The place of “Macbeth” among Shakespeare’s tragedies
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The ministry of Higher and Secondary Special Education of the republic of Uzbekistan
«The place of „Macbeth“ among Shakespeare’s tragedies»
The Aims of the Qualification work are:
1. To find out the place of «Macbeth» among Shakespeare' tragedies. To see what are the characteristic features of the play.
2. How the Uzbek translators Sadulla Akhmad and Jamol Kamol could reproduce Macbeth and Lady Macbeth’s characters.
3. What should be done to improve the state improving the quality of translations.
4. What are our Summaries and Suggestions of the theme.
1. The Tragedy of «Macbeth»
1.1 Macbeth in Shakespeare’s activity
In the Tragedy of «Macbeth» Shakespeare tells us how a powerful and ambitious Scottish than Macbeth who had distinguished himself in the service of the country by crushing internal and foreign enemies aspires to the throne of Scotland. Taking advantage of king Duncan’s visit to his castle he supported and incited by his wife murders the king and ascends the throne. His reign is a chain of crimes and cruelties. Suspected of murder and hated both by nobles and the people, Macbeth, in order to maintain his power, commits one atrocious act after another, murders innocent people and turns his country into a realm of arbitrary power and despotic cruelty. Meanwhile the opposing camp collects its forces.
At the and of tragedy Macbeth, followed by a handful of adherents is confronted by a great, mighty fighting man who in general is called an army headed by Malcolm, the son of the murdered king. In the battle Macbeth is killed and the rightful heir ascends the throne. Macbeth is a complicated and contradictory character. Courageous and clever, he becomes the prey of ambitious thoughts encouraged by his wife Lady Macbeth. Ambition blended with a longing for power, drives Macbeth to crime.
The Scottish local coloring and the mysterious atmosphere of the old legendary tale about Macbeth is rendered more strikingly by the famous «wit-scene».
The witches give shape to Macbeth’s own secret thoughts. He lends an eager ear to their prophecy and their words sink deep into his memory.
The witches in Macbeth symbolize the evils, perfidy and ill-will that exist in the world and in Macbeth’s own self.
In «Macbeth» Shakespeare shows that tyrants and oppressors, strong as they may seem, are doomed to defeat and failure. Their defeat is determined by the masses of, the people refusing to give them their support and rising in arms against them. Even the native woods and mountains protest against the crimes of the despots and help these who stand who fight against them.
The purpose of these papers is to give and explain, in the simplest way, the text of one of Shakespeare’s complicated plays. The text itself is complete: notes and a glossary have been added to help the reader to understand the play. To get the greatest pleasure from it, he will need to learn something about the background of the play and the age in which it was written and perhaps about Shakespeare himself, for example, or about drama as an art but his first duty is to understand, to realize the main essence of what the characters are saying and doing, and why they say and do these things.
Two Scottish generals, Macbeth and Banquo, while riding home after victorious battle against an army of rebels, are met by three witches. These foretell that Macbeth shall be king of Scotland and Banquo the father of many kings. Macbeth is strongly influenced by their words, and his wife gives him so much encouragement that he is persuaded to murder a Duncan the king of Scotland, while he is a guest at their castle. Macbeth is now the most powerful man in the kingdom, and takes the throne. But he feels his position unsure, and suspects those around him; this drives him to the murder of Banquo, whose ghost haunts him.
For the second time, Macbeth sees the witches who warn him against the nobleman Macduff, but nevertheless persuade him to go on by telling him that «none of woman born» can harm him, and that no one will defeat him «till Birnam forest come to Dunsinane» Macduff has mean while gone to England to help in collecting an army to fight Macbeth, and in his absence his family is murderer by order of Macbeth.
Lady Macbeth, much disturbed in her mind, walks in her sleep, and speaks again her part in the crimes she has committed. She dies while a force, led on by Duncan’s son Malcolm, and with English support, is besieging Macbeth’s castle. The king realizes that his positions desperate, but never loses courage, even when he finds that the withes words have deceived him. And he is killed in hand — to — hand fighting by Macduff. Malkolm then becomes king of Scotland, and it should be so, as the justice should be established only when the norms of the society are followed. Like all poets, Shakespeare employed language in a way which is not usual for the making of direct statements in prose. A great deal of what he wrote is in fact not prose but verse. Prose is used for the humbler and comic characters, while the nobler ones use verse.
2. The main part
2.1 Macbeth and Lady Macbeth’s characters
Askad Mukhtor — is people’s writer of Uzbekistan one of the great Uzbek authors. He is known not only as a well — known writer, he is famous for his rich poetry too. So is he in the field of translation. He admires Shakespeare and right he is when states «Macbeth» as a work of a genius. He considers «Macbeth» a modern tragedy which nowadays sounds more contemporary up to date, though it was created almost 400 years go to be more exact — 394 years (Ас?ад Мухтор. Да. асар. Ушбу фожеа таржимасига ёзилган «О? йўл» сифатида? аъбул ?илиш мумкин буни.) Вильям Шекспмрю Макбет. Ташкент. Ўзбекистон. ЯКСМ марказий комитети «Ёш гвардия» нашриёти 1987.
Macbeth is a great warrior, brave and we, hear about him at the beginning of the tragedy, here the blooding badly captain tells his deeds in the Battlefield as Duncan — king of Scotland wants to find out the winner of the battle Malkolm asked the captain (by the way the latter saved Malkolm from captivity). Here is the captain’s report about the revolt the newest most recent state i.e. the latest state of the battle.
Doubtful it stood,
As too spent swimmers, that do cling together
And choke their art The merciless Macdonwald
(Worthy to, be a rebel, for to that
The multiplying villainies of nature
Do swarm upon him) from the western isles
Of Kernes and Gallowglasses is supplied;
And fortune, on his damed quarrel smiled.
Showed like rebel’s whore: but all’s too weak For brave Macbeth (well he reserves that name), Distaining Fortune, with his brandished steel, which smoked with bloody execution, like Valour’s minion, carved out his passage, till he faced the slave;
Which ne’er shook hands, nor bade farewell to him Till he unseamed him from the nave to the chaps, And fixed his, bead upon our battlements.
