, in particular, is shown in its super law making activity.

The value of supremacy of law for the development of the legal system in Ukraine can be considered in two directions. Firstly, it is overcoming of destructive positions of the legal reality: disparity of the legal setting of norms of the developing system of social relations; existence of different legal collisions; widespread legal myths and illusions, etc. Secondly, it is overcoming of destructive positions connected legal reality: the developed state monopolism to law; the developed legal nihilism in the social sphere; the formed sphere of illegal practice, etc.

Another aspect of the problem of supremacy of law is connected with the question about recognition of the determining role of human rights relating to other legal values. We shall note the fact that that this recognition of priority of prevailing of human rights relates exclusively to activity of the state and is distributed on all state structures [10].

Meanwhile the supremacy of law makes it possible to solve the problem of correlation of individual and collective rights out of connection with the state. Thus, the Eurocentric understanding of this correlation with priority of individual rights should not hide the other, opposite variant of such correlation that just corresponds to the idea of supremacy of law in relating to human rights. In this case supremacy of law in Ukraine is connected with providing of priority of legal duty and creation of legal conditions for achieving the unity of equitable rights and legal duties in the legal system of Ukraine.

Supremacy of law in our legal culture first of all acts as the sense of truth and its reflection is in the normatively set positions. Thus, being guided by the truth they not only adhere to the existing equitable rights and legal duties, show persistence in the assertions of the right but do not accept falseness even it is legalized [11]. It is possible to assert that speaking about our legal culture the truth gets one of the expressions in the idea of supremacy of law and is not only the means of rise of the person in the existing system of social relations but also allows the person to react in good time on the changes of authority of the power, its institutional solvency, ideological acceptability. In tradition of the domestic legal regulation based on the lie, it can not be called the law, therefore the adopted by means of legal cultures from the European legal culture principle of supremacy of law should inevitably be filled with the sense of truth.

The literature

justification society law

1. Философия права / Под ред. Данильяна. — М.: Эксима, 2006. — С. 261.

2. Козюбра М. Принцип верховенства права у конституційному правосудді // Закон и бизнес, 22−30 квітня 2010 р. — № 17. — С. 10.

3. Рабинович П. М. Социалистическое право как ценность. Изд. 2-е, стереотипное. — Одесса: Юрид. лит., 2006. — С. 13−24.

4. Патерило І.В. Право як ціннісна категорія. Автореферат дис. канд. юр. наук. — Київ. — 2006. — С. 9.

5. Малахов В. П. Философия права. — Екатеринбург — Москва: Деловая книга, Академический проект, 2012. — С. 439.

6. Алексеев С. С. Право: азбука — теория — философия: Опыт комплексного исследования. — М.: Статут, 2009. — С. 345.

7. Шемшученко Ю., Ющик О. До проблеми формування законодавчої політики в Україні // Право України. — 2005. — № 11. — С. 4.

8. Рабінович П. Верховенство права в інтерпретації Конституційного Суду України // Юридичний Вісник України, 28 січня-3 лютого 2006 р. — № 4. — С. 8−9.

9. Орзіх М.П., Крусян А. Р. Сучасний конституціоналізм в Україні. Вступ до українського конституційного права. — К.: Амріта, 2006. — С. 260.

10. Рабінович П. Верховенство права в інтерпретації Страсбурзького суду // Юридичний Вісник України, 3−9 грудня 2005 р. — № 48. — С. 12.

11. Арановский К. В. Аксиология правды в русском мировоззрении и государственное право // Правоведение. — 2013. — № 6. — С. 189.

Заполнить форму текущей работой