The peculiarities of news reports in English mass media texts
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THE MINISTRY OF HIGHER AND SECONDARY SPECIAL
EDUCATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN
THE UZBEK STATE WORLD LANGUAGES UNIVERSITY
II ENGLISH PHILOLOGY FACULTY
«ENGLISH STYLISTICS» DEPARTMENT
«THE PECULIARITIES OF NEWS REPORTS IN ENGLISH MASS MEDIA TEXTS»
Written by the student of the 3course
Group 316"B" Djabbarov Ziyoviddin
Teacher: Osipova O. B
Chapter 1 The Newspaper as a functional style
1.1 Functional styles
1.2 The Characteristics of News Styles
Chapter 2. The Peculiarities of News Reporting (Brief news items) in English mass media texts
2.1 Mass Media Language
2.1.2 Weather reporting
2.1.4 Commercial Advertising
2.2 Analysis of brief news items
language mass media stylistic
In Introduction I want to tell shortly what functional style is. It is a system of interrelated language means serving a definite aim in communication. It is the coordination of the language means and stylistic devices which shape the distinctive features of each style.
Each style, however, can be recognized by one or more leading features which are especially conspicuous. For instance, the use of special terminology is a lexical characteristics of the style of scientific prose, and one by which it can easily be recognized. A style of language can be defined as a system of coordinated, interrelated and inter-coordinated language means intended to full-fill a specific function of communication and aiming at a defined effect. The English literary system has evolved a number of styles easily distinguishable one from another. They are not homogeneous and fall into several variants of having some central point of resemblance or better to say. All integrated by the invariant the abstract ideal system.
1) Official (documents and papers);
2) Scientific (brochures, articles, other scientific publications);
3) Publicistic (essay, public speech);
4) Newspaper style (mass media);
5) Belles-lettres style (genre of creative writing);
Scientific style is employed in professional communication to convey some information. Its most conspicuous feature is the abundance of terms denoting objects, phenomena and processes characteristics of some particular field of science and technique. Also it is characterized by the clarity of logical cohesion. Official style is the most conservative one. It uses syntactical constructions and sometimes archaic words. Emotiveness is banned out of this style. Publicistic style is famous for its explicit pragmatic function of persuasion directed at influencing the reader in accordance with the argumentation of the author. Newspaper style special graphical means are used to attract the readers attention. Belles-lettres style is the richest register of communication. Belles-lettres style has a unique task to impress the reader aesthetically.
Chapter 1. The Newspaper Style as a functional style Newspaper style.
Includes informative materials: news in brief, headlines, ads, additional articles. But not everything published in the paper can be included in Newspaper Style (N. S) we mean publicist essays, feature articles, scient. Reviews are not N.S. to attract the readers, attention by special means used by British and American papers for example: specific headlines, space ordering. We find here a large proportion of dates, personal names of countries, institutions, individuals, achieve an effect of objectivity in rendering some fact or event most of info is published anonymously, without the name of newsman who supplied it, with little or no subjective modality. But the position of the paper becomes clear from the choice not only of subj. matter but also of words denoting international or domestic issues. Sub styles to understand the language peculiarities of English newspaper style it will be sufficient to analyze the following basic newspaper features: 1) brief news items 2) advertisements and announcements; 3) headlines; Brief items: its function is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. The vocabulary used is neutral and common literary. Specific features are: a) special political and economic terms; b) non-term political vocabulary; c) newspaper cliches; d) abbreviations; e) neologisms.
1.1 Functional styles
Functional styles (FS) are the subsystems of language, each subsystem having its own peculiar features in what concern vocabulary means, syntactical constructions, and even phonetics. The appearance and existence of FS is connected with the specific conditions of communication in different spheres of human life. FS differ not only by the possibility or impossibility of using some elements but also due to the frequency of their usage. For example: some terms can appear in the colloquial style but the possibility of its appearance is quite different form the possibility to meet it in an example of scientific style.
The classification of Functional Style (F. S) is a very complicated problem, that is why we will consider ideas of I.R. Galperin, bearing in mind that I.R Galperin treats functional styles as patterns of the written variety of language thus excluding colloquial FS. Both scholars agree that each FS can be recognized by one or more leading features. But I.R Galperin pays more attention to the coordination of language means and stylistic devices whereas Arnold connects the specific features of each FS with its peculiarities in the sphere of communication. According to I.R. Galperin, a functional style of language is a system of interrelated language means which serves a definite aim in communication. A functional style should be regarded as the product of a certain concrete task set by the sender of the message. Functional styles appear mainly in the literary standard of the language. These represent varieties of the abstract invariant and can deviate from the invariant, even breaking away with it.