Duncan O valiant cousin! Worthy gentlemen! (I. II. 3−5 p)
2.1.1 Jamol Kamol’s translation
In Uzbek these lines have two translation versions. One of theme was done by Jamol Kamol and the next by Sadulla Ahmad. (Sadulla Ahmad’s translation is published in 1987 in «Ёш гвардия» publishing house in Tashkent. As the base for this translation he used «Macbeth» Russian translation is published in «Hudojestvennaya literatura» Publishing House. Moscow 1967). Before introducing one more Uzbek translation of the afforested passage we want to mention that the performer of «Macbeth» was Boris Pasternak. Sadulla Ahmad used his translation text (Boris Pasternak’s translation are still considered very nicely done, though they were translated long ago, such is his merit). (Вильям Шекспир. Трагедия. Перевод с английского. Издательство «Художественная литература. Москва»).
Икки тараф мўдтиллаётган икки? арифдек
Чўкаман, деб? ам чекиш йў?,? ?еч кўз очирмай
Савалвшмо?да. Макдональд? ку, итдай? утурди!
Хиёнатчи юрагига ту? илмасдано?,
Кўз кўрмаган тубанликлар ин ?ўйган экан.
Ўз олдига солиб келди оролма — орол
У ма? рибдан Ирландия Найзабозларин.
Дастлаб та? дир ило? аси-юзсиз Фартуна
Ортидан хўп ияди_ю, ?ийшанглашлари
Бекор кетди! Шону шу? рат со? иби Макбет
Бу ол? ишлар ?али камдир унинг шаънига!
Пўлат шамшир зарби билан йўлин тозалаб,
Кўзига ?он ?айнаб келган инти? ом янгли?
Пайдо бўлди хиёнаткор олдида бирдан!
?урмат билан ?ўлларини си? иб турмади,
Видо айтиб, аччи?? аччи? хўлашмади ?ам.
?илични бир серман ила бошини кесди? ю
Ту? учига? олпо? ?илиб ?ўндириб ?ўйди!
And now listen to Duncan’s valme concerning Macbeth’s courage.
Бизнинг жасур? ондошимиз! Номус тимсоли!
It seems to us that is necessary to address the Russian text, it served as a base for both of the Uzbek translators: How let us see how these lines are caught by Jamol Kamol:
Еще не выяснилось, чья возьмет.
Противники — как два пловца, которым
Борьба мешает двигаться в воде.
Безжалостьный Макдональд, сочетавший
В себе все низости бунтовщика,
Набрал отряд ирландских копьеносцев
И поднял западные острова.
Судьба старалась поддержать повстанца,
Но ничего поделать не могла.
Храбрец Макбет (он назван так по праву)
Пробил себе отважно путь мечом,
Дымившимся кровавым воздаяньем,
И, став с изменником лицом к лицу,
Руки не жал, прощальных слов не тратил,
Но голову ему с размаху снес
И водрузил ее на частоком
Наш храбрый родич! Части образец!
(Вильям Шекспир. Трагедии. Сонеты. Перевод с английского. Издательство «Художественная литература». Москва. 1968. стр. 480−562). Ас? ад Мухтор. Да? о асар. Вильям Шекспир. «Макбет». Тошкент. Ўзбекистон. ЛКСМ марказий комитети «Ёш гвардия» нашриёти 1987
Macbeth himself dominates the drama: the play is his for it is, the story of his vise and fall. Before he first appears he is spoken of as brave and noble, and Duncan willingly honours him as a trusted lord; he calls him «valiant cousin» and «worthy gentleman». But his character, like the day he speaks of when we first see him, is «foul and fair» and his figure is truly tragic, for he is a man, not wholly bad, against whom the forces of evil are too strong, and their temptations too attractive:
He is ambitious, and the witches he suddenly comes upon when he first appears in the play are an image of the evil forces which encourage this ambition. He lusts for power and they prophesy he will be king. To Macbeth these prophecies can be neither good nor bad; for if bad; how could they so soon begin to come true? And if good, why do his thoughts so soon turn to the idea of murdering King Duncan and taking his place on the throne of Scotland? Throughout the play Macbeth continues to give serious thought to the moral aspects of his actions, and he is in no sense an unfeeling willain without conscience or sense of nobility. This is shown when he wants to talk over with Banquo the prophecy of the witches:
Think upon what hath chanced;
and at more time,
The interim having wighed it, let us speak
Our free hearts each to other.
(I. III. 153−155)
Сен бу ерда ўтганларни пухта ўйлаб кўр.
Икковлашиб, ?ушимихз сал жойига тушгач,
?аммасини келишамиз очи? часига. (I. III. 21 бет)
It is felt in many other places, leading him to an expression of the condition of damnation: thinking of the consequences of his crimes he says, he will not worry about, what might happen, to him, in the next world so long as he is granted peace of mind in this:
If it were done when, it is done, then’t were well
If were done quickly: if the, assassination
Could trammel up the consequence and catch
With his Surcease success, that but this blow
Might be the be-all and the end — all here…
We’d jump the life to come.
But here upon this bank and shoal of time, We’d jump the life to come, _ But in theses cases,
of damnation: thinking of consequences of his crimes he says he will not worry about, what might happen, to him, in the next world so long as he is granted peace of mind in this:
If it were done when, it is done, then’t were well
If were done quickly: if the, assassination
Could trammel up the consequence and catch
With his surcease success; that but this blow.
Might be the be-all and the end-all here…
We’d jump the life to come.
But here upon this bank and shoal of time,
We’d jump the life to come, — But in these cases,
(I. VII. 1−7)
Добро б удар, и делу бы конец,
И с плеч домой! Минуты бы не медлил,
Когда бы вся трудность заключалась в том,
Чтоб скрыть следы и чтоб достичь удачи,
Я б здесь, на этой отмели времен,
Пожертвовал загробным воздаяньем.
Но нас возмездье ждет и на земле.
(I. VII. 496 p.)
