The basic principles of regulation by safety of economy

Тип работы:


Детальная информация о работе

Выдержка из работы

The basic principles of regulation by safety of economy

N.A. Lebedkin, academician on ecology and safety of ability to live in extreme situations.

The main levers of management of a national economy, regions, companies and enterprises are the prices for the goods both services and taxes to the proceeds from realization of commodity production, which structure includes also proceeds from realization of services to the population, enterprises, establishments and organizations. Whether the prices should be adjusted by the state or carry spontaneous character? Стихийность ценообразования as a consequence boundless демократизации in economic activity already has proved the economic inconsistency and does not require additional substantiations of its (her) unfitness for economic activity and balanced development of economy of any country. The economically unreasonable failure (refusal) of the doctrine of participation of the state in management of economy of our country has resulted the country in a general (common) economic crisis. Galloping inflation, as a consequence of holiday of the prices in the period of the most active reorganization of the economic attitudes (relations) (1992−1999 гг.), resulted (brought) to обнищанию of basic weight of the population and bankruptcy of a significant part of the enterprises and continuing the destructive influence on economic activity of the enterprises and ability to live of the population which has received the name of «shock» therapy, отзвуки with which and till the present time do not cease, at all was not economic necessity. The price has appeared is too great for the carried out (spent) reorganization, and the results — are much lower than the initial purposes. The balanced price policy (politics) is the integral function of any civilized state, имманентно inherent to it (him) as a part whole организма. The failure (refusal) of the control, regulation and management of the prices on the goods and services actually means self-elimination of state structures from management of a national economy and therefore from government. The economy which has been released (let off) on самотек, objectively be not capable to reach (achieve) any national purpose. Besides the former purposes and former primitive ideology were quite is proved are thrown out for a board of a history, and new standard ideology, except for immense enrichment and pursuit of profit till now and is not produced. Hence, already настала it is time обнародовать national idea, which would reconcile all layers расслоившегося of a society (community) and precisely enough and, main, fairly would express interests of the state and people. The essence of national idea of the current moment, on our sight, consists in the following. The maintenance of well-being, health and safety of a nation in a harmonious combination to strengthening and further development of intelligence and духовности of the population of the country also is the simultaneously main idea, purpose both prime task of the state and society (community) as a whole. The achievement of this purpose is possible only as a result of radical reorganization of the usual system индикативного of management of a national economy, its (her) regions and branches.

In these conditions the question on maintenance of economic safety of the enterprises, companies, and also regions, economy and population of the country as a whole is superurgent, and on importance and sequence of national problems strongly costs (stands) on the first place. To number of major structural elements of economic safety of a national economy branches, conducting her,(it,) and companies it is necessary to attribute (relate) the following: the control for ценообразованием, sizes of wages (its (her) conformity to demand on the goods of mass consumption, measure and quality of work, and also тарифно-qualifying directory of payment of work from working up to the president developed still (even) in 2010 in institute ЦНИЭИуголь Минэнерго) and system of the taxation. For this reason it is represented to most expedient not selective, but their complex decision. First of all it concerns maintenance of steady growth and conformity between demand for the goods both services, on the one hand, and sizes of wages of the workers and pensions, with another.

Secondly, the initially developed and authorized tax system so strongly also is economically perfectly unreasonably overloaded диффе-ренцированными with the specifications and фондообразующими by parameters and does not correspond (meet) to tasks, facing to it (her), what even its (her) annual updatings, change and addition be not capable залатать all of its (her) hole. From 45 taxes authorized in перестроечный the period, more than half did not work, and other part worked less than half. To the present time there were 15 kinds of the taxes, but you see and this number is overestimated not less, than in 15 times. A number (line) of the taxes, not having substantial economic sense, carry out obvious деструктивную function. So, for example, the tax, working till now in a coal industry, to production of minerals (НДПИ) instead of alignment of economic conditions of economic activity of the mining enterprises by neutralization of influence of the natural factors (conditions залегания угля in недрах, quality of extracted raw material etc.) simply takes from the proceeds a part of the profit угледобывающих of the enterprises most фондоёмкой of branch and instead of involving her (it) in economic circulation by maintenance and development of working mine fund оседает by a dead cargo in недрах госбюджета, not bringing any advantage (benefit) neither coal companies, nor national economy. In result the most labour-consuming branches have no a real opportunity in time to ensure (supply) reproduction of leaving capacities and effective economic activity.