Each FS is a relatively stable system at the given stage in the development of the literary language, but it changes, and sometimes considerably, from one period to another. Therefore FS is a historical category. Thus, for example in the 17th century it was considered that not all words can be used in poetry, and that a separate poetic style exists. Later, in the 19th century romanticism rejected the norms of poetic style and introduced new vocabulary to poetry. The development of each style is predetermined by the changes in the norms of standard English. It is also greatly influenced by changing social conditions, the progress of science and the development of cultural life. Every functional style of language is marked by a specific use of language means, thus establishing its own norms which, however, are subordinated to the norm-invariant and which do not violate the general notion of the literary norm. The writers of the given period in the development of the literary language contribute greatly to establishing the system of norms of their period. It is worth noting that the investigations of language norms at a given period are to great extent maintained on works of men of letters. Selection, or deliberate choice of language, and the ways the chosen elements are treated are the main distinctive features of individual style. Individual style is a unique combination of language units, expressive means and stylistic devices peculiar to a given writer, which makes that writer’s works or even utterances easily recognizable . Naturally, the individual style of a writer will never be entirely independent of the literary norms and canons of the given period. But the adaptations of these canons will always be peculiar and therefore distinguishable. Individual style is based on a thorough knowledge of the contemporary language and allows certain justifiable deviations from the rigorous norms. Individual style requires to be studied in a course of stylistics in so far as it makes use of the potentialities of language means, whatever the characters of these potentialities may be. All men of letters have a peculiar individual manner of using language means to achieve the effect they desire. Writers choose language means deliberately. This process should be distinguished from language peculiarities which appear in everyday speech of this or that particular individual (idiolect).
The Publistic (P. S) style is a perfect for example: historical changeability of stylistic differentiation of discourses. In Greece it was practiced in oral form which was named P. S in accordance with the name of its corresponding genre. P. S is famous for its explicit pragmatic function of persuasion directed at influencing the reader and shaping his views in accordance with the argumentation of the author. We find in PS a blend of the rigorous logical reasoning, reflecting the objective state of things and a strong subjectivity reflecting the authors personal feelings and emotions towards the discussed subject. Sub styles: The oratory essays, journalistic articles, radio and TV commentary. Oratory it makes use of a great humbler of expressive means to arouse and keep the public’s interest: repetition, gradation, antithesis, rhetorical questions, emotive words, elements of colloquial speech. Radio and TV commentary is less impersonal and more expressive and emotional. The essay is very subjective and the most colloquial of the all sub styles of the publicistic style. It makes use of expressive means and tropes. The journalistic articles are impersonal.
The publicistic style of language became a separate style in the middle of the 18th century. Unlike other styles, it has two spoken varieties, namely the oratorical sub style and the radio and TV commentary. The other two sub styles are the essay (moral, philosophical, literary) and journalistic articles (political, social, economic). The general aim of publicistic style is to influence the public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the expressed point of view. Publicistic style is characterized by coherent and logical syntactical structure, with an expanded system of connectives and careful paragraphing. Its emotional appeal is achieved by the use of words with the emotive meaning but the stylistic devices are not fresh or genuine. The individual element is not very evident. Publicistic style is also characterized by the brevity of expression, sometimes it becomes a leading feature.
The oratorical style is the oral subdivision of the publicistic style. Direct contact with the listeners permits a combination of the syntactical, lexical and phonetic peculiarities of both the written and spoken varieties of language. The typical features of this style are: direct address to the audience; sometimes contractions; the use of colloquial words. The SDs employed in the oratorical style are determined by the conditions of communication. As the audience rely only on memory, the speaker often resorts to repetitions to enable his listeners to follow him and to retain the main points of his speech. The speaker often use simile and metaphor, but these are generally traditional, because genuine SDs may be difficult to grasp. The essay is rather a series of personal and witty comments than a finished argument or a conclusive examination of the matter. The most characteristic language features of the essay are: brevity of expression; the use of the first person singular; a rather expanded use of connectives; the abundant use of emotive words; the use of similes and sustained metaphors. The language of journalistic articles is defined by the character of newspaper, magazine, as well as subjects chosen. Literary reviews stand closer to essays.