Before passing to the analysis of this extract = passage want the reader’s to pay attention to the following; In the original, I mean in the stage direction. We have the word hatboys in Russian it is given as" Трубы", in Uzbek consecutively as «Бур?у». Server = chief waiter = кравчий товабоши; divers = various несколько слуг = таом кўтарган хизматкорлар.
The first sentences of the passage should be understood in this way; «If it were done»," done quickly" - If it (the murder) were completely finished when we do it, then it would be a good thing if it were (we do) (it) «done quickly». In Uzbek the meaning these first lines are understood properly and has the following order:
Бир зарб билан? аммасидан со? ит бўлардим, бир да? и?а, бир ла? за ?ам ?араб турмасдим. Токи тахтга эришмо? нинг бсхтликлари фа? ат изни яширмо? дан иборат бўлса! ?улай фурсат ?ўлин чўзган худди шу дамда, у дунёнинг бор ро? атин ?урбон ?илардим. Асср? асос кутар бизни ер юзида? ам: «If the assassination, his surcease success» if the actual murder could catch up = trammel up the consequences and could come to a final result with Duncan’s death if would be a good thing to do it quickly «that but this blow» — «If only this blow» «the be-all and the end all» — the existence and conclusion in itself, but leads to other things. «But here — even here, i.e. in this world only». «The bank and shoal of time, shoal — a narrow strip of land between water». The image is of life as a narrow bank thrusting acto the great seas of enternity. The word jump is, used as risk as «risk». The life to come — «the life in the next world after death», and what might happen there. «In these cases» — «in situation such as these».
Here we must state one more fact. In the original the text is given = supplied with nice commentaries. These help any translator (not only Russian translators), even Uzbek translators as the meaning of each word, phrase or clauses are explained so that the essence of the lines be more understandable. It is very nice as to understand Shakespeare after more than 400 years is really difficult. It is difficult not only for foreign readers but for the English as well. As the meaning of several lexical units, word combinations, expressions have gone various changes.
But even this is impossible and he knows it. He makes up his mind to go on, further with plans for the murder of Duncan. His wife, however, persuades him to go forward — Holinshed writes of heras (20) «burning in unquenchable desire to bear the name of queen» — and after some agreement between them, Macbeth kills his king while he is a guest in Macbeth’s castle: By his crime Macbeth has bought the kingship through evil, though many must doubt his honesty, no one is brave enough to defy him openly when he kills the grooms (and not only the groom we want to add) to make it seem that they are guilty. Even the lines which Macbeth speakes when he announces the murder ring false and hollow, and arouse the suspicious of Malkolm and Donalbain, who flee from Scotland. Macbeth is quick to notice this, and turns suspicion on to them.
Macbeth with eyes open to the hideousness of his offense, a brave, imaginative and morally sensitive man commits a stealthy murder for gain (прибыл).
His victim is his guest his benefactor, his kinsman and his king; and to shield himself from detection he incoutinently (21) sacrifices the lives and reputation of two innocent underlings. The retribution is as appaling as the crime — his soul’s slow death in seef — harrow, degradation, loneliness, and despair, then his bloody extermination.
Why should such a man do such evil? The play’s style and a few shreds to literary evidence suggest. 1605−06 as the period of composition; so it followed «Hamlet», «Othello» and possibly also «King Lear», those other tragedies in which destruction is wrought by naked evil, not mere domestic or political strife in «Macbeth» the evil works through the protagonist as well as upon him. The one with whom we identify is the one who possessed: this citadel crumbles from within. The supernatural soliciting of the Weird Sisters, the strenuous persuasions of the write, do not explain Macbeth’s guilt. They enhance its power over our imagination by revealing stages is its course and suggesting forces in perilous balance.
In Holinshed’s «Chronicle», from which Shakespeare drew his material, adding to the sins of the semi — legendary Macbeth these of Donwald, slayer of King Duff, the Weird sisters are «goddesses of destine» (derived from a heathen fatalism).
In the play they are Elizabethan witches, their prescriptive powers subtly curtailed; they predict, abet, and symbolize damnation but do not determine it. Any sense that Macbeth is a helpless victim, his crime predestined, his will bound, as canceled as the play proceeds.
Good sir, why do you start and seem to fear
Things that do sound so fair?
The prophecies, nevertheless, without explaining or excusing Macbeth’s crimes, impress us as mitigation:
powerful and wily forces are speeding him on his course. The more earthly influence of his Lady’s persuasion impresses us in a similar way.
In a perverted way Lady Macbeth is doing what all loyal wives are expected to do, urging her husband on to what she deems his good: her as in the period of danger that follows, she at least is all for him. This is one of the marvels of the play, the manner in which this frightful collusion proceeds in an atmosphere of domestic virtue without the effect of irony. If the evil is great it is also limited, even in respected to the mallfactors.
After Lady Macbeth’s collapse, her initial ferocity is remembered as something false to her wise and kingly physician seems to us not misplaced.
We hear our bloody cousins are bestowed
In England and in Ireland, not confessing
Their cruel parricide, filling their hearers
With strange invention: but of that tomorrow.
When there withal we shall have cause of state
Craving us jointly. Hie you to horse; adieu,
Till you return at night. Goes Fleans with you?
(III.I. 29−35 p) Ас? ад Мухтор. Да? о асар. Вильям Шекспир. «Макбет». Тошкент. Ўзбекистон. ЛКСМ марказий комитети «Ёш гвардия» нашриёти 1987.
Узун?уло? ?ар хил гаплар эшитаяпмиз;
?онсираган, кўрнамак, ?ўш фарзанднинг бири
Англияда яна бири Ирландияда
Гарданидан со? ит ?илиб падар? ушликни,
Эс ?азабин ўзларидан чал? итмо? бўлиб,
?ар хир ту? мат, чўпчак тў?иб тар? атармишлар
Чорасига бамасла? ат ўйлаб, пишитиб,
Иш тутармиз. О? йўл берсин. Ма? тал ?илманг. Хайир.
Базмда юз кўришгунча! ?а ў?лингиз Флинс сиз биланми? (С. А). (61−62 б).