Further, taking into account, that an overall objective of a national economy as a whole is the maintenance social, intellectual both moral values of the population and national economy as a whole, including at a level of each enterprise and each coal company is the increase of well-being of the workers, the taxation by the taxes of a parameter expressing this purpose, is economically not solvent and деструктивным by the factor.

As one Uniform state tax at a rate of 20−25% from the proceeds of each subject of the Russian economy suffices for normal economic activity to ensure (supply) with financing all надстроечную structure of management of the country, public health services, education, science, culture and its (her) safety. One more example that mechanical copying of foreign experience to anything useful result can not, as has found acknowledgement (confirmation) in the received results. Business that in our country a level of wages of basic weight of the workers and in доперестроечный the period in 3−4 times was lower, than in the advanced countries of Western Europe, Japan and USA, in summary reorganizations it (he) has decreased still approximately in as much time, therefore the general (common) level of pensions and wages of basic weight of the population has appeared on the order below incomes of the hired workers in the advanced countries. Technique of definition Uniform госналога instead of 45 working now (in which calculation even the skilled bookkeepers are confused till now) is extreme simple — account enough part of the budget to divide on ВВП and умножить into factor of a reserve at a rate of from 20 up to 25% and size Uniform госналога (ЕГН) is ready. The structural analysis of economic activity shows, that manufacture of the goods for the population inside the country was reduced more, than three times, the capital investments in real sector have decreased in 5−6 times, and the export of the capital abroad in commercial interests has reached (achieved) the enormous sizes already which have exceeded the national budget of the country. It proves to be true by the following data of official statistics, tab. 1.

The table 1 — Share of wages in ВВП of Russia and western countries, %.

USA Japan the European Union Russia

1992 72,4 74,5 71,4 36,7

1993 72,2 74.9 70,9 39

1994 71,8 75,7 69,6 38

1998 72,0 75,9 68,9 30

2002 72,1 76,0 69,0 30

2006 71,9 76,1 69,1 31,1

The note: the items of information, specified in tab. 1, are given on the basis of the socio economic problems, given Institute, of the population of the Russian Academy of sciences.

It is necessary thus to mean, that as a result of transition of means of manufacture in private (individual) hands and rather essential stratification of a society (community) the data, given in tab. 1, are overestimated not less than twice in relation to basic weight of the workers and pensioners, the level of which incomes is not only parameter of well-being, but simultaneously also by a parameter платежеспособного of demand for the goods and services, including the import goods, which volume with each year grows in rates outstripping growth of inflation. From here and the low buying power of basic weight of the population to basic weight of the goods, made in the country, as structure of demand of the population and elite layer is rather indecently various. A low level of wages (tab. 2) Only at a rate of 1,7 $ the /hour, or in 13,4 times is less, than in next Germany, conducts to reduction платежеспособного of demand for the goods for the population, which decrease (reduction) directly conducts to decline of capacities. It means, that manufacture of domestic production for the population and industrial capacities on its (her) release with each year is reduced. Actually already began irreversible in present conditions of economic activity рецессия of domestic manufacture, that puts a national economy in steadily growing dependence on world (global) economic system. And you see the wages for the workers of hired work, from which the significant part goes on the transport charges on work and back and payment of services ЖКХ, are a unique (sole) source of maintenance of well-being and health of a nation, and also substantially and for reception of a trade.

The table 2 — Comparative estimation of productivity and зарплатоотдачи on ВВП (on parity of a buying power)

The note: the items of information, specified in the table 2, are given on the basis of the socio economic problems, given Institute, of the population of the Russian Academy of sciences.

It is clear, that at such level of wages the decision of national idea on maintenance of well-being, health and qualitative professional training of a manpower practically is impossible, and idea about increase ВВП by 2010 twice economically not proved (as well as predicted неполитизированные the economists and as actually has taken place), the national purposes and prime tasks of a national economy does not decide (solve). The stratification of a society (community) on a level of the incomes and well-being (tab. 3) by 2007 has reached (achieved) such enormous difference what to speak about unity of a nation the presence of obvious social injustice growing intensity and antagonistic contradictions is not necessary any more, opposite (on the contrary) available, that excludes an opportunity of a safety of a society (community) and national economy not only in a long-term future, but also in the nearest prospect. In these conditions extreme urgent there is a task of restoration of the broken parity of interests of the lowest and average layers of a society (community) with the top elite layers including as a result of social conditions, created by them, of ability to live of basic weight of the population in group of risk of preservation of own safety and safety of the country in whole (as a whole).

economy safety taxe wage

The table — 3. Dynamics (changes) of the money incomes of the population, %

The note: on the data of Institute of socio economic problems of the population of WOUNDS.

The essence of the economic taxes and their purpose (assignment) consists in maintenance of functioning of all system of a state superstructure ensuring ability to live and development of a national economy. The progressive role of the state or separate region consists not in increase of volumes collected with the population, organizations and enterprises of the taxes, and, opposite (on the contrary), at the expense of skilful and competent management of a national facilities (economy) with extreme small number of the state device to ensure (supply) a high technical and technological level of industrial and non-productive spheres of activity at simultaneous preservation and development of natural environment (Wednesday) and on this basis to create necessary conditions for increase of well-being, strengthening of health of a nation, increase of a level of its (her) intelligence and morals. Highest (the level of management of economic activity consists in especially professional aspect) not in regular and radical reforms tremendous all national economy from below up to top and rearrangement of the influential staff, and in extreme thin and skilful regulation of the industrial and economic attitudes (relations) in a society (community).

The maintenance of conditions and achievement of high results in business of preservation both development of health and well-being of the population of the country, first of all of workers creating national riches, steady increase of their professional level, culture and other moral values is the main, urgent and major state task of a society (community) both state. The education and management of all structure and volume of needs (requirements) working, pensioners, youth and all population of each region and society (community) as a whole in a harmonious combination among themselves and with interests of the country is наиглавнейшей an economic task facing all system of state authority in the country. For this reason the connection of authority with an economic science is a guarantee of stability both safety of functioning of a society (community) and forward movement of a national economy without shocks, дефолтов and depressions.

Major parameter of an economic efficiency of functioning both development of national economy and its (her) major base and key branches is not the fiscal collection probably of large financial assets from the enterprises, organizations and population of the country as the taxes (at absence of the mechanism of their effective utilization), and всемерное maintenance of a necessary and sufficient standard of well-being of a nation, first of all of workers and pensioners, which are the base of a nation in any country of the world and parameter of well-being of a nation and his (its) international status. And urgent necessity instead of all weight of the taxes naturally follows from this rule (situation) an economic feasibility to establish the uniform state tax, (including the absent nowadays parental tax, as in the majority the adult children in the usual hard economic conditions actually have stopped care of the parents) on the proceeds from realization of production and services in volumes ensuring functioning of a public superstructure.

From the economic point of view it is necessary to note, that the less than volume of the raised taxes and their quantity (amount), the above professional level of management of a national economy and higher rates of growth of major economic parameters, including its (her) major parameter — standard of well-being both health of the population of the country and its (her) separate regions, instead of far-fetched раздутый валовый a parameter such as ВВП. And than higher is the well-being of wide national weights, the above and level by national economy, the more stably and more reliably economic situation of the country, its (her) safety and strategic rule (situation) in world (global) economic and хозяйственно-political system.

Заполнить форму текущей работой