Scientific Prose Style
The style of scientific prose has 3 subdivisions: 1) the style of humanitarian sciences; 2) the style of «exact» sciences; 3) the style of popular scientific prose. Its function is to work out and ground theoretically objective knowledge about reality. The aim of communication is to create new concepts, disclose the international laws of existence. The peculiarities are: objectiveness; logical coherence, impersonality, unemotional character, exactness. The scientific prose style consists mostly of ordinary words which tend to be used in their primary logical meaning. Emotiveness depends on the subject of investigation but mostly scientific prose style is unemotional. Grammar: The logical presentation and cohesion of thought manifests itself in a developed feature of scientific syntax is the use of established patterns. — postulatory; - formulative; - argumentative; The impersonal and objective character of scientific prose style is revealed in the frequent use of passive constructions, impersonal sentences. Personal sentences are more frequently used in exact sciences. In humanities we may come across constructions but few. Some features of the style in the text are: — use of quotations and references; - use of foot-notes helps to preserve the logical coherence of ideas. Scientific popular style has the following peculiarities: emotive words, elements of colloquial style.
The Style of Official Documents
1) Language of business letters; 2) Language of legal documents; 3) Language of diplomacy; 4) Language of military documents; The aim: 1. to reach agreement between two contracting parties; 2. to state the conditions binding two parties in an understanding. Each of sub styles of official documents makes use of special terms. Legal documents: military documents, diplomatic documents. The documents use set expressions inherited from early Victorian period. This vocabulary is conservative. Legal documents contain a large proportion of formal and archaic words used in their dictionary meaning. In diplomatic and legal documents many words have Latin and French origin. There are a lot of abbreviations and conventional symbols. The most noticeable feature of grammar is the compositional pattern. Every document has its own stereotyped form. The form itself is informative and tells you with what kind of letter we deal with. Business letters contain: heading, addressing, salutation, the opening, the body, the closing, complimentary clause, the signature. Syntactical features of business letters are — the predominance of extended simple and complex sentences, wide use of participial constructions, homogeneous members. Morphological peculiarities are passive constructions, they make the letters impersonal. There is a tendency to avoid pronoun reference. Its typical feature is to frame equally important factors and to divide them by members in order to avoid ambiguity of the wrong interpretation.
According to I. R Galperin: Functional Style is a system of interrelated language means serving a definite aim in communication. It is the coordination of the language means and stylistic devices which shapes the distinctive features of each style and not the language means or stylistic devices themselves. Each style, however, can be recoquized by one or more leading features which are especially conspicuous. For instance the use of special terminology is a lexical characteristics of the style of scientific prose, and one by which it can easily be recognized. Classification: 1. The Belles — Lettres Functional Style. a) poetry; b) emotive prose; c) drama; 2. Publicistic Functional Style, a) oratory; b) essays; c) articles in newspapers and magazines; 3. The Newspaper Functional Style. a) brief news items; b) advertisements and announcements; c) headlines; 4. The Scientific Prose Style. a) exact sciences; b) humanitarian sciences; c) popular- science prose; 5. The Official Documents Functional Style. a) diplomatic documents; b) business letters; c) military documents; d) legal documents;
The Belles-Letters Style
According to I.R. Galperin, this is a generic term for three sub styles: the language of poetry; emotive prose (the language of fiction); the language of the drama. Each of these sub styles has certain common features, and each of them enjoys some individuality. The common features of the sub styles are the following:
The aesthetic-cognitive function (a function which aims at the cognitive process, which secures the gradual unfolding of the idea to the reader and at the same time calls forth a feeling of pleasure and satisfaction which a reader experiences because he is able to penetrate into the author’s idea and to form his own conclusions). 2) Definite linguistic features: Genuine, not trite, imagery, achieved by purely linguistic devices. The use of words in different meanings, greatly influenced by the lexical environment. A vocabulary which will reflect to a certain degree the author’s personal evaluation of things or phenomena. A peculiar individual selection of vocabulary and syntax. The introduction of the typical features of colloquial language to a full degree (drama), to a lesser degree (in prose), to a slight degree (poetry). The belles-lettres style is individual in essence. This is one of its most distinctive properties.
The language of poetry is characterized by its orderly form, which is based mainly on the rhythmic and phonetic arrangement of the utterances. The rhythmic aspect calls forth syntactic and semantic peculiarities. There are certain restrictions which result in brevity of expression, epigram-like utterances and fresh, unexpected imagery. Syntactically this brevity is shown in elliptical sentences, in detached constructions, in inversion, etc. Emotive prose shares the same common features, but these features are correlated differently than in poetry. The imagery is not so rich as in poetry; the percentage of words with contextual meaning is not so high.
Emotive prose features the combination of the literary variant of the language, both in words and in syntax, with the colloquial variant. But the colloquial language in the belles-lettres style is not a simple reproduction of the natural speech, it has undergone changes introduced by the writer and has been made «literature-like». In emotive prose there are always two forms of communication present — monologue (the writer’s speech) and dialogue (the speech of the characters). Emotive prose allows the use of elements from other styles as well. But all these styles undergo a kind of transformation under the influence of emotive prose. Passages written in other styles may be viewed only as interpolations and not as constituents of the style.
Language of the drama is entirely dialogue. The author’s speech is almost entirely excluded except for the playwright’s remarks and stage directions. But the language of the characters is not the exact reproduction of the norms of colloquial language. Any variety of the belles-lettres style will use the norms of the literary language of the given period. The language of plays is always stylized, it strives to retain the modus of literary English.
1. 2 The Characteristics of Newspaper style
English newspaper writing dates from the 17th century. The first of any regular English newspapers was the Weekly News which first appeared in May, 1622. The early English newspaper was principally a vehicle of information. Commentary found its way into the newspapers later. But as far back as the middle of the 18th century the British newspaper was very much like what it is today, carrying foreign and domestic news, advertisements, announcements and articles containing comments.
Not all the printed materials found in newspapers comes under newspaper style. Only materials which perform the function of informing the reader and providing him with an evaluation of information published can be regarded as belonging to newspaper style. English newspaper style can be defined as a system of interrelated lexical, phrase logical and grammatical means which is perceived by the community as a separate linguistic unity that serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader. Information in the English newspaper is conveyed through the medium of:
brief news items;
articles purely informational in character;
advertisements and announcements.
The newspaper also seeks to influence public opinion on political and other matters. Elements of appraisal may be observed in the very selection and way of presentation of news, in the use of specific vocabulary, casting some doubt on the facts recorded, and syntactical constructions indicating a lack of assurance of the reporter or his desire to avoid responsibility. The principle vehicle of interpretation and appraisal is the newspaper article and the editorial in particular. Editorial is a leading article which is characterized by a subjective handling of facts. This purpose defines the choice of language elements which are mostly emotionally colored. Newspaper style has its specific vocabulary features and is characterized by an extensive use of:
special political and economic terms (president, election);
non-term political vocabulary (nation, crisis, agreement, member);
newspaper cliches (pressing problem, danger of war, pillars of society);
abbreviations (NATO, EEC)
The headline is the title given to a news item or a newspaper magazine article. The main function of the headline is to inform the reader briefly of what the news that follows is about. Sometimes headlines contain elements of appraisal, i.e., they show the reporter’s or the paper’s attitude to the facts reported. English headlines are short and catching, they compact the gist of news stories into a few eye-snaring words. A skillfully turned out headline tells a story, or enough of it, to arouse or satisfy the reader`s curiosity; (George C. Bastian, 1956. Editing the Day`s News. N.Y.) In most of the English and American newspapers and magazines sensational headlines are quite common. The practice of headline writing is different with different editions. In many newspapers, there is, as a rule, one headline to a news item, whereas some others more often than not carry a news item or an article with two or three headlines.
The headline in British and American newspapers and magazines is an important vehicle of both information and appraisal, and editors give it special attention, admitting that few read beyond the headline, or at best the lead. To lure the reader into going through the whole of the item or at least a greater part of it takes a lot of skill and ingenuity on the part of the headline writer.
For examples: BUSH IS `JUST AS BAD AS SADDAM' While President George W. Bush drew applause in America for his plans to destroy the notorious Abu Ghraib prison, in Baghdad yesterday there were only jeers and scoffs.
«Bah. These are just gestures that mean nothing,» said Zaineb Hamid, a 30-year-old typist.
The most important structural element of a story is the lead (or «intro» in the UK) -- the story is first, or leading, sentence. (Some American English writers use the spelling lead, from the archaic English, to avoid confusion with the printing press type formerly made from the metal lead or the related typographical term leading.
Charley states that «an effective lead is a brief, sharp statement of the story’s essential facts. The lead is usually the first sentence, or in some cases the first two sentences, and is ideally 20−25 words in length. The top-loading principle (putting the most important information first — see inverted pyramid section below) applies especially to leads, but the unread ability of long sentences constrains the lead’s size. This makes writing a lead an optimization problem, in which the goal is to articulate the most encompassing and interesting statement that a writer can make in one sentence, given the material with which he or she has to work. While a rule of thumb says the lead should answer most or all of the five Ws, few leads can fit all of these.
To «bury the lead» in news style refers to beginning a description with details of secondary importance to the readers, forcing them to read more deeply into an article than they should have to in order to discover the essential point (s).
Article leads are sometimes categorized into hard leads and soft leads. A hard lead aims to provide a comprehensive thesis which tells the reader what the article will cover. A soft lead introduces the topic in a more creative, attention-seeking fashion, and is usually followed by a nut graph (a brief summary of facts).
Media critics often note that the lead can be the most polarizing subject in the article. Often critics accuse the article of bias based on an editor’s choice of headline and or lead. For example: Lead-and-Summary Design Humans will be going to the moon again. The NASA announcement came as the agency requested ten trillion dollars of appropriations for the project. … For example: Soft-Lead Design NASA is proposing another space project. The agency’s budget request, announced today, included a plan to send another person to the moon. This time the agency hopes to establish a long-term facility as a jumping-off point for other space adventures. The budget requests approximately ten trillion dollars for the project..
«Add the product of another author» Bill Parks writing «Basic news The Lead«.
The lead is usually the toughest part of writing a story. The lead is the first word, sentence or paragraph of the story. Sometimes it can be two or three paragraphs. Whatever its length, the lead has several important jobs to do. First, it must interest the reader in the rest of the story. Imagine the reader as impatient, with lots of other things he or she could be doing instead of reading your story.
Imagine the reader saying, «Get to the POINT! Don’t waste my time! Tell me the STORY!» If your reader were stranded on a desert island with nothing to read but your story, you could probably get away with a vague, rambling lead. But today’s reader has a BART train to catch, the kids are fighting again and the TV never stops blaring. Your story has tough competition. Surveys have shown that most people say they get their news from TV, but many then turn to newspapers for the details behind the headlines. Your job is to write a short, punchy, informative lead to attract readers who have grown accustomed to TV’s «sound bite» journalism. But then you must supply the details, the insights, the context that TV doesn’t have time for. What are the rules for a good lead? Keep it short. News writing is always tight, but the lead calls for special care. Condense your story into one sentence, then one phrase, then one word. Make sure that word is near the beginning of the lead. As a general rule, no lead sentence should be longer than 10 words.
* Get to the point. What is the story about?
Tell the reader in the lead. Don’t say, «The city council met last night.» Tell the reader what the city council did. «Business taxes were raised a whopping 30 percent on a 6−1 vote of the city council last night.» What’s the story about? Taxes. So get taxes in the lead.
* Focus on the action. Use the «active voice.» Instead of saying something happened, say who did what to who. Use the action word. If nobody did anything, it may not be a news story.
* Hook the reader. Put the most important, the most interesting, the most exciting thing in the lead. A novel may take 100 pages to lead up to the climax of the story; a news story puts the climax first and then explains what led up to it. These rules are sometimes thrown out for feature leads, or «anecdotal leads» that start with a little story that sets the scene for the point you are trying to make. But the lean, punchy news lead will work best on most stories.
How to write a news lead?
1. Condense story into one or two words. Put those words as close to the beginning of the first sentence as possible without destroying the flow of the lead sentence.
2. Keep leads short -- 20 to 30 words for the first sentence. Or fewer. 3. The news lead should tell the reader what the story is about and be interesting enough to draw the reader into the rest of the story. Remember that the readers won’t know what the story is about until you tell them. 4. Find the action in the story. Put the action in the lead. 5. Always double-check names and numbers. Check spelling, style and grammar. Put everything in order. 6. Attribute opinions. Stick with the facts. 7. Details, description. Report first, then write. Learn all, tell 10 percent. 8. Decide which of the news values best applies to the lead of the story. Write a lead that emphasizes that news value. 9. Write in the active voice. 10. Don’t lead with a name, time or place unless that is the most interesting important thing in the story. English newspaper style may be defined as a system of interrelated lexical, phrase logical and grammatical means which is perceived by the community speaking the language as a separate unity that basically serves the purpose of informing and instructing the reader. Since the primary function of newspaper style is to impart information, only printed matter serving this purpose comes under newspaper style proper. Such matter can be classed as 1. Brief news items and communiques 2. Press reports (parliamentary, of court proceedings, etc.) 3. Articles purely informational in character; 4. Advertisements and announcements.
The most concise form of newspaper informational is the headline. The headlines of news items, apart from giving information about the subject matter, also carry a considerable amount of appraisal (the size and arrangement of the headline, the use of emotionally colored words and elements of emotive syntax), thus indicating the interpretation of the facts in the news item that follows.
Brief news items
The function of a brief news item is to inform the reader. It states only facts without giving comments. Newspaper style has its specific vocabulary features and is characterized by an extensive use of: 1. Special political and economic terms; 2. Non-term political vocabulary; 3. Newspaper cliche; 4. Abbreviations; 5. Neologisms. The following grammatical peculiarities of brief news items are of paramount importance, and may be regarded as grammatical parameters of newspaper style: 1. Complex sentences with a developed system of clauses; 2. Verbal constructions; 3. Syntactical complexes; 4. Attributive noun groups; 5. Specific word order.
Advertisements and announcements
The function of advertisement and announcement is to inform the reader. There are 2 basic types of advertisements and announcements in the modern English newspaper: classified and non-classified (separate). In classified advertisements and announcements various kinds of information are arranged according to subject-matter into sections, each bearing an appropriate name.
As for the separate advertisements and announcements, the variety of language form and subject-matter is so great that hardly any essential features common to all be pointed out. The editorial Editorials are an intermediate phenomenon bearing the stamp of both the newspaper style and the publistic style. The function of the editorial is to influence the reader by giving an interpretation of certain facts. Emotional coloring in editorial articles is also achieved with the help of various stylistic devices (especially metaphors and epithets), both lexical and syntactical, the use of which is largely traditional.
Chapter 2. The peculiarities of News Reporting (Brief news items) in English mass media texts
2. 1 Mass Media Language
The world of the media is an area where it is important not to confuse the object with the language. There are newspapers; there is radio; there is television. But there is no such thing as a variety of newspaper language; or of radio language; or of television language. The media reflect all aspects of the human condition, and make available to the public many varieties of language already well known elsewhere, such as those associated with religion, politics, science, and literature, and the more topic-directed aspects of conversation (for example: discussion, interview, debate, argument). When we apply the notion of a language variety to the media, we have to look within each product (a newspaper, a radio or TV channel) for uses of language which have been shaped by the nature of the medium, or whose purpose is to make use of the capabilities provided by the medium. And here, the communication and presentation of news is dominant.
The reporting of news, whether in the spoken or written media, reflects one of the most difficult and constraining situations to be found in the area of language use. The chief constraint is the perpetual battle against the pressures of time and space. These pressures are absolutes. To fit a column, 20 words need to be cut. To fit a radio window, 16 seconds of a script may need to go. There is no argument. If the writer of the original material does not meet the demand, someone else higher up the editorial chain of command will do it instead. The average news report, whether printed or broadcast, is the product of many hands, journalists, editors (chief / check / copy / page sub-editors), typesetters, proofreaders, compositors, printers. There are several distinctive linguistic features of the reporting. Most relate fairly to those who, when, where, what, how and why, which journalists bear in mind when compiling a story. The headline is critical, summarizing and drawing attention to the story. Its telegraphic style is probably the best-known feature of news reporting. The first (lead paragraph both summarizes and begins to tell the story. This paragraph is the source of the headline. The original source of the story is given, either in by-line (Reuters), or built into the text (A senior White House official said). The participants are categorized, their name usually being preceded by a general term (champ, prisoner, official) and adjectives (handsome French singer J. Bruno). Other features include explicit time and place location (In Paris yesterday), facts and figures (56 people were killed in a bomb blast), and direct or indirect quotations (PM bungles, says expert).
2.1. 1 Broadcasting
In contrast with most newspapers, only a small part of radio and television output is devoted to news and its discussion (current affairs) as little as 5 per cent, on some channels but its significance is perceived to be far greater than this small figure suggests. The core element in this output is well-defined: the news bulletin, consisting of a series of items of varying size, often divided into sections (e.g. general, business, sport, weather), sometimes punctuated by advertising. Each of them fits into a format which may be of any length, but often as short as two minutes. Analysis of a typical day’s radio or television broadcasting brings to light several varieties of language which are in use elsewhere. Indeed, probably all conceivable spoken varieties will be found at some point or other in the broadcasting media. If a use of language is important enough to develop predictable linguistic features, the situations to which they relate are undoubtedly going to be of regular interests to listeners and viewers. The only constraint is sensitivity to taboo words.
2.1. 2 Weather reporting
Is one of the best examples, especially on radio where, in its specialized form, it is reduced to its bare essentials, as a restricted language. The names of the Meteorological Office sea areas surrounding the British Isles provide British English with some of the most distinctive weather-forecasting lexicon. Along the well-known areas such as Irish Sea, Plymouth, Portland, Thames, there exist a great deal of new coinages applied to meteorological regions, for example, Viking, Cromarty, Dogger, Forties (in the east), Shannon, Rock all, Bailey (in the west), or even more confusing phrases North Utsire and South Utsire (the western parts of the Scandinavian Peninsula). Most people know at least some of the names by heart, though few could locate more than a handful with any accuracy. Two contrasting styles informal and conversational or formal and formulaic are used on BBC Radio in weather forecasting. A successful weather forecast is a mixture of fluent spontaneity, controlled informality and friendly authority. The fluency is partly a matter of careful preparation, but is largely achieved through the broadcaster is ability to rely on formulaic phrasing (with light winds and largely clear skies, blue skies and sunshine, widespread frost) and on standard sequences of locations. The number of likely weather situations is really quite limited in a particular region, and certain combinations of features frequently recur.
The conversational tone may be achieved through the use of: informal lexicon (take a tumble, just a chance, odd rogue shower); everyday turns of phrase which ordinary people use about the weather (become a little bit quieter, turn colder) fuzzy expressions (more or less, round about); contracted verbs (its, that is, we`ll); colloquial sentence connection (anyhow, in actual fact). At the same time, the scientific element in the weather forecast message is evident in the numerical underpinning (eight degrees, minus one or minus two) and the reference to notions which are generally not found in the speech of the amateur (icy patches on untreated roads, well broken cloud, south-westerly wind).
2.1. 3 Commentary
Is one of the most distinctive of all uses of English. Its roles extend well beyond broadcasting. It will be heard in such varied contexts as fashion shows, race-course meetings, and cookery demonstrations. Within broadcasting the use of commentary extends beyond sporting occasions. It will be heard accompanying such public events as inaugurations, funerals and other processions.
But the most frequent kinds of commentary are those associated with sports and games. Here, two elements need to be distinguished: the play-by-play commentary, and the colour-added commentary. The latter is important, for it provides an audience with pre-event background, post-event evaluation, and within-event interpretation. But there is little to be said about it stylistically: it is conversational in style, and often in dialogue form. Consider a fragment of colour commentary: It was two dollars before and I just think something`s wrong with those dividends that are showing up on our screen. They`ve got Speedy Cheval the favourite but I`m not exactly sure that that`s correct, but anyway they`re in behind the mobile going towards the starting point now for the first heat of the Lion Brown Rising Star Three-Year-Old Championship just about there. For example: Stylistic interest in commentary lies chiefly in the play-by-play component.
Because commentary is an oral reporting of ongoing activity, it is unlike other kinds of narrative which are typically reported in past time. Indeed, it is unlike any other kind of speech situation. US linguist Charles Ferguson (1983, p. 156) captured its uniqueness when he described radio sports casting as a monolog or dialog-on-stage directed at an unknown, unseen, heterogeneous mass audience who voluntarily choose to listen, do not see the activity being reported, and provide no feedback to the speaker. If such a strange activity is to survive, and to be successful in maintaining fluency and listener interest, it needs special linguistic features. Sports commentary is not identified by its vocabulary: sporting terms and idioms can be found elsewhere, such as in press reports and everyday chat. Other factors are more distinctive:
It is extremely fluent, keeping up with the pace of the activities. The rate is steady, and there is little sign of hesitation noises, false starts, comment clauses, nonsense words, and other features of spontaneous speech. The prosody is suited to the sport, reflecting the atmosphere and drama. Some very unusual prosodies can be heard, and speeds of articulation which differ greatly from everyday conversations (both slower and faster). Some sports (such as horse racing) may be spoken in a monotone, either loudly (as in horse racing) or softly (as in snooker). Others make use of wide variations in pitch range (as in football or baseball). A commentator may have a favorite way of pointing a commentary, and idiosyncrasy can be strong. Distinctive grammar is seen in the use of the Present tense (he sends it back); the omission of elements of sentence structure (Gooch in close), inverted word order (over at third is Smith), and extra modifiers (The quiet Texan Tommy John delivers ; and Smith, who `s scored well this season, runs back). The frequent use of the Passive is another survival ` device: often commentators see a play before they can identify the player, and the Passive (perhaps with a tell-tale pause) allows them to delay mentioning the player `s name (His shot is blocked by Jones).
Discourse structure is cyclical, reflecting the way most games consist of recurring sequences of short activities (as in cricket, tennis, and baseball) or a limited numbers of activity options (as in the various kinds of football). In racing, the structure is even simpler, the cycling here regularly informing the listener of the varying order of the competitors, with each loop ` of the cycle introduced by its own formulae. This is a state of play summary, crucial for listeners viewers who have just switched on or who have simply lost track of what is happening.
2.1. 4 Commercial Advertising
Commercial advertising is the largest and most visible form of advertising; but by no means the only one. Political speeches, sermons, and several other uses of language can be said to be selling something. There is also an overlap with announcements, such as births and deaths (a type of prestige advertising), legal notices, health warnings, and other items whose functions are chiefly to inform. But commercial advertising stands out stylistically on several counts. Like literature, it can employ other varieties of language in its service: any fragments of the human condition (and a fair amount of non-human condition) can be found in an add. Lexically, it tends to use words which are vivid (new, bright), concrete (soft, washable), positive (safe, extra), and universal (best, perfect). Grammatically, it is typically conversational and elliptical and often, as a result, vague (A better deal [than what?] It uses highly figurative expressions (taste the sunshine in K Y peaches), deviant graphology (Beanz Meanz Heinz), and strong sound effects, such as rhythm, alliteration, and rhyme, especially in slogans. It can make effective use of word-play. On television it is also likely to be dramatized and vocalized. Radio uses sound effects, songs and accents to provide a varied brand-name profile.
2. 2 Analysis of brief news items
The newspapers use in two stylistic devices as «Newspaper style (mass media) Belles-lettres style, Newspaper style special graphical means are used to attract the readers attention. Belles-lettres style the richest register of communication besides its own language means, other styles can be used besides informative and persuasive functions, belles-lettres style has a unique task to impress the reader are aesthetically. Newspaper style Meaning from stylistics point of view. Types of meaning (logical, emotive, nominal)
Lexically, it tends to use words which are vivid (new, bright), concrete (soft, washable), positive (safe, extra), and universal (best, perfect). Grammatically, it is typically conversational and elliptical and often, as a result, vague (A better deal [than what?]). It uses highly figurative expressions (taste the sunshine in K Y peaches), deviant graphology (Beanz Meanz Heinz), and strong sound effects, such as rhythm, alliteration, and rhyme, especially in slogans. It can make effective use of word-play. On television it is also likely to be dramatized and vocalized. Radio uses sound effects, songs and accents to provide a varied brand-name profile. For example: Winter fresh wind «product name Orbit bubble gum» (this is Similar)
But the most frequent kinds of commentary are those associated with sports and games. Here, two elements need to be distinguished: the play-by-play commentary, and the colour-added commentary. The latter is important, for it provides an audience with pre-event background, post-event evaluation, and within-event interpretation. But there is little to be said about it stylistically: it is conversational in style, and often in dialogue form. Consider a fragment of colour commentary: It was two dollars before and I just think something`s wrong with those dividends that are showing up on our screen. They`ve got Speedy Cheval the favourite but I`m not exactly sure that that is correct, but anyway they`re in behind the mobile going towards the starting point now for the first heat of the Lion Brown Rising Star Three-Year-Old Championship just about there. For example: Stylistic interest in commentary lies chiefly in the play - by - play component. For example: The ball flew into the gate as a bullet (this is Similar)
The conversational tone may be achieved through the use of: informal lexicon (take a tumble, just a chance, odd rogue shower); everyday turns of phrase which ordinary people use about the weather (become a little bit quieter, turn colder) fuzzy expressions (more or less, round about); contracted verbs (it`s, that`s, we`ll); colloquial sentence connection (anyhow, in actual fact). Example: At the same time, the scientific element in the weather forecast message is evident in the numerical underpinning (eight degrees, minus one or minus two) and the reference to notions which are generally not found in the speech of the amateur (icy patches on untreated roads, well broken cloud, south-westerly wind. ) And the last example I’m took in the newspaper «The Sunday Times» and that’s what’s written example «How lust a caught a hot rabbit» this is (Metaphor) writing The Sunday Times in UK about one chief’s World Bank Association IMF (Dominique Strausskahn’s) For year he is philandering was in bulged, details are emerging of the former IMF chief’s past.
In conclusion, I would like to write that I have chosen, this theme because it was interesting, not only from the point of its but also of stylistic its characteristics. From all collected materials I have described Functional Styles, focusing on Newspaper Styles in English mass media texts. What is the Functional style? Functional styles (F. S) are the subsystems of language, each subsystem having its own peculiar features in what concern vocabulary means, syntactical constructions, and even phonetics. The appearance and existence of F. S is connected with the specific conditions of communication in different spheres of human life. So, The F. S They are five parts 1) Official «documents and papers» 2) Scientific «brochures, articles, other scientific publications» 3) Publicistic «essay, public speech» 4) Newspaper style «mass media» 5) Belles-lettres style «genre of creative writing».
Each of mentioned here styles can be expressed in two forms: written and oral. Stylistics is a sides that examines the complex of stylistically marked elements of any language level.
1) Scientific style is employed in professional communication to convey some information. It’s most conspicuous feature is the abundance of terms denoting objects, phenomena and processes characteristics of some particular field of science and technique. Also precision clarity logical cohesion.
2) Official style is the most conservative one. It uses syntactical constructions and archaic words. Emotiveness is banned out of this style.
3) Publicistic style is famous for its explicit pragmatic function of persuasion directed at influencing the reader in accordance with the argumentation of the author.
4) Newspaper style — special graphical means are used to attract the readers attention.
5) Belles-lettres style — the richest register of communication besides its own language means, other styles can be used besides informative and persuasive functions, belles-lettres style has a unique task to impress the reader are aesthetically.Показать Свернуть