Бизга етишди —
?отил жиянлар? а?ида миў?миш хабарлар.
Ирландия, Англия мулккида улар
Пано? топиб, рад этишар падар? ушликни.
Турли-туман уйдирмаю ёл? онлар билан
Одамларни чал? итишар. Буни эртага
?окимият ишларини кўрган кенгашда
Гаплашамиз яна. Майли, ?озирча — хайр.
Биз кутамиз. ?а, Флиенс? амро?ингизми?
(Ж.К. 241 б).
«We hear» is given in Uzbek us «Узун?уло? ?ар хил гаплар эшитаяпмиз» Two words turned in to a whole sentence. In English the Uzbek sentence can be understood as! They say all Kinds of sentences = talks"
«If we translate we hear» is «Бизнинг эшитишимизча». Turning two words into a whole sentence doesn’t mean here any violence of the origin, on the contrary the thought of the writer is caught truly and given nicely. In Russian Macbeth speaks thus:
Один из братьев — кравопийц, по слухам
В Ирландии, и, в Англии — другой.
Они отцеубийство отрицают.
И сеют басни для отвода глаз
Об этом мы на завтрашнем совете
Подумаем. Счастливо пути.
До скорого свиданья. Торопитесь.
Вы с Флинсом едете? (III.I. стр. 513)
The lines, cited above sound thus in Uzbek:
Sadulla Ahmad translated from Russian
(from Boris Pasternak) and, братья — кровапийцы are given as «?онсираган, кўрнамак»
Сен, азизам, юра бер шундо?
Маъсум бўлиб, ?еч нарсадан бехабар бўлиб,
Кейин нашъу намоларга тўларсан ?андо?. (Ж. К). (III. 2−222 б).
Иш битгандан сўнг, билиб ўзинг, ?ойил ?оласан.
(С.А.). (III. 70 б).
At the beginning Lady Macbeth teaches Macbeth what to do, how to behave and in this position vice versa, Macbeth is giving instructions to his wife how to behave, what to do. He should then feel safe from all his enemies, but fate quickly descends upon him in a most horrible form. At the Bonquet prepared as if to celebrate Macbeth’s feeling of final safety, Banquo’s ghost comes to haunt him.
(1. Вильям Шекспир. Танланган асарлар. Беш жилдлик. Тўртинчи жилд. Макбет. 157−296 бетлар. Тошкент. ?офур ?улом номидаги Адабиёт ва санъат нашриёти. 1985). This is a terrible punishment both for his crime and also for the evil pretence of expecting Banquo to be at the banquet. Lady Macbeth cannot see the ghost, but such is the sympathy between her and her husband, she knows or guesses all that has happened, and begins to make excuses for him. He cannot support her in own pretence, and when the ghost appears a second time Macbeth loses his nenu.
He now stands in great need of encouragement and goes to the promises concerning his fate, but the last apparition is none other than Banquo’s ghost, which brings Macbeth back to his latest crime. The prophetic promises turn out to be as evil as the murders; Macbeth is «possessed», and, knowing he is now too far gone in crime to turn back, he vows that in future he will think and act at the same time:
From this moment
The very firstlings of my heart shall be
The firstlings of my hand. (IV.I. 146−8).
Мендан кўра сен эрчилро? чи? динг-ку, замон,
Бузибю ?ўр?инч ниятимни. ?аракат энди.
Уч?ур ?арор бтлан юрсин елкадош бўлиб,
Йў?са, ?ўлдан кетиб? олар. Бугундан бошлаб.
(Ж. К). (IV.I. 249 б).
Ва?т, сен? ора ниятимнинг олдини олдинг
Лаънат! Минбад? ароримни кечиктирмайман.
(С.А.). (IV.I. 99 б).
Созданья чувств, родясь созданьем рук.
After this, Macbeth’s touches of humanity become rarer/ The murder of Lady Macduff and her children is possibly even more horrible than his other crimes, because it seems carried out simply to accord with his vow, and without the least reason. He is driven into his castle of Dunsinane and eventually fights with the ferocity of a wounded animal. When he is told of his wife’s death his humanity momentarily returns. He thinks of the passage of life, so rapid and apparently so meaningless and is awoken to the immediate situation by the message that the wood of Birnam is in fact moving. The first evil promise of the witches has proved worthless; but he fights on, only to meet at last his enemy him, and the second of the witches promises is shown also to be worthless. To the end Macbeth fights bravely and this bravery is something outside the sense of safety which the witches promises had given him. But evil has killed hope in him, and he meets his death because he has put his trust in what was either evil or worthless Banquo’s warning had once shown him the danger, but he had been either unwilling or unable to respect it:
The instruments of darkness, …
Win us with honest trifles, to betray’s
In deepest consequence. (I. III. 124−6).
Банко (секин Макбетга)
Жуда кўп ва? т, бошга кулфат тушгиси келса,
Жа?аннамнинг тили билан башорат? илиб,
Осонгина ишончингни? озонадию,
Имонингни ?ўлдан олиб, чалиб кетади.
(С.А.) (I. III. 19 бет).
Банко (в сторону, Макбету)
Но духи лжи, готовя нашу гибель,
Сперва подобьем правды манят нас,
Чтоб уничтожить тяжестью последствий.
(I. III. стр. 489).
Duncan is, with Banquo, in stringing contrast to Macbeth. As king of Scotland, Duncan is taken to be an old man, and appears in the play to be honourable, trusting and humble in carrying out the duties of his position. We see him first when his country is hard-pressed by invaders from Norway and rebels aty home. In this struggle Macbeth distinguishes himself as a great fighter and Duncan hears good reports of him with great pleasure. But what the king says of the rebel. Thane of Cowdor shows his own particular difficulty: he is too trusting, too ready to accept what seems to be true:
There’s no art
To find the mind’s construction in the face:
He was a gentleman on whom I built
An absolute trust. (I, IV. 4−14) 27 p
Вот как обманчив внешний вид людей!
Ведь человеку этому я верил
Неограниченно. (I. IV. стр. 490)
Афсуски, биз одамларнинг ичидагини
Юзидаги жилвалардан ў?ий оламиз.
Бўлмаса, мен шу вассалнинг садо? атига
Чин юракдан ишонардим. (С.А.) (I. II 22 б)
Duncan is, there fore, powerless when he has to face evil and he puts himself gently and meekly into the hands of hostess, without taking normal precautions of having an armed quard posted near where he is sleeping. The two attendants he has by him have, like him, enjoyed a good party, and are sleepy, and useless. The king goes to rest, well fed and happy in his hostess’s assertions of loyalty and friendship towards him. He is murdered in his sleep by Macbeth. Duncan has proved to be fatally easy ground for his followers to plant their ambitions in. It is Lady Macbeth who has in the end some sort of finer feelings about him: Here Lady Macbeth`s thoughts:
Ухлаганда падаримга ўхшамасайди,
Унда ўзим амма ишни этардим ало.
(Ж.К.) (II. 2. 192. б)
Had he not resembled
My father as he slept, I hadn’t done.
(II. II. 12−13 p)
Когда б так не был схож Дункан во сне
С моим отцом, я сладила сама бы.
(II. II. стр. 501)
Эво?, Дункан уй? усида мар? ум отамга
Бунча ўхшаб кетмаса-ми! Уни мен ўзим
Тинчитардим. (II. II. 39 бет)
Banquo, like Duncan, is pictured as good, brave and gracious. Both these men are, because of their positions and their honourable natures, great dangwers to Macbeth in his ambitions, for their goodness contrasts too plainly with his wickedness. Like Duncan too, Banquo trusts too readily in appearances; they are both too easily deceived into thinking all is well in Macbeth’s castle because its situation is attractive:
This quest of summer,
The temple — naunthing martlet, does approve
By his loved mansionary that the hearen’s breath
Smells wooingly, here; no jultly, frieze,
Buttreis, nor coign of vantage, but this bird
Hath made his pendent bed and procreant cradle.
(I. IV. 3−8 p.)
гнездо стрижа. Нам этот летний гость
Ручается, что небо благосклонно
К убежищу. Нет выступа, столба,
Угла под кровлей, где бы не лепились
Подвешенные люльки этих птиц. (I.6. стр. 495)
Гапингизга кафил, шо? им. Бу ёзлик ме? мон
Турар жойнинг соўлигидан дарак беради:
Кўр кузатдим, кўзлагани ба? рали манзил,
Бирор устун, туртиб чи?? ан бтрор бурж йў?ки,
Беланчакдай солланмасин очи? ?авода.
(С.А.) (I. 6. 28−29 б) Вильям Шекспир. «Макбет». Трагедия. Перевод с английского. Издательство «Художественная литература». Москва
Banquo is close to the king and also to Macbeth; he arrives with Duncan at Macbeth’s castle, and when the party for king is over, he meets (shows that his) Macbeth after midnight and shows that his thoughts are full of the prophecy of the witches, whom he and Macbeth came upon at the beginning of the play. They have time to talk at length, yet Banquo has already sensed something evil springing up in the Macbeth’s mind, for he says, half to himself, half to Fleance:
Меня избавьте от проклятых дум,
Нас искушающих в ночное время.
(II. 7. с. 499)
Кечалари умримизни эговлагувчи
Ва?имали хаёллардан мени? ут?аринг!
(С.А.) (II. 1. 35б)
Аммо ётиб ухлаганим йў?, эво? азизлар,
Тунги нопок хаёллардан, асрангиз мени.
(Ж.К.) (II. 1. 188−189 б)
Here we see Banquo who is very much anxious because Duncan has been murdered. We notice in a very dark atmosphere not only physical but also moral death of Macbeth, is a noble warrior. But he scared, stinged, hurt with vanity = conceit. Once having entered the read of crime he has not strength of stopping, coming down from this road. He sees forward to his own ineritable death. Tragic events take place in the background of dark nights, in the darkness of which the three images of witches flash = gleam. Like Three Weirds of an antique mythology they gain undivided power over Macbeth’s fate.
The word «bloody» is a very often come across in this work, it runs all through the tragedy. The same can be said about the word tyranne. We often meet this word too. The theme of the tragedy is about a bloody usurper, who first achieves his goal = aim but evils, recons with for his crimes. Here also the tragedy end with the glory of positive forces, the destroyed harmony is erected in the state. «Macbeth» is near to «Richard III» where we see much blood.
Macduff discovers that Duncan did not die, he has been murdered, and Banquo expresses his greef simply and from the beath. He soon voices his suspicions of Macbeth.
Thou hasf it now, king, Cowdor, Clames, all,
As the weird women promised; and I fear,
Thou playedst most foully for’t; yet it was said,
If should not stand in the posterity;
But that myself should be the rot and father
Of many Kings. If there come truth from them
(As upon thee Macbeth, their speeches shine),
Why, by the verities on three made good,
Mat they not be my oracles as well,
And set me up in hope? But, hush or more.
(III.I. p 91)
?ам ?иролсан, ?ам Гламис, Кавдор бегисан,
Гарчанд бир охз гумоним бор? алоллигингга,
Тў?ри чи? ди, рост айтибди кароматгўйлар.
Буюрмагай авлодингга лекин тожу тахт,
?иролларнинг падари ва илдизи бўлиш
Сенга эмас, балки менга насиб айламиш.
Лекин алдашмаса ўша бибилар агар.
(Алдашмаса керак, чунки? исматинг — гаров)
Теперь ты всё, что предсказали сестры:
Гламисский и Кавдорский тан, король,
И я боюсь, ты сплутовал немного.
Однако или же возвещено,
Что твой престал не прейдет к потомкам,
А я — начало ветвы королей.
Но если все сбилось с тобой, не ыижу
Причины не надеяться и мне.
Я верю в то, что мне они сулили.
Но полно, тише!
(III.I. стр. 512) Вильям Шекспир. «Макбет». Трагедия. Перевод с английского. Издательство «Художественная литература». Москва
In Uzbek Sasdulla Ahmad read these lines as follows:
?аммасига эришдинг сен! Аммо? ойилман,
Ул алвасти? амширалар айтгани келди.
Гламис, Кавдор? окими, сўнг ?ирол ?ам бўлдинг!
?ўр?аманки, бирозгина найрангинг? ам бор.
Кароматга кўра, лекин, тахт ворислиги
Менинг наслу насабимнинг насибасидир.
Менга ваъда? илган, сенинг пуштингга эмас!
?а, ?а1 Менинг шохларимда шо? болалайди.
Башоратнинг боши? а?ли, — ноумид шайтон, —
Жон тикаман, жодугарлар лафзи халолдир.
Мен уларга ишонаман. Шошма, ким келди?
(III.1. 59−60 б)
But he does nothing; perhaps he is satisfied for the moment to watch events, and in any case he too is concerned in the witches prophecies. But for this he is given no time. Macbeth quickly convinces two murderers that Banquo is the person who in secret makes them suffer cruelty and injustice, and, when Banquo is returning with his son in the evening after a day away from the castle, he is murdered. Macbeth pretends that he is expected at the banquet arranged for that evening, and his ghost, covered in blood, comes and sits in Macbeth’s own chair. Macbeth is over — come with the horror of the apparition, and the party breaks up.
He is, nevertheless, to see Banquo once again. The witches show Macbeth eight — kings, with many more reflected in a mirror, and the ghost of Banquo following them. this signifies to Macbeth that although Banquo has been murdered by his orders, Fleance, Banquo’s son, has escaped, and is destined to be farther of a line of kings; although Macbeth has won the throne, it is foretold that his children will never follow him in a royal line.
Macduff is nobleman who discovered the murder of Duncan. Commanded to call early on his king, he enters the king’s chamber and quickly returns with horror in his eyes and voice. Macbeth pretends not to understand him. It is Macduff who first expresses surprise at Macbeth admitting that he had himself murdered the grooms who were attending the king. «Wherefore did you so?» he asks, and, since he does not seem to be convinced by Macbeth’s answer, Lady Macbeth pretends to faint so that attention is drawn away from her husband. Macduff asks help for her. But his suspicions are aroused; he leaves for his own part of the country and then makes his way to England.
His wife and children are left behind in Scotland, and Lady Macduff is unable to understand his flight. Rosse tries to persuade her that her husband has left for the good of the country, and implies that he is in England to raise forces to oppose the tyrant Macbeth Rosse says he is:
But for you husband,
He is noble, wise, judicious, and best knows
The fits o `th' season I dare not speaks much further. (IV. II. 15 p)
Умен и добр. Он лучше многих знает,
Что делать в наше время. Ничего
Я не прибавлю. (IV. 2. стр. 536)
Биздан кўра, у билади нима? илишни.
Ёв?ур а? ли ас? атади шундай пайтларда.
Бош?а бир гап айтолмайман. Замона о? ир. (IV. 2. 100 б)
But this is no comfort to his wife, who is killed with her children by order of Macbeth.
In England Macduff has met Duncan’s son Malkolm, and a at first Malkolm wishes to test Macduff’s loyalty; he is afraid that Macbeth may have sent Macduff to trick him into telling his secret plans for an attack. Macduff, an honest and straight — forward person, is at first guit confused at Malkolm’s words. Since Malkolm makes himself out to be even more evil than Macbeth. But when all is explained, Rosse enters and announces a more bitter tragedy, the murder of Macduff’s family. He cannot believe that so purposeless a crime is possible:
He has no children. All my pretty ones?
Did you say all? — O hell — kite! — All?
What, all my pretty chickens, and their dam,
At one fell swoop? (IV. III. 249−19)
Но Макбет бездетен!
Всех бедненьких моих? До одного?
О Изверг, изверг! Всех моих хороших?
Всех ты сказал? И женушку мою?
Всех разом. (IV. III. стр. 546)
Аммо Макбет, оласиз — да! — Битта ?ўймай — а?
Бечорагиналаримнинг барчасиними? -
О, одамхўр! — ?аммасими? Вой, ширинларим!
Ёппасига? Хотининг? ам сўйилди, дегин?!
(С.А.) (IV. 3. 117 б)
Гўдакларим барини — я? Битта ?ўймасдан!
О, дўзахий калхат! Барча жўжаларимни
Бир ?амлада ?алок этмиш онаси билан! (Ж.К.)
At first he had been unable to express his sorrow in words: now he tells his determination to take revenge on Macbeth, and to do it quickly.
The first Apparation called up by the witches had warned Macbeth of Macduff, confirming suspicions which Macbeth claims to have had already. Now the play leads to their final meeting. Macduff shows that the witches' words concerning Macbeth’s safety are useless, since they «palter» «in a double sense». «None of woman born» seemed to mean «nobody at all»; but in another sense it means «no child to whom a woman has given natural birth».
Macduff tells Macbeth that his mother did not «bear» him (in his second sense), and they fight until Macbeth is killed. Macduff leaves and returns after a moment with Macbeth’s head carried in triumph.
Macduff represents the main opposition to Macbeth. He is the chief instrument by which Malkolm is able to obtain the throne of his father Duncan, and he everywhere acts with good sense, bravery and nobleness of nature. Only his wife doubts the wisdom of his flight to England, calling it «madness», and a mixture of fear and treachery. She accused him too of lacking «the natural touch», the guality of humanity, but, when told of the murder of his family, he says simply, If Macbeth’s ambitions had good ends, not evil ones, his wife Lady Macbeth would have been the perfect partner for him, for she completes his personality, and provides just those qualities which he lacks. If the play is complete in the form in which we now know it, there exists an understanding between Macbeth and his wife which depends on feelings rather than words. For when we first see Lady Macbeth, she is reading a letter from her husband telling her of the witches prophecy and particularly that he is, according to that prophecy, destined to become king. She, too is intensely ambitious, and cannot bear even to mention the kingship directly.
But she is afraid that he is evil enough to obtain it by the most direct means. She reveals her own nature most fully in the address she then makes to the spirits of evil:
Come, you spirits
That tend on mortal thoughts unsex me here,
And fill me, from the crown to the toe, top — full
Of direst cruelty! … (I.V. 38−41)
Сюда, ко мне злодейские наиться
В меня вселитесь, бесы, духи тьмы!
Пусть женщина умрет во мне. Пусть буду
Я лютою жестокостью полна. (I.V. стр. 493)
?ани сиз эй, ёвузликнинг топ? ирликлари,
Зулмат ру? и ?або?атлар ?албимга келинг!
Сафро билан тўлатинглар сийналаримни!
?онхўрликнинг ва? ший кучи танамга тшлсин! (С.А.) (I.V. 27 бет)
?ай ?айдасиз, келинг, ўлим фаришталари!
Ўзгартиринг жинсимни. Ва ёвузликларга
Чул?аб олинг мени бошдан — оё? им ?адар. (Ж. К) (I.V. 80 бет) Вильям Шекспир. «Макбет». Трагедия. Перевод с английского. Издательство «Художественная литература». Москва
Realizing that her husband’s hopes of the crown may be impeded by his feelings of humanity, she prays that her own similar feelings may be suppressed. This proves that she not the hard, cold, unfeeling villain of the piece, but one who, if she is to attain what she aims at, will also have to reckon with those finer feelings which are common to most human natures. But she is, perhaps, more purposeful, less ready to consider secondary matters (even those which concern conscince), and this is why she is, unlike her husband, has no need of supernatural encouragement, and therefore why none is given to her.
When her husband comes soon often her first appearance, they understand one another exactly, without saying so, each realizes that Duncan will not leave the castle alive. Lady Macbeth seems to wish that the whole plan should be put into her hands, for she thinks she is now supremely firm in her purpose. But when the time is right for the murder, and she has urged Macbeth’s feelings; for, as the noise of Macbeth calling out at the back suggests that he has been discovered and has failed in his attempt, she admits that she could not have done the deed her self:
He could not miss them — Had he not resembled
My father as he slept, I had don’t — My husband
Alack! I am afraid they have awoked,
And’t is not done: — the attempt, and not the deed,
Confounds us. — Hark! — I laid their dangers ready.
However, even if her actions are hindered, she thinks quickly. Her impassioned speeches when Macbeth first comes to her in the play are in significant contrast to those in which she smoothly and humbly flatters her quest. Duncan with her offers of service. And so it is through the play: Macbeth is again and again relieved of burdens and accusations because his wife is ready to excuse him and explain away
What seems so evil. When Macbeth has murdered Duncan he is haunted with the vision of murderous hands turned against him. His wife is not so troubled, and when the knocking begins at the outer gate she is ready with measures to conceal the crime. She sees the blood on his hands, and says;
A little water clears us of this deed
How easy is it then! You constancy
Hath left you unaltended. (II. 2. 66−68)Макбет хоним:
Тетикро? бўл, тан!
?ўлингни юв, кўз — кўз ?илма шармисорликни.
?ўлингдаги ?онларни юв, ю? и ?олмасин. (С.А.) (II.2. 42 б)
(Ж.К.) (II. 2. 195 б)
And she realizes that they must quickly get on their night — clothes or people will wonder why they were not in bed when Duncan was murdered. And when, often the discovery of the murder, Macduff asks Macbeth why he murdered Duncan’s attendants and Macbeth’s answer is too sensational to be very convincing, his wife quickly notices it, and pretends to faint so that attention is disfacted from her husband.
For the murder of Banquo, Macbeth seems at first to be less dependant upon his wife. It is he who plans it with the two murderers, and then tells his wife about it. She is at first unsure, but is soon convinced, and then Macbeth plays the lordly husband:
He cannot know how soon he will once more need to depend upon her. Banquo’s ghost comes to haunt his state banquet. Lady Macbeth again quickly understands what is happening, though only her husband can see the ghost, and tries to explain it away:
Sit, worthy friends. My lord is often thus,
And hath been from his youth. (III. 4. стр. 523) Макбет хоним: Йў?, ?ўз?алманглар. Бу касали ёшликдан бор, хавотирланманг.
(III. 4. 77 б)
Все это вмиг пройдёт. Не обращайте.
Вниманья, чтоб припадка не продлить.
At the second appearance she speaks of her husband’s fit as «a thing of custom», and even hints at a treatment for it: To the Lords: I pray you, speak not: he grows worse and worseQuestion enrages him. (III. IV. 117−118)
Ўтинаман гапга солманг, у бетоб? али. (Ж.К.) (III.V. 223 б)
Не говорите с ним. Еще все хуже.
Расспросы злят его. Прервемте пир. (стр. 525).
Сўз ташламанг, ?ирол ?амон ўзида эмас.
Гап сўраса ?утуради. (С.А.) (III. 4. 81 б)
Still as if the incident were a common one.
She really thinks he needs sleep, and as
Soon as the quests have left in confusion and they have both mentioned Macduff as the next centre of opposition, Macbeth tries to rest.
Lady Macbeth, however, is unable to sleep in peace. In the great scene at the beginning of Act she appears with a taper in her hand, walking in her sleep and reliving her experience and thoughts at the murder of Duncan. Again she speaks words of encouragement to her husband; she speaks her thoughts on the old man’s bluding, but mostly she thinks of the blood on her own hands which no water has been able to wash off:
Hare’s the smell of the blood still:
All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. (V.I. 40)
И рука все еще пахнет кровью. Никакие
ароматы Аравии не отобьют этого запаха
у этой маленькой ручки! (стр. 548) Макбет хоним:
?ўлимдан ?али ?ам ?он иси бур? сияптию
Арабистоннинг бутун мушки анбар —
лариям шу кичкина ?ўлчалардан бу исни аритолмайди! (IV. I. 123 б) Вильям Шекспир. «Макбет». Трагедия. Перевод с английского. Издательство «Художественная литература». Москва
This reveals without doubt who is responsible for the crimes, and shows that Lady Macbeth is no more able to free herself from conscience than her husband is.
She is not seen again. A cry of women is heard when Macbeth is pufting in order the defences of his castle so as to be ready to face a siege, and this cry announces her death. She, too, has been unable to sleep, and her mind has become disturbed. (Malkolm and others believe that she took her own life). To Macbeth, when he hears the news, life seems puzzling and without value. He has lost his best support and from now on he must fight alone.
Lady Macduff plays a small but much — loved part in the tragedy, since in a world of evil she and her son represent confused and lovable simplicity. Her husband has left her, she does know why. Rosse tries to explain that Macduff has fled for his country’s good, but Lady Macduff is unconvinced, and bitterly grieved:
All is the feat, and nothing is the love;
As little is the wisdom, where the flight
So runs against all reason. (IV. II. 12−14)
Rosse himself does not seem to be really convinced, and is near to lears. He leaves and there is an exchange between Lady Macduff and her son in which the tragedy of the situation is heightened by what at first seems artful word — play on the subject of husbands and fathers, although this is really a cover to feelings of tender love. The confusion reaches its height when Macbeth’s agents Murder Lady Macduff, although she has done no harm.
The Witches represent the most important supernatural element of the play, but «witch» is not a good word to denote them, for they are much more powerful and more evil than the simple, stupid old women who as «witches» were supposed (stupid old) by some to do harm to individuals through the use of magic powers. The word witch is, in fact, used only once in Macbeth (other than in the stage directions): the sailor’s wife mentioned by the first witch (I. III.) called her «witch» and was evidently severely punished for it. Elsewhere the women are called «the weird sisters», i.e. the sisters of fate. But even this file is unadeguate, since, whatever they claim to have done to their other victims, they do not bring fate to Macbeth.
In stead they try to persuade him to do wrong, or invite him to do it by deliberately deceiving him about what the future will hold. They embody evil and the respect which normal human beings give to good; they chant together «Fair is foul, and foul is fair» at the end of the first scene. For Macbeth they represent the bad forces struggling for his soul; his conscience warns him against them, and by wordplay, which is one form of deception.
To Banquo, who is less inclined than Macbeth to ignoble ambitions, they are content to prophecy, and their prophecies are favourable; his children are to be kings even though Macbeth, not he, will win the throne. To Macbeth they give some much needed encouragement; in he demands to know what they are doing, perhaps in order to find out if their influence can be furned to good account. In reply they bring up apparitions which foretell the future. The first warns him that Macduff will be a sourse of trouble to him; the second and third deceive him with hopeful prophecies which prove with evil forces, for before his last visit to the weird sisters tells his wife:
2.1. 2 Sadulla Akhmad’s translation
Macbeth himself is as humane in his reflections as he is inhumane in his acts. Like lago he is a woralizing villain, but his moralizing is not clever aphoristic display. It comes from his heart sometimes like an echo of ancient folle beliefs, If will have blood, they say: blood will have blood. Stones have been known to more and trees to speak; angures and understood relations have (forth). By maggot — pies and choughs and rooks brought forth. The seevet’st man of blood — what is the night? (III. 4. 122−126)
Он хочет крови. Кровь смывают кровью.
Преданье есть: сходили камни с мест,
Деревья говорили, и по крику
Сорок, грачей и галок колдуны
Разыскивали скрытого убийцу.
?а, ?онсираб келибди, у, ?онни ?он ювар.
Ровийлардан эшитганман: ?ачон тош кўчиб,
Дов — дарахтлар тилга кирса, ?р?а ?а?иллаб,
Олаша?ша? ша? илласа, — жодугар фолбин
Кушанданинг яширинган жойин очармиди.
Кеча ярим бўлдимикан, бунча чўзилди? (С.А.) (III. 482 б)
У хун сўрар, талаб? илар яъни? онга ?он,
Авваллари бундай пайтда тошлар суриниб,
Тилга кириб, сўз ?отарди ?атто о? очлар.
?отил ?айга бекинмасин, уни му? аррар
?ар?а — ?уз?ун за? чаларнинг изидан бориб.
Их?уварлар топишарди. Хўш, соат неча? (С.А.) (III. 234 б)
Sometimes like religious revalition, virtues. Will
plead like angels, trumpet — tongned against. The
deep damnation of his faking — off;
And pity, like a naked alu — born babe
Striginy the blast, or heaven’s cherubin housed
Upon the sightless carriers of the air,
Shall blow the horrid deed in every eye
That’s fears shall drown in wind. (I. VIII. 19−25)
И, наконец, Дункан был как правитель
Так чист и добр, что доблести его,
Как ангелы, затрубят об отлищенье.
И в буре жалости родится вихрь,
И явит облака с нагим младенцам,
И, с этой вестью облетев весь мир,
Затопит морем слез его. Не вижу. (стр. 496)
No voice in literature has sounded with greater sadness!
I have lived long enough. My way of life
Is fall’n into the sear, the yellow leaf,
And that which should accompany old age,
As horror, love, abedience, troops of friends,
I must not look to have; but, in their stead,
Curses not loud but deep, month — honor, breath,
Which the poor heart would fain deny, and dare not
Я пожил на своем веку. Я дожил
До осени, до желтого листа
На то, что скрашивает нашу скорость —
На преданность, любовь и круг друзей, —
Не праве я рассчитывать. Проклятья
Прикрытые трусливой лестью, — вот
Что мне осталось до дыханы жизни. (стр. 552)
Ёш бошимга етар менинг, ё? ойим ?илар.
Давримни?ку, сурдим. Фасли хазон бошланди.
Кеч кўзимни кўрдим ўзим очи? кўз билан;
Аммо кексаликнинг гашти — ?урмат — эътибор,
Соди? дўстлар даврасидан умидим? ам йў?
?ўр?о?ликнинг хушомадга ўралган лаънат,
Жон узилмай, нафас олмо? — ?олган насибам.
Шу риз? дан ?ам воз кечардим, журъатим етса! (V. 3. 128 б)
To say that no one who has become a bloody turant would speak in this way is pointless; he would feel in this way, or so we are convinced.ПоказатьСвернуть