The role of ideology in the development of modern states

Тип работы:
Статья
Предмет:
Иностранные языки и языкознание


Узнать стоимость

Детальная информация о работе

Выдержка из работы

The role of ideology in the development of modern states

Introduction

One of the fundamentals of each State, of course, is ideology. In turn, the ideology — a set of different views, such as political, legal, religious, philosophical, and others. And some consider ideology as a set of ideas, concepts and slogans. Interestingly, these views and ideas in each country changed with the advent of the new government, which means that each new time interval was accompanied by new programs, which were perceived by society as a postulate. Under these programs formed the consciousness of people, their behavior, attitude to authority and to each other. Humanity at various stages of development set a different goal and solve them in different ways, among which was also ideological. Then the national ideology becomes important and becomes a strong factor in the formation of social consciousness. Along with the term «ideology» gradually formed a new concept of «political ideology» — a system of ideas, views and ideas on political life that reflects the interests of different classes, society and political parties. That is, ideology is a necessary part of creation and existence of the state. Political ideology facilitates the management of the state, but only that which was introduced in the weight gradually, without aggression, which before this was clearly formulated, and which, according to the ruling groups is beneficial at this stage of development. Ideology, too, is the basis for the formation of social and political movements. Thus, it may reflect not only the interests of the state as a whole, but also some specific group of people having their views on the developments taking place in public and political life. In addition, political ideology has the following features, which include: mastery of public opinion, the introduction of criteria for evaluating past and future, and creating a positive image in the eyes of the public. In this classification functions there is one, which includes protective, cognitive and socio-regulating. Security involves protecting the interests of certain groups and allows every citizen to be protected on the choice of their ideology. Cognitive aims to familiarize people with different facets of political life and improve their level of political culture. A socio-regulating function of regulating the relations of different social communities on certain principles. It should challenge political ideology is not only promoted the idea of how to gain tactile feedback from people who would perform the tasks of this ideology.

Thus, ideology seeks to rally the community to ensure that it is about goals that were based on the interests of other social groups. Importantly, the ability to influence society will depend on how ideas and ideologies meet the provisions of everyday people’s views and ideas of a better life, but also on whether this provision will find practical use.

Ideology in the development of modern

Ideology as a phenomenon of influence on society exists or existed in any modern society. Among them are outstanding representatives of the social democratic ideology, socialist ideology, liberalism, liberalism, fascism, fascism, conservatism and Neo-conservatism. Some of these ideologies in our time is almost not there, because in terms of historical development was rejected inhumane views. Consider these ideologies in more detail in the examples. As social democratic ideology, it is a modern ideology that is very powerful, and aims at equitable distribution of all material goods and spiritual values, depending on the labor spent. The most widely this ideology found in countries such as Germany, Austria, Britain, France and Italy. The main objectives in these countries is to provide a decent life based on liberty, in the political sphere — is the creation of conditions for the formation and activities of public authorities on the principles of democracy and in the economic sphere — the creation of an efficient market economy. The main functions of the state owned health care, environmental protection, to ensure the preservation and development of the national identity of peoples living in the state, participation in international promotion and protection of human rights. Social democracy has been and remains one of the most influential ideological and political currents. Over 70 largest and most influential social democratic parties in which there are about 17 million people, united in the Socialist International. In recent years the ranks of the Social Democrats replenished former communist parties. Socialist ideology consistently defended the interests of workers, social progress and believed in the wonderful future of humanity. Socialist ideology — a socio-economic ideas, which is the main slogan of social justice. Countries with such an ideology has such features: public ownership of the means of production, power is concentrated in the hands of one party, the market plays a minor role. Modern countries are North Korea and the representatives of Cuba. Recently, our position social ideology began to increase in Latin America. One of the main ideas of conservatism is unnatural and undesirable conversion of society through revolutionary changes. Therefore we can say that conservatism — is opposed to the revolution. The main ideas of it are: denial of a contractual nature of the state and the belief that the state can not pay attention to all the various social issues and relationships. Based on these basic provisions of conservatives defended only certain principles such as history, life, law, stability, tradition, religion, government, etc. This ideology enjoyed popularity in England, where authorities have come to the Conservative Party, led by M. Thatcher, expanded in FNR, Italy and France. If we look at Neo-conservatism, it is political ideology, which adapts the traditional values of conservatism to the realities of post-industrial society and determines government policy and the policies of leading Western countries in recent decades. Status neokonservatyzmu in the U.S. is not official. He caught on here in 70 years of XX century. As a political ideology, Neo-conservatism very seriously prepared and aware of its power. Preconditions for the emergence of this ideology began to peep from the time of «cold war». Management of the country tried to create a worthy rival ideologies such as communism. Neoconservatives seek to revive human values such as hard work, high morals, religion, and in the economic field, return to the market self-regulation, the social — the principle of «every man for himself»; social protection in the State shall apply only to those who are not able to to work. Fascism — an ideology that denied democracy and open government, sustained violence and terror to suppress political opponents and any form of dissent, involved the division of people according to racial and discrimination. Fascism has played a crucial role in solving the second world war, which suffered a crushing defeat. But this defeat did not put an end to fascism. Since shortly after the war in some Western countries — Italy, USA, France, Britain and FNR he already began to revive as neo-fascism, which preached the same ideological views. Today fascist organizations operating in all European countries, America and most countries in Asia, Australia, Asia and former Soviet countries… As for liberalism, it is ideology, based on the idea that every person knows what is best for her. Modern political liberalism also includes the conditions of universal suffrage, regardless of gender, race or economic status, the best system is liberal democracy. Liberalism stands for individual rights to property, focuses on human rights related to consciousness and way of life, protection from government interference in personal life. This ideology spread in the early 90s in Russia during perestroika, but had positive and negative consequences. As a result, the majority of Russia’s ambiguous attitude towards liberalism. There still exist a number of parties in the liberal «Yabloko», «Lyberalnoe Case» and «democratic alliance». Neo-liberalism — the ideology that is based on the principle of self-regulation of the economy, free competition and economic freedom. It also provides for increased economic and social role of the state, out of the necessity of establishing a business partnership between government, business and labor at all levels of the economic mechanism. Practical usage he had received during the Roosevelt when he introduced the «policy of the new course.» Neoliberalism is a homogeneous flow. The «right» wing believes that the problems of modern society is possible through the creation of the Government in accordance with the requirements of morality, stands for «minimal» state. «Left» wing, sharing the basic provisions of the concept of a «new society» Roosevelt, denies class antagonisms, brings them into conflict between production and consumption. The main find no contradiction between rich and poor and between those who want to maintain the «industrial society» and who wants to move forward. Now the liberal movement has up to 110 parties, 60 of them united in Liberal International, founded in 1947 in Ukraine as a political doctrine of liberalism represented by a group of various liberal parties and movements. His supporters advocated the formation of the free market, providing conditions for various forms of economic activities and competition. All these ideologies are of great importance for the history. They passed all the stages of formation and were either accepted or rejected by society. Some of them function in our time. World practice has developed many ideological systems. Their position is based on various methods of belief and knowledge of the world. The role of ideology — one of the main roles in political life at any stage of development. With the arrival of leaders is changing, with more varied and management techniques. Even if the ideology of a country called very difficult to see that in it there before, because they certainly left their mark its former presence. For example, in Germany during World War II was influenced by the ideology of fascism, unfortunately some of the manifestations of his left and on our time not only in this country, but also in some Western European countries. Conservatism has retained its place in the UK, where subject to principles such as stability and the state. Liberalism represented by a small circle of parties in the program which includes not only the principles of that ideology, but also some principles from other ideological currents. The most widespread is the social democratic ideology, which operates in France, Italy, Austria and Germany.

Conclusion

Now we can conclude that ideology — the phenomenon of social life. The role of ideology is that it changes with the arrival of the new government, new leaders, and people who have great influence on various government institutions. Ideology governing public behavior that is beneficial for a certain time. It can be seen in the examples presented above. Any ideology has the ability of short periods, so that the interests of society change, science progresses, and with it, guided by one and the same principles stupid. Many countries affected by the ideologies of other nations. For example, during the Second World War, Germany destroyed the nation, tried to seize by violence and terror of other lands. Some ideologies have affected quite positively to the development of other nations. Such ideologies are usually occurred by combining several of which vybyralys rational methods and principles to be the least practical to use for most countries. Thus, ideology plays an important role in the social order. Most modern countries governed by ideologies that are built on democratic principles, which provide for consideration of man as an individual, where his rights and freedoms shall be put to the fore. Some of the same countries, a policy of collective benefit distribution, where society is seen as a single unit: North Korea and Cuba. So in modern terms of ideology takes place in any country. Even if no particular ideology, you can find the old branch, which were held earlier.

List of references

political ideology state

1) PP Shlyahtun «Political Science» textbook. — 2002. -S. 541−565

2) Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary. / Ch. yet. AM Prokhorov. — M., 1986. — 1600 sec

3) Cold V. Lectures on Political Science: chief guide. — Amounts 2001 .- s. 274−280.

4) Political Science: A guide for university students, edited by O. Babkin, VP Horbatenka. — K., 1998.

5) http: //uk. wikipedia. org/wiki/ (ideology) 6) http: //radnuk. info/pidrychnuku/polit/271-rozenfeld/4220-s-4---. html (contemporary political ideology

ПоказатьСвернуть
Заполнить форму текущей